Mestrado em Engenharia do Meio Ambiente (EEC)

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Agora exibindo 1 - 5 de 114
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    Avaliação do desempenho de pavimentos permeáveis
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2011-09-22) Castro, Thiago Quintiliano de; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de;; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de; Zuffo, Antônio Carlos; Rezende, Lílian Ribeiro Rezende; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins
    This study aimed to evaluate the experimental performance of three types of permeable pavements constructed in three different structural conditions in order to control runoff in urbanized areas of the city of Goiania, Goias, adapting to the legal requirements and using local manufactured materials. It was evaluated nine experimental plots of 3.2 m² as the following types: PAV - concrete block "paver", PCP - porous concrete plate and GCC - concrete block "concregrama" and the following structural conditions: I - base of sand and natural subgrade, II - base of sand and compacted subgrade and III - base of sand, gravel subbase and compacted subgrade. Using an artificial rain simulator, 18 tests were performed with two pre-defined rain, a medium intensity (69 mm / h) and a high intensity (180 mm / h). The subgrade soil and building materials were characterized, measured the surface and subsurface runoff, and moisture of the layers of the pavement. The parameters of the models of Horton and Green-Ampt were obtained by adjusting the calculated data infiltration. Combinations PCP-II, PCP-III, II-CCG, CCG-III and PAV-III showed little or no runoff. The delay and persistence in critical times of the runoff hydrograph also secured good results to the PCP, which generally showed higher soaking times (7,2 to 30,4 minutes) compared to the other types of pavement. The structure that showed the best hydrological performance was the III, whose results ranged from 0 to 0,19 for the runoff coefficient. The results showed that porous pavements evaluated in this study contribute to the reduction of runoff, because of low runoff coefficients (0 to 0,36) obtained. Constructive guidelines on the type of permeable pavement that performed better were drawn and described.
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    Avaliação de utilização e desempenho de resíduos de construção e demolição em bases e sub-bases de pavimentos flexíveis
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2008-08-21) Quintanilha, Frederico Santana; Oliveira, João Carlos de; Rezende, Lilian Ribeiro de;; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de; Geyer, André Luis Bortolacci; Farias, Rideci de Jesus Costa
    The increase in the generation of Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste and their subsequent accommodation have become, along with other urban problems, one of the major obstacles faced by Brazilian society. The debris generated by construction, renovation and demolition have, generally, high volume and high specific weight (relationship between mass and volume), which makes their transport and final disposal laborious. Besides, these materials are responsible for the rapid filling of available landfills and, when deposited irregularly, they cause potential social and environmental problems, such as the proliferation of vectors of urban diseases, which mainly affect the outskirts of large cities. One of the alternatives that can minimize the socio-environmental problem is the reuse of C&D aggregates in urban roads with low traffic volume. In addition to presenting one possible solution to an environmental issue, the provided alternative can minimize significant problems in the construction chain, once deforestation and depletion of natural sources often occur in the construction of roads. The alternative use of C&D as constituents of the structure of roads is the theme of this dissertation. Through laboratory tests, the physical and mechanical properties of three doses containing recycled aggregates were determined, to use as reinforcement of natural terrain, sub-base and base. The laboratory tests involves the compaction of the samples with Proctor’s modified energy and consequent evaluation; Limits of Atterberg; Specific weight of grain; Water absorption of the large stage of the aggregates; check the pH as a measure of occurrence of pozolanic reactions (self-cementation) and tests of expansion and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). With laboratory analysis, was evaluated a case study - two experimental tracks built in Goiania, Goiás. The first one has total length of 56 meters built with recycled aggregates in its base and sub-base layers, and the thickness of these layers is fifteen centimeters each. This track was executed at the buyers entrance of CEASA-GO. The second experimental track is a street built on Recanto of Minas Gerais and has total length of 140 meters long, whose base has thirty centimeters of thickness and was executed with recycled aggregate of RCD in its layers. The field tests covered the resistance to penetration with Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP), measurement of total and partial deflections with Benkelman Beam and proceed the investigation with Plate Load tests. The results of laboratory experiments indicated that the samples could achieve Brazilian standards for its uses in bases and sub-bases of flexible pavements. The results of field tests indicated that the tracks still have good structural behavior, after a period of approximately four years old, which supports the technical viability of the application of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition in flexible pavements.
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    Codisposição de lodo de fossa séptica em aterro sanitário do tipo trincheira
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-09-21) Souza, Patrícia Caldeira de; Pfeiffer, Simone Costa;; Pfeiffer, Simone Costa; Carvalho, Eraldo Henrique de; Pasqualetto, Antonio
    Given the problematic situation of basic sanitation in Brazil, where many regions are not served by sewage systems, one of the alternatives of the municipalities is to use Individual and Household Sewage Disposal (SITDE), attached as an option for the disposal of domestic sewage. The Residue of Fossa and Septic Tank (RFTS), generated in SITDE is intended, for the most part Sewage Treatment Station (ETE). However, not all municipalities have ETE and due to high load of pollutants and pathogenic organisms in RFTS, there must be an alternative to its proper destination in order to ensure the quality of the environment and preserve public health. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluation of codisposição of RFTS impacts with Urban Solid Waste (RSU) in landfills trench type. For this, four experimental cells were built in the open in the area of the landfill in the city of Goiânia, to receive the following sludge percentage: 0%, 2%, 5% and 9%. Based on the individual volume of the trenches (5 m3), set up an array of 40 kg/day of RSU in each trench, three times a week for five months, from April to August 2013. After the release of RSU in the trenches, they were compressed manually, RFTS codisposto on waste and later it was used to cover the ground. The RFTS used in the study was characterized according to the parameters pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (DBO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (DQO), total solids, fixed total solids, total volatile solids, total suspended solids, fixed suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, sedimented solids, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus. The results showed that the moisture content of RSU grounded to a depth meter increased with the incubation time, and the volatile solids remained constant. In quantitative terms, the sludge codisposition in different percentages did not affect the volume of leachate generated. As to the quality of the leachate, there was an increase in total solids concentrations for the parameters, COD, BOD and ammonia nitrogen in the trenches receiving cavity residues and septic tank, in particular at concentrations of 5 and 9%. The presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli was stabilized in very close values with the passage of time in all trenches do not indicate a long-term impact. For pH, who always remained in the alkaline range, the addition of the sludge did not result in changes considered significant. It is recommended to carry out further studies adopting other levels of pit residue concentrations and septic tank trench in landfills.
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    Avaliação do uso de resíduo de estação de tratamento de água na produção de espécies vegetais com ocorrência no cerrado
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-11-23) Ramalho, Raquel Pinheiro Reis Souza; Albuquerque, Antonio João Carvalho de; Scalize, Paulo sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sergio; Almeida, Rogério de Araújo; Ruggeri Júnior, Humberto Carlos
    One of the major environmental challenges in Brazil is the proper disposal of Drinking Water Treatment Plant Residue (RETA). In view of logistical and financial difficulties, only about 1% of the country's municipalities perform some kind of reuse of this waste. Faced with this obstacle, the present study aimed to reuse the RETA to vegetal species occurring in the Cerrado. This waste was collected in the Water Treatment Plant Eng. Rodolfo José da Costa, located in Goiania. One soil type from the Cerrado was used to plant four species occurring in the Cerrado: Hymenaea courbaril, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Copaifera langsdorfii and Peltophorum dubiu. The soil and the RETA were characterized according to their chemical and physical compositions. Different strengths (0,4,8,16 and 32 t ha-1) of RETA for planting in pots of seedlings were used. During the experiment were conducted biometric analyses (shoot height and stem diameter) every 15 days. After 210 days, the specimens were collected, divided into aerial and root parts and dried in an oven at 65 ° C. Fresh and dry weight, root length, height and final diameter were checked, and analyzes of chlorophyll and chemical constitution of the leaves of the species were performed. The RETA applied in this study has physical and chemical properties very similar to the soil of the Cerrado. Because of this, the dosages used in the treatments did not significantly affect plant growth. In any case, the RETA Water Treatment Plant Eng. Rodolfo José da Costa, used in dosages considered here, can be applied to the soil as an environmentally correct alternative of disposal. It is of low risk of environmental contamination to the soil, and the specimens showed no morphological or nutritional deficit.
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    Mapeamento da vulnerabilidade de águas subterrâneas nos municípios do eixo Goiânia - Anápolis, Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-12-10) Crispim, Diogo Coelho; Araújo, José Vicente Granato de;; Araújo, José Vicente Granato de; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Pasqualetto, Antônio
    Human activities and the growing urban sprawl have caused a degradation in both quantity and quality of surface water and as a consequence the increase in the search for alternative sources of water resources. This research sought to contribute to the preservation of aquifers, by mapping the vulnerability to contamination and evaluation of the ionic quality of groundwater. The use of vulnerability maps is of real importance when planning to promote groundwater conservation activities, because, knowing the areas susceptible to contamination, can align the activities to be installed in these regions. The objective of this work was to develop vulnerability maps of groundwater contamination for municipalities located in the Goiania-Anápolis Axis and to evaluate the ionic quality of the groundwater in the Goiânia county. The vulnerability assessment used the GOD method that considers the following parameters: type of the aquifer, depth of water level and characteristics of rock strata above the layer of interest. The GOD method comprises a simple methodology that generates practical results of real usefulness and importance. The study comprises the following municipalities: Anápolis, Campo Limpo de Goiás, Goianápolis, Goiânia, Terezópolis de Goiás, Nerópolis, Ouro Verde and Senador Canedo, which belong to a region of great interest because they have important economic activities and high population density. The vulnerability map obtained show highly vulnerable regions corresponding to 8% of the total area; medium vulnerability, equal to 24%; low vulnerability with 57% being the most prevalent, and insignificant vulnerable regions, totaling 11%. These results are similar to those obtained by Nogueira (2010) for a specific part of the same region, making the maps an important planning tool to assist managers in the definition of risk areas for occupation and in the identification of regions with less possibility of contamination.