Acidentes com material biológico entre pessoas sem risco presumido

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2014-08-15

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Universidade Federal de Goiás

Resumo

Most recorded accidents with biological material are related to accidents in Health Care Facilities, which are considered unhealthy environments where the group with the highest exposure is professionals in the healthcare field. However, it should be understood that, any individual who passes through a healthcare facility is exposed to biological risk. The objectives of this study were: to identify the profile of victims of accidents with biological material, occurring in healthcare facilities among those with no presumed risk; to identify the frequency and profile of accidents in this group; to classify pre and post-exposure conduct in accidents with biological material in this group. This retrospective epidemiological study was conducted based on data from two service centers and accident reporting services: Hospital for Tropical Diseases in the State of Goias, Brazil, and the Center of Reference on Worker's Health (CEREST) in the city of Goiania. The two databases were linked. This study analyzed accidents reported by workers who were not trained in healthcare practice that had accidents with biological material inside the healthcare service independent of their professional duties. The study received approval in two Ethics Committee reports, the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, under protocol No. 033 / 2010, and by the IRB of the Hospital das Clinicas, Federal University of Goias, under protocol 414258/2013. There were 8,568 records of accidents with biological material recorded between 1989 and June 2012, 181 of these (2.1%) occurred in health services among those with no presumed risk. The highest frequency of accidents occurred among people between 20 and 29 years, female, and the most frequent occupation was the receptionist's office or lab, followed by administrative assistant. Needlestick accidents were most common (91.7 %) and involved a needle lumen, with higher incidence among females, and blood was the most common biological material. With regard to the circumstances of the accidents, most occurred due to inappropriate disposal of sharps, 20.1% referred to assistance activities such as recapping of needles, injections, or punctures, and material processing support procedures. Less than half of the subjects were vaccinated (49.7 %) against hepatitis B. The source patient was identified in 64 (35.6 %) cases, and of these, 43 (67.2 %) did not undergo serological testing. Post-exposure prophylaxis was recommended in 41 (22.6 %) and immunotherapy in 58 cases (32.0 %), and in 96 (53.0 %) cases completed, 74.0% indicated giving up clinical and laboratory monitoring. There were gaps in the data recorded in the notification forms, which reveals the need for professional training for the correct completion of notifications and active search for cases for follow-up. Data support the fact that healthcare facilities should have a organizational structure focused on resolution, prepared to provide care and / or refer the victim to postexposure prophylactic measures, since the office needs to be responsible for people who have accidents in their area, once the injured person, regardless of the employment relationship becomes a "victim of an accident with biological material" and in need of care, to minimize the risk of disease by taking proper preventive measures after the accident.

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Citação

SALGADO, Thaís de Arvelos. Acidentes com material biológico entre pessoas sem risco presumido. 2014. 90 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Enfermagem) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2014.