Mestrado em Ecologia e Evolução (ICB)

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Agora exibindo 1 - 5 de 143
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    Áreas prioritárias para restauração no estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-07-03) Silva, Thalline Rodrigues da; Loyola, Rafael Dias;; Loyola, Rafael Dias; Diniz Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Brum, Fernanda Thiesen
    In parallel with strategies and actions focused on the conservation of biodiversity, scientists, decisionmakers, and different sectors of our society have been developing on strategies focused on the restoration of degraded areas. This is a particularly important issue for Brazil as signatory to the Paris Agreement, in which the Brazilian government is committed to restoring 12 million hectares of degraded areas by 2030. Such restoration will be regionalized, and the states of Brazil will need to indicate their priorities, strategies and tools to accomplish such task. Here, we identified priority areas for restoration in the state of Goiás in order to build scenarios in which the retention of soil carbon stock is maximized, as well as the representation of plant species, while seeking the lowest cost of opportunity to perform this restoration on rural landowners. We ran prioritizations following the principles of systematic conservation planning. We also considered the environmental debt within rural properties and, based on that, we evaluated all types of agricultural culture found on the properties to generate opportunity costs associated with restoration. After analyzing 166,635 rural properties across the state, we found a total debt of approximately 1,682,804.1330 hectares within properties’ Legal Reserve. We also observed that most rural properties that should be restored have an opportunity cost below R$5,000. In all prioritization scenarios, areas to the east and northeast of the state of Goiás were considered as priority. Our best restoration scenario captured ~35% of the state's entire carbon stock, nearly 70% (on average) of the distribution of endangered plant species included in the study and a reduction in opportunity cost of more than 70%. Systematic planning for restoration, as proposed here, if carried out in an organized and accountable way, can maximize the connectivity of protected areas within rural properties, bringing greater protection of species and guarantee of the provision of ecosystem services.
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    Impacto das cinzas de queimadas no ambiente aquático e na comunidade fitoplanctônica
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-07-28) Jesus, Gabriel Sampaio de; Nabout, João Carlos;; Bortolini, Jascieli Carla;; Bortolini, Jascieli Carla; Carneiro, Fernanda Melo; Carvalho, Priscilla de
    Among the main threats to biodiversity are anthropic fires, a joint event, especially during the dry period. However, studies on the indirect effects of fires on aquatic ecosystems are scarce. In this study, we investigated how water quality and phytoplankton community structure might be affected by ash from fires in the Brazilian Cerrado. We used a microcosm experiment to simulate the aquatic environment with different scenarios of ash concentrations, and we evaluated over time the abiotic conditions, composition, richness, and phytoplankton density. We detected an increase in total phosphorus ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations after ash insertion. Regarding the phytoplankton community, we identified changes in composition as a function of time, and we did not recognize changes in richness and density in response to treatment. Our results indicate that ash from fires in the terrestrial environment can affect water quality and the species composition of aquatic communities. However, we suggest longer-duration experiments to evaluate the phytoplankton community's delayed responses.
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    Communication breakdown! Como a perda de informação afeta o resultado de interações comportamentais em Sporophila maximiliani
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-07-14) Santos, Gabriela Sales dos; Nomura, Fausto;; Nomura, Fausto; Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini de; Bastos, Rogério Pereira
    Communication is part of several social interactions of animals and the transmission of information and decoding by the receiver depend on the quality of the emitted signal, which can be acoustic, visual and/or chemical. The degradation of these signals can generate loss of information and cause damage to the animals' vital processes. Considering that anxiety prepares the individual for unpredictable situations, the loss of information has the potential to cause stress and motivational conflict in organisms, resulting in altered behavior, as has already been demonstrated for anuran species. In this project, we seek to understand, through a systematic review, trends, advances and gaps in experimental studies on animal communication, with a focus on studies that investigate the effect of signal quality changes on communication and interactions. We also aimed to understand whether the loss of information alters behavioral interactions in birds, using the species Sporophila maximiliani as a model. For this, we performed two experiments: i) a playback experiment, to simulate the acoustic signal and ii) a mirror model, to simulate the visual signal. We identified that the number of publications on animal communication with an experimental approach, which investigate social interactions and/or behavioral changes, has been increasing since the 90s. However, the impact of these studies on the scientific community does not follow this growth, with few publications receiving greater attention. emphasis. We also note that the number of studies using endangered species is still low, showing a lack of studies with more vulnerable animals. There are also few experimental studies with signal quality in relation to the total number of publications in animal communication, despite the results of studies that address changes in the signal showing that damage to the signal has an impact on individuals and the interactions they carry out. In our experiments, we also identified that the behavior of Sporophila maximiliani is affected by the loss of information during communication, generating stress and fear in the individuals. However, this effect was dependent on the signal modality, so that for visual signals the loss of information does not cause this effect. Thus, changes in signals in communication had a direct effect on individuals and it is extremely important to promote studies that seek to understand how each group of organisms responds to these changes.
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    Avaliação do estado de conservação das aves brasileiras e da eficiência dos esforços conservacionistas através das listas vermelhas de espécies ameaçadas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2014-03-26) Spindola, João Paulo da Silva; Silva, Daniel de Brito Candido da;; Silva, Daniel de Brito Candido da; Oprea, Monik; Bianchi, Carlos Abs da Cruz
    The Planet is going through a Biodiversity crisis, the current extinction rates may be up to 1000 times greater than the natural background rates. Because of this, international policies were signed, with the purpose to mitigate the loss of biodiversity. The Red List Index (RLI) is among the adopted indicators to evaluate the performance of conservation actions put into action by countries. The RLI is calculated using information of changes in the red lists categories to a set of species. This tool has been largely applied both at regional, and the global levels in order to make a systematic biodiversity monitoring. Here, we applied the RLI to native Brazilian birds in the time interval of 1988-2012. We have explored the trends in the RLI between different biomes, taxonomic orders and threats. Furthermore, we evaluated the National Actions Plans (PAN, in Portuguese) in order to assess their effectiveness through the RLI. We found out that despite conservation actions, the overall trend is an increased extinction risk. Between the biomes, the Amazon presents the greater decline in bird conservation status. The factor that caused the greatest increase in threat is the impact of road construction. The PAN uses an approach of reactive conservation, focusing on species already threatened. In the absence of conservation efforts the RLI to endemic species would have declined an additional of 12.95%.
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    Contribuição do gradiente longitudinal e dos tributários na estruturação da comunidade zooplanctônica nos reservatórios em cascata no rio Tocantins
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-08-30) Mendonça, Laura Beatriz Gomes; Carvalho, Priscilla de;; Lopes, Vanessa Guimarães; Bortolini, Jascieli Carla; Carvalho, Priscilla de
    Understanding the importance of the dispersion of planktonic organisms in the structure of communities has been one of the main goals of ecological studies in the stretches of rivers affected by the construction of reservoirs. Along a cascade of reservoir, the diversity of planktonic organisms located in the central body of a reservoir can be influenced both by the tributaries that flow into this reservoir and by the reservoirs upstream. In this way, the main goal of this study was to analyze the structure of the zooplankton community along a cascade of reservoirs in the Tocantins River and verifying the importance of tributaries and upstream reservoirs in the composition and abundance of species. We analyzed the richness and abundance of the zooplankton community in a stretch of the Tocantins River composed of three reservoirs built in cascade: HPP Cana Brava, São Salvador and Peixe Angical. The study was carried out at 20 sampling points in different seasonal periods. We performed a beta diversity analysis between the tributaries and the central body of the reservoirs, between the points located only on the central body of the three reservoirs and between the tributaries, to verify the similarity in the structure of the communities between the different regions. The highest beta diversity, in other words, the lowest similarity in the structure of zooplanktonic communities, was obtained between the sampling points located in the tributaries and in the central body of each of the studied reservoirs, mainly the rainy season, demonstrating the influence of seasonality. The abiotic factors were also different when comparing the dry and rainy periods, especially in the tributaries. The lowest values of beta diversity were measured comparing the central body of the reservoirs, mainly for rotifers and microcrustaceans. This result demonstrates the importance of the longitudinal dispersion of these groups among the reservoirs. Besides, considering the low richness of exclusive taxa inside the reservoirs (in the central body), we can infer that the dispersion of taxa from the tributaries to the central body is important, and the population size of some species will be favored under the lentic conditions of the reservoirs, changing the structure of communities. This study contributes to a better understanding of the factors responsible for the diversity of zooplanktonic community in reservoirs, considering the abiotic component, the importance of longitudinal and lateral (tributary) dispersion of the different zooplanktonic groups and the seasonal component.