Morfo-anatomia e fitoquímica de Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud.) Stapf e Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (Poaceae: Panicoideae)

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


The genus Cymbopogon Sprengel belong to the Poaceae family and it has 40 species distributed in Tropical and Subtropical Africa, Asia and Australia, although some species went introduced in America. Many species of this genus are cultivated for the extraction of essential oil, from their leaves, with large medicinal, food and industrial importance. The species in focus, Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud.) Stapf and C. nardus (L.) Rendle are originated from Africa and Asia, respectively. This research had as objective, to broaden the knowledge about the species C. densiflorus and C. nardus, by the morphological and anatomy studies from leaves and culms, phytochemical analysis and essential oil analysis from the leaves. Anatomical studies have been of relevant importance to the pharmacognosy researches, mainly for the identification of many vegetal raw materials. Several times, these raw materials are known by the same popular name or then, they are commercialized with contaminated agents or with other parts of the specie. Through of anatomical analysis, it was checked commons characters, such as leaf lamina and sheath amphistomata, stomatas with guard cells dumbbell and subsidiary cells dome-shape, rares in adaxial surface and abundant in abaxial surface, predominated in intercostal zones. The adaxial and abaxial surfaces had long cells and short cells: cork and dumb-bell and cross-shaped silica cells, these last it is placed in costal zones; macro-hairs and micro-hairs abundant in abaxial surface. In the leaf lamina, bulliforms cells are presents in adaxial surface, they were alternated with fibers in the costal zones and the mesophyll is homogeneous with chlorenchyma radiated to the bundle sheaths and arm cells with walls invaginated that they determined the intervenal distance by one or three cells, characterized Kranz anatomy. Bundle sheaths collateral, of 1st, 2nd and 3rd orders with single vascular bundle sheaths. The cap region is constituted by sclerenchyma and the epidermis has silica cells. However, both species had different anatomical features, as the form of midrib, in the leaf laminas; C. densiflorus showed colourless parenchyma cells in the mesophyll of leaf sheaths, that they do not exist in C. nardus. In the culms, numbers of metaxylem vessels in the each side of protoxylem vessels in vascular bundles: 1, in C. densiflorus, 2 and 3, in C. nardus; and the presence of sclerenchyma cylinder and fistula in C. nardus, absent characters in C. densiflorus. Moreover, in C. densiflorus, while C. nardus showed these characters. The preliminary phytochemistry analysis C. densiflorus and C. nardus leaves evidencied flavonoids, saponins, coumarins and traces of cardioactive glycosides. In the essential oil analysis, C. densiflorus leaves showed trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, trans-p-mentha-2-8-dien-1-ol, cis-carveol and cis-p-mentha-2-8-dien-1-ol as majority constituents; while C. nardus leaves had geraniol, citronellol and citronellal. The anatomical characters observed can be important to the taxonomic determinations of species studied, in the genus. Through the results found, it verifies the phytotherapics potential of both species. Future researches in isolation and purify of the secondary metabolites, pharmacologics and toxicologics analysis of extracts and of the essential oil, it will be important to assure the therapeutic efficiency of these.



BARBOSA, Lília Cristina de Souza. Morphology, anatomy and phytochemistry of Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud.) Stapf and Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle. 2007. 113 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Biolóicas) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2007.