Impacto de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária na qualidade física do solo

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Universidade Federal de Goiás
When the agricultural usage becomes more intensive, the soil-water physical attributes can undergo significant modifications which are generally adverse to plant growth. The changes can be rather easily detected when the cultivated systems are compared with the same soil still under natural Cerrado vegetation. The use of the system of crop-livestock integration can lead to marked changes in the physical, chemical, and biological soil attributes that can affect the development and hence the productivity of the crops that come after the pasture. This study aimed at analyzing quantitatively by means of attributes of soil-water relations, the main changes in soil quality, resulting from long-term soil usage under integrated crop-livestock, conducted in Cerrado area. The study was carried out by sampling soil trenches dug in the Capivara Farm of Embrapa Rice and Beans, as well as, in a private farm, located nearby Embrapa property. The trenches were sampled in the following depths: 2.5-7.5 cm, 12.5-17.5 cm, 22.5-27.5 cm, 42.5-47.5 cm, 72.5-77.5 cm and 142.5-147.5 cm. The evaluations were carried in six production systems, with an average of 13.5 ha in each area, being characterized by its current usage as: P1 system (Brachiaria brizantha grazing managed for four years); P2 system (Brachiaria brizantha grazing managed for two years); P3 system (Brachiaria brizantha grazing managed for three years); C1 system (soybean under no-tillage); C2 system (rice under conventional tillage) and C3 system (maize + Brachiaria brizantha under no-tillage). It was also used a seventh area, kept under continuous grazing with Brachiaria decumbens managed for 19 years, identified as CP, and an eighth area of the native cerrado vegetation, identified as CE. Generally, the soil-water physical attributes, and among them, the soilwater retention curves and the respective S-index values are altered when managed with agricultural implements and animal grazing in comparison to native cerrado area, considered in this study as a reference area. The use of S-index to evaluate the soil physical quality from the point of view of its structure quality by means of the soil-water retention curve can be a viable option, since it does not have some of the restrictions found by using other soil quality indicators. However, its use requires a greater number of regionalized investigations for different tillage systems and crops, soil types, climate, soil biological activity, among others, in order to relate the critical values with average productivity, so it can used safely to appraise the "effective" soil physical quality
SANTOS, Glenio Guimarães. Impact of livestock-crop integrated systems in the soil physical quality. 2010. 123 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências Agrárias) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2010.