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Synthesis, characterization, and structural determination of copper(II) complexes with alkyl derivatives of hydroxybenzophenones
Four mononuclear copper(II) complexes, [Cu(LFQM-115)2] (1), [Cu(LFQM-116)2] (2), [Cu(LFQM-117)2] (3) and [Cu(octyloxy)2] (4) [LFQM-115 = 2-hydroxy-4-O-methylbenzophenone (C14H11O3), LFQM-116 = 2-hydroxy-4-O-butylbenzophenone (C17H18O3), LFQM-117 = 2-hydroxy-4-O-(33-dimethylallyl)benzophenone (C18H18O3) and octyloxy = 2-hydroxy-4-O-octylbenzophenone (C21H25O3)], have been prepared and investigated by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Even though the synthesis and infrared analysis of 1, 2, and 4 have been reported previously, their crystal structures were elucidated for the first time here. In addition, the crystal structures of LFQM-116 and LFQM-117 were also determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The pseudo-translational symmetry found in LFQM-116 and the isomorphism between LFQM-115 and LFQM-117 are discussed. The complexes were prepared from a reaction of copper(II) nitrate trihydrate and the respective ligand in a (1:2) molar ratio in methanol (for 1 and 2) or THF (for 3 and 4) with addition of NaOH. Furthermore, crystallographic studies show that each copper(II) exhibits a square planar geometry, coordinated by four oxygens of two ligands. The nature and crystal packing of the intermolecular interactions are discussed. Compounds 2 and 3 are isomorphic crystals and all structures have the same supramolecular synthon.
Structural analysis of two tetraketones and theoretical investigation of the reactions involved in their preparation
The 2,2'-((5-(4-bromophenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene) bis (5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione) (3) and 2,2'-((5-(4-chlorophenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene) bis (5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione) (4) were prepared in, respectively, 63% and 59% yield, via ZrOCl2⋅8H2O catalyzed condensation reactions between dimedone and appropriate aldehydes. Their structures were investigated by IR, NMR, and X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The asymmetric unit of tetraketone 3 is composed of just one molecule, while two almost identical crystallographically independent molecules of compound 4 are present there. Compound 3 is conformationally similar to both molecules of 4. The diketone rings assume a half-chair conformation with the flaps oriented toward the same side of the substituent at C1. Each diketone ring is featured by an electronic delocalization path encompassed through the keto-enol moiety. All bond lengths inside this conjugated system are intermediate between those of pure double and single bonds. Furthermore, the furan plane of the substituent at C1 is almost parallel to the bond axes bridging the diketone rings as a consequence of steric hindrance effects between the heterocycle moiety and two hydrogen bonded oxygens. The enol forms of compounds 3 and 4 were noticed via IR and NMR spectroscopies. Furthermore, thermodynamics parameters were calculated in order to interpret the experimental results. In this line, theoretical findings reveal that electronic and solvent effects play an important role in the chemical reactions involved in the preparation of tetraketones.
Guest-driven unusual conformations in two calixarene solvates and a new calixarene
Unusual conformations have been found in a new calixarene and in new solvates of two known calixarenes. The chair-like conformation with 2/m point group symmetry was found for the first time in the dimethylformamide (DMF) disolvate of the basic calixarene (1) without substituents in the lower and upper rims. Such symmetry is driven by the guest geometry allowing for two equivalent hydrogen bonding patterns in the chair seat. This avoids cone distortion found in the other chair-like conformers, although they have energies lower than that of new symmetrical conformer. The molecular conformation of hexa(carboxymethoxy)calixarene (2) is also described as a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) pentasolvate. Its conformation can be described as a 1,3,5-closed cone with three alternate phenyl rings inclined inwards to the cone, thereby closing the cone entrance. Such a conformation also suggests five acid groups are pointed towards the same side of the calyx base and are able to bind metal ions or basic compounds in the lower rim, while inclusion of guests into the cone cavity is hindered. Both inclusion and cooperative acid binding/coordination abilities are still more hindered in the lowest energy 1,2,3-alternate cone conformer of 2. The role of the solvent in avoiding cone distortion was highlighted by inspecting the conformations of 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octanitro-49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56-octa-n-butoxycalixarene (3) and the known nitro analogues having methyl instead of n-butyl groups. Cone distortion is found in the non-solvated crystal form of 3, while non-classical hydrogen bonds with tetrahydrofuran preclude this in the literature analogue.
A influência e o poder da mídia na formação e personificação da opinião pública e política
(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-08-29)
This monograph aims to demonstrate, through bibliographical research, the influence of the media as mechanisms of social control, from a historical perspective based on the concepts of Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer and other authors, as well as the analysis of articles that focus on understanding this fact today. The influence of the media, manages to create a form of subjection and proliferation of a concept of subservience, which ends with the composition of a rational autocracy, transforming the individual into an instrument of propagation, where this power can control, disarticulate or dismantle systems, thus certifying that the role of the media not only establish behaviors or standards of values, but constructions of arrangements that exert influence, which moves the gears of human relations, changing their behavior in the face of decisions and definitions on aspects that corroborate for the development or delay of living in society.