Efeitos da restrição alimentar severa e moderada durante a lactação sobre parâmetros metabólicos e morfológicos maternais e parâmetros cardiovasculares na prole na idade adulta
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
Diseases developed in adulthood may be associated with conditions to which the individual was exposed in the early stages of life. It has long been postulated that changes in fetal development can trigger different effects on the newborn's quality of life. However, the great responsiveness to environmental/nutritional stimuli in postnatal phases such as lactation and puberty has been reported in the literature as an important factor in long-term phenotypic adaptation. Lactation is an important period of development, mainly due to leptin arises where the neuroendocrine circuitry is consolidated, so breast milk is the main source of nutrients for puppies in this growth phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects caused on mothers due to food intervention, and the effects on cardiovascular parameters in the offspring, of both sexes, of mothers submitted to malnutrition during lactation. Pregnant Wistar rats were allocated to one of three experimental groups: Control (CO) to which a standard diet was offered ad libitum; Moderate Food Restriction (MFR, Moderate Food Restriction) for which a diet restricted to 50% of the daily consumption of the CO mothers was offered; and Severe Food Restriction (SFR) for which a low-protein diet (4.5 g protein / 100 g ration) was offered ad libitum. To maintain equity between litters, after calving all litters were adjusted to 9 pups (balancing the numbers of males and females). Feeding interventions were performed from the 1st to the 14th day of lactation, and from the 14th to the 21st day of lactation all dams received a standard diet ad libitum. The offspring of all groups were fed a standard rodent diet ad libitum throughout the experimental period. All animals were offered filtered water ad libitum. During the food intervention, the body mass and food intake of the mothers were monitored, and after weaning, samples were collected for serum biochemical measurements (Total Proteins, Albumin, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, TGO, Alkaline Phosphatase and Glucose) and breast milk. (Total proteins and Triglycerides), and histological analyzes (diameter of cardiomyocytes and thickness of the aorta). The offspring were followed up until 120 days of age, when the echocardiogram, invasive blood pressure recording, baroreflex test and vascular reactivity were performed. morphometric evaluation and sample collection. The protocols were approved by the UFG ethics committee (case number 023/2015). MFR mothers had reduced caloric and macronutrient intake due to the 50% food restriction protocol and had reduced ovarian adipose tissue weight. The SFR mothers showed a reduction in food intake, and consequently, there was a reduction in caloric and macronutrient intake, and a decrease in heart mass and an increase in brown adipose tissue. Males in the MFR group showed cardiovascular changes, such as increased blood pressure (BP), impaired baroreceptor sensitivity, cardiac remodeling, and changes in vascular reactivity. In contrast, males in the SFR group did not show changes in BP and cardiac tissue, however there was a loss in the sensitivity of the baroreceptors. Females from both food restriction groups did not show any cardiovascular changes, which indicates a cardioprotective effect when compared to their opposite sex pairs, possibly this cardioprotection is conferred by estrogen. Based on the results found, we conclude that moderate food restriction during lactation promotes functional and morphological cardiovascular changes in males in adulthood.
CAVALCANTE, K. V. N. Efeitos da restrição alimentar severa e moderada durante a lactação sobre parâmetros metabólicos e morfológicos maternais e parâmetros cardiovasculares na prole na idade adulta. 2022. 75 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Biológicas) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2022.