Navegando por Autor "Cardozo Filho, Lúcio"
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- ItemDrug release profile and reduction in the in vitro burst release from pectin/HEMA hydrogel nanocomposites crosslinked with titania(2016) Silva, Elisangela Pacheco da; Guilherme, Marcos Rogério; Garcia, Francielle Pelegrin; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Cardozo Filho, Lúcio; Alonso, Christian Gonçalves; Rubira, Adley Forti; Kunita, Marcos HiroiuquiThis work describes the drug release profile and the initial burst release from covalent hydrogel nanocomposites composed of pectin, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and titania (TiO2). Vitamin B12 (Vit-B12), a highly water-soluble substance, was used as a model drug. We studied the water transport profiles over a wide pH range, the moduli of elasticity (E), the morphological properties and the Vit-B12 release kinetics from these hydrogels. The initial release burst was reduced by crosslinking titania with vinylated pectin and HEMA. A reduction of up to ca. 60% was observed when compared with pure pectin/HEMA hydrogel. To gain insight into the burst release phenomenon, the experimental data were adjusted to diffusive-based models that include a rate constant of release (k). A decrease in the values of k was related to a reduction in the burst effect. The release mechanism of Vit-B12 from the pure hydrogels was governed by both Fickian diffusion and macromolecular relaxation, which are the driving forces for release. Upon addition of titania, the contribution of macromolecular relaxation to the release was minimized, suggesting a tendency towards Fickian diffusion. Furthermore, titania played a significant role in improving mechanical properties. Hydrogel nanocomposites showed a marked increase in E compared with pure hydrogels. This increase was found to be the result of an apparent increment in the cross-linking density, owing to chemical bonds of titania with the hydrogel. The proposed materials were demonstrated to be biocompatible with cells, showing good pharmacological potential.
- ItemEffect of phase composition on the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide obtained from supercritical antisolvent(2019-02-01) Silva, Elisangela Pacheco da; Winkler, Manuel Edgardo Gomez; Giufrida, Willyan Machado; Cardozo Filho, Lúcio; Alonso, Christian Gonçalves; Lopes, Jardel Bruno de Oliveira; Rubira, Adley Forti; Silva, Rafael daPhotocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles is highly dependent on their phase composition. The coexistence of anatase and rutile phases in a single nanoparticle eases the electron transfer process between the phases, and favors the separation of photogenerated pairs. In this work, highly photoactive mixed-phase TiO2 nanostructures were prepared by supercritical antisolvent precipitation (SAS), an environmentally friendly technology. It is shown here that this methodology has the remarkable ability to produce highly porous (515 m2/g) and crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles. The phase composition of as-prepared TiO2 samples can be tailored through annealing process. Several mixed-phase TiO2 samples were tested to assess the correlation between photocatalytic activity and phase composition. The photocatalytic performance is strongly affected by the anatase-rutile ratio, since the synergism between phases enhances the charge separation, reducing the recombination effect of the photogenerated pairs (e−/h+). It was found that the nanocatalyst composed by 7.0 wt% of rutile phase and 93.0 wt% of anatase phase, named as TiO2_650, presented the highest photodegradation for both methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) dyes. Interestingly, TiO2 samples prepared by SAS have superior photoactivity than the benchmark photocatalyst names as P25, which is a widely used TiO2 material composed of anatase and rutile phases.
- ItemManagement of waste printed circuit boards via supercritical water technology(2022) Souza, Guilherme Botelho Meireles de; Pereira, Mariana Bisinotto; Santos, Lucas Francisco dos; Alonso, Christian Gonçalves; Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Cardozo Filho, LúcioIn this study, the application of the supercritical water technology on the management of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) obtained from small information technology (IT) and communication equipment was conducted. Initially, an extensive recycling-oriented characterization of waste printed circuit boards was conducted through a combination of several physicochemical analyzes such as MP-AES, XRF, TG/DTA, CHNS elemental analysis, SEM and XRD. Afterwards, at supercritical conditions of water (Tc > 374.29 °C and Pc > 22.089 MPa), the optimal conditions for the degradation of the organic polymers present in the waste PCBs were defined by a response surface methodology. A complete organic degradation rate (ODR) was achieved at 600 °C, reaction time of 60 min, waste PCBs load of 15 g and flow-rate of 5 mL min−1. After the removal of the organic polymers, the metals were liberated, and the metal recovery efficiency (MRE) reached values higher than 90% at all evaluated conditions. Then, initial insights on the subsequent treatment of the liquid decomposition by-products generated during the supercritical water (ScW) processing of waste PCBs were provided. A total organic carbon reduction of 99.88% was achieved via the ScW oxidation process using the same experimental apparatus. The treated solution was successfully re-used in the ScW processing of waste PCBs instead of clean water. Moreover, hydrogen, methane, CO2, and CO were identified as the major gaseous products associated to the supercritical water treatment of waste PCBs. Finally, a novel strategy to enhance the production of combustible gases, through the addition of ethanol and glycerol, and increase the economic feasibility of the supercritical water processing of waste PCBs was proposed.
- ItemSupercritical water technology: an emerging treatment process for contaminated wastewaters and sludge(2022) Souza, Guilherme Botelho Meireles de; Pereira, Mariana Bisinotto; Mourão, Lucas Clementino; Santos, Mirian Paula dos; Oliveira, José Augusto de; Aldaya Garde, Ivan Aritz; Alonso, Christian Gonçalves; Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Cardozo Filho, LúcioThe destruction of toxic, persistent, refractory, and hazardous organic compounds, often present at high concentrations in both industrial and municipal wastewaters, remains a major challenge to be overcome, mainly due to the inefficiencies of conventional processes. Notwithstanding, the search for novel treatment methods has received great attention recently. Supercritical water technology has proved to be a very promising treatment method for contaminated wastewaters and sludges. Performances of supercritical water technology in treating wastewaters from a wide variety of industries including pulp and paper, pharmaceutical, textile, pesticides, dairy, petrochemical, explosives, and distillery were reviewed. Furthermore, the effects of main operating conditions, namely temperature, pressure, residence time on the treatment efficiency, usually reported in terms of total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal were summarized. In addition, well-known technical challenges faced by supercritical water processes such as corrosion, salt deposition, clogging, elevated running costs and possible solutions to mitigate those challenges have been discussed. At last, the future scope of the supercritical water technology is expected to be driven by policies aiming at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, environmental protection, mitigation of climate changes and the production of commercial gases from highly efficient treatment of contaminated organic wastewaters and sludges.
- ItemTreatment of hormones in wastewater from the pharmaceutical industry by continuous flow supercritical water technology(2021) Mourão, Lucas Clementino; Souza, Guilherme Botelho Meireles de; Dias, Isabela Milhomem; Andrade, Laiane Alves de; Souza, Paula Letícia de Melo; Cardozo Filho, Lúcio; Oliveira, Guilherme Roberto de; Oliveira, Sérgio Botelho de; Alonso, Christian GonçalvesHormones are bioactive, ubiquitous, and persistent organic molecules that demand effective treatment when released in the environment. However, most conventional treatments are inefficient or not suitable for large-scale applications. This study describes the use of supercritical water (SCW) technology in the degradation of hormones in wastewater from the pharmaceutical industry. Initially, the treatment was developed with synthetic wastewater (SW) containing hormone prepared from commercial desogestrel pills and, later, with real industrial wastewater (IW). All the experimental tests were conducted in a continuous flow reactor in the absence of catalysts. Both liquid and gas phases generated during the process were analyzed by instrumental techniques. The liquid phase was characterized by total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and phytotoxicity assays. The gas phase was characterized by gas chromatography (GC). TOC reductions of SW and IW samples, both treated at 700 °C and feed flow rate of 10 mL min−1 were 87.2% and 88.4%, respectively. Phytotoxicity assays indicated a significant reduction in the toxicity of the IW treated at 700 °C. Thus, considering the gas production, especially hydrogen, and the high toxicity mitigation, the IW treatment via SCW is quite promising.
- ItemValorization of e-waste via supercritical water technology: an approach for obsolete mobile phones(2023) Souza, Guilherme Botelho Meireles de; Pereira, Mariana Bisinotto; Mourão, Lucas Clementino; Alonso, Christian Gonçalves; Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Cardozo Filho, LúcioThe improper handling of electronic waste has not only severe environmental impacts but also results in the loss of high economic potential. To address this issue, the use of supercritical water (ScW) technology for the eco-friendly processing of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) obtained from obsolete mobile phones has been explored in this study. The WPCBs were characterized via MP-AES, WDXRF, TG/DTA, CHNS elemental analysis, SEM and XRD. A L9 Taguchi orthogonal array design was employed to evaluate the impact of four independent variables on the organic degradation rate (ODR) of the system. After optimization, an ODR of 98.4% was achieved at a temperature of 600 °C, a reaction time of 50 min, a flowrate of 7 mL min−1, and the absence of an oxidizing agent. The removal of the organic content from the WPCBs resulted in an increase in the metal concentration, with up to 92.6% of the metal content being efficiently recovered. During the ScW process, the decomposition by-products were continuously removed from the reactor system through the liquid or gaseous outputs. The liquid fraction, which was composed of phenol derivatives, was treated using the same experimental apparatus, achieving a total organic carbon reduction of 99.2% at 600 °C using H2O2 as the oxidizing agent. The gaseous fraction was found to contain hydrogen, methane, CO2, and CO as the major components. Finally, the addition of co-solvents, namely ethanol and glycerol, enhanced the production of combustible gases during the ScW processing of WPCBs.