Pré-escola na escola de ensino fundamental: os direitos das crianças, desafios e contradições
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
This research analyzed the Preschool located in Municipal Schools of Primary Education and is linked to the project "Public Policies and Education of Childhood in Goiás: history, conceptions, projects and practices" of the Center for Studies and Research of Childhood and its Education in Different Contexts, Faculty of Education in Federal University of Goiás (NEPIEC/FE/ UFG). The purpose of this study was to know the determinations that permeate preschool at Primary Education school, as well as the conceptions of children and teachers about preschools inserted in school, a reality experienced by them. We used, for our analyzes, the dialectical-historical materialist method, based on contradictions in which was the object of study. The research is composed of three stages: bibliographic survey, documentary analysis and empirical research. The methodological resources that contributed to compose the data were: observations on visits to institutions, photography as a visual resource, questionnaires, interviews and drawings. In order to analyze the preschool it was necessary to look for its historical context, public policies and educational practices constitutive of Childhood Education. Initially, we tried to know the rights of children − because we assumed that preschool, Childhood Education, consists of a right −, brazilian scenario and its nuances on the constitution of children's rights, highlighting laws and official documents that guide childhood education in the country. Empirical research was made in nine schools of Primary Education that attended preschool classes of Municipal Network in Aparecida de Goiânia and, in this way, it was possible to observe the physical spaces during the visits in these institutions. The participation of the teachers happened through questionnaires and interviews, and of the children through interviews and drawings. From the analysis of data it was possible to notice that the contradictions of capitalist society establish economistic principles for education, compromise the quality socially referenced in Child Education, and the rights of children are not contemplated in their totality, being placed in the background in brazilian educational public policies. The universalization of the education of children from 4 to 5 years guarantees the right of these children to attend preschool, however, we highlight the concern for its effectiveness. So, from the empirical investigation and the data analyzed, it became possible to affirm that the guarantee of vacancies in preschools has been happening in an improvised way, since the children are attended in classes of preschool in the schools without necessary materials and structures. Also, the presence and permanence of pre-school at school is highlighted because it follows a traditional model in the configuration of its physical space and for bringing its pedagogical practices closer to the traditional practices of Primary Education. In this sense, we conclude that the preschool inserted in the Primary Education schools is understood as a preparation for subsequent stages, neglecting some rights to the children. Furthermore, the way it has been happening in the current brazilian context, according to the capitalist logic, does not guarantee the quality socially referenced.
ALMEIDA, L. B. Pré-escola na escola de ensino fundamental: os direitos das crianças, desafios e contradições. 2016. 161 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2016.