A história do ensino de História e a formação da elite intelectual brasileira: uma análise a partir da história nova do Brasil (1963-1965)
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
During the 1950s and 1960s, the discipline of History was highlighted, its construction, and the renewal of textbooks were on the agenda. At the National Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Brazil, the student movement about the debate on proposals for educational reforms was intense. Questionings about the innovation of History teaching appeared within the academic spheres, giving life to the collection História Nova do Brasil, which was published in January 1964 by the Student Assistance Campaign (Cases) and elaborated by Joel Rufino dos Santos, Maurício Martins de Mello, Pedro de Alcântara Figueira, Pedro Celso Uchôa Cavalcanti Neto, Rubem César Fernandes and Nelson Werneck Sodré. The work was inserted in the context of Basic Reforms of the Government João Goulart, possessed a political dimension and was associated with International Communism, receiving unfavorable opinions from the National Commission of the Didactic Book (CNLD), the Army General Staff and the Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute (IHGB), along with editorials from the newspapers O Estado of S. Paulo, O Globo and the Diário de São Paulo. With the establishment of the civil-military dictatorship, the books were collected from bookstore shelves, burned and forbidden to be sold. The authors of the collection were arrested, humiliated, physically and psychologically tortured. They were forbidden to practice their professions, lost their jobs and had to answer in court for the manuals. Some went into exile and their families threatened. Thereby, this thesis investigated the history of preparing and writing the recent history of Brazil as well as the formation of the Brazilian intellectual elite from the New History of Brazil collection. For everything, we consider the historiographic production about history teaching during the 1950s and 1960s linked to the National Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Brazil (UF FNFi), the University of São Paulo (USP) and the Higher Institute of Brazilian Studies (ISEB). In addition, we checked the receipt of the textbooks, through the unfavorable opinions issued by the National Commission of the Textbook (CNLD), the Army General Staff, the Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute (IHGB), together with the editorials of the newspapers O Estado de S. Paulo, O Globo, Última Hora and the Diário de São Paulo. Besides, the Military-Police Inquiry was analyzed, resulting from the persecution of the work and the authors during the military civil dictatorship. The theoretical parameter of this research was the concept of symbolic power conceived by Pierre Bourdieu (2004). Thus, from the analysis of the sources, it was possible to observe a dispute for the symbolic production through the critique of the order established by the ruling class represented in the official historiography, which was published by the Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute (IHGB) and by the professors of the University of Brazil itself. Moreover, the political and cultural dimension of the collection, which aimed at the implementation of Educational Reform in Brazil, was not the only factor for its persecution. Through the inquiries, it was possible to note the attempt to incriminate the perpetrators as a means of reaching and gaining evidence of the association of retired army General and Left Intellectual Nelson Werneck Sodré to International Communism.
CARDOSO, Vanessa Clemente. A história do ensino de história e a formação da elite intelectual brasileira: uma análise a partir da história nova do Brasil (1963-1965). 2019. 362 f. Tese (Doutorado em História) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2019.