Doutorado em Filosofia (FAFIL)

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    “Apenas setas”: a teoria das categorias como linguagem para uma matemática estruturalista
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-10-20) Saraiva, Igor Souza; Porto, André da Silva;; Porto, André da Silva; Esteban Coniglio, Marcelo; Freire, Rodrigo de Alvarenga; Queiroz, Ruy José Guerra Barretto de; Santos, César Frederico dos
    For some years now, there has been a philosophical debate about the relationship between two distinct intellectual movements. Within mathematical practice, the Theory of Categories emerged in the 1940s. Initially without any major foundational pretensions, little by little the theory gained in scope and came to be considered, at the very least, a very useful language for characterizing and studying abstract mathematical structure. Almost simultaneously, philosophers concerned with questions about the nature of mathematical objects proposed a structuralist program, based on the idea of shaping an understanding of the nature of mathematics that takes into account that each area of this science describes the formal factors common to various structured systems. The affinity between Category Theory and a structuralist philosophy of mathematics is almost obvious, leading naturally to the question of the possibility of the theory being employed as an autonomous conceptual framework, capable of articulating a peculiar view of mathematics, without any kind of dependence on other foundational approaches, such as Set Theory or Type Theory. This possibility has been denied by some philosophers of mathematics, giving rise to a dispute without a unanimous solution. This thesis presents a panoramic view of this whole scenario and tries to show that those who reject the autonomy of category theory have epistemological presuppositions that are not unanimously accepted.
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    Liberdade e reconhecimento na democracia contemporânea: acerca do pensamento de Hannah Arendt e Charles Taylor
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-12-20) Campos, João Pedro Andrade de; Moscateli, Renato;; Moscateli; Moscateli, Renato; Oliveira, José Luiz de; Adverse, Helton Machado; Reis, Helena Esser dos; Pereira, Rafael Rodrigues
    The central objective of this study was to reflect on the concepts of freedom and recognition in contemporary democracy. In order to achieve this first aim, a path of interpretation was included that considers fundamental, for contemporary reflections on democracy, to discuss how citizens can freely enjoy their freedoms in a community as beings, at the same time, possessors of singular and plural identities. With the intention of investing in this approach, the work of Hannah Arendt and Charles Taylor were listed as basic theoretical points. On Arendt's side, it was shown that full political freedom is essential so that a political community can be a place in which citizens actions and speeches demonstrate their dignity as human beings. Meanwhile, the recognition of citizens identities is only possible when there is an understanding in society that the other is part of a continuous dialogue with myself, through which my identity as an individual and also as a citizen is formed - this was the point of departure in relation to the reflection supported by Taylor. These first forays were followed by an examination whose intention was to show that when minorities are excluded from political participation, society suffers losses that can lead to its decline. As it is not possible to reflect on the particularities of all existing minority groups, refugees were generally chosen as a category that exemplifies, on the one hand, how freedom and recognition matter for the contemporary discussion about democracy and, on the other hand, how this group reveals, through its private and collective demands, a conceptual embarrassment in the classic debate between liberals, communitarians and republicans. The research concludes with the observation that in current discussions about democracy there is a strong, sometimes distorted, pronouncement of the ideals of freedom and recognition, the harmful nature of which can compromise the relationship between citizens and each other, triggering a move away from political issues concerning community, as well as the worsening of existing inequalities in a democracy, ultimately contributing to the crystallization of groups harmful to the political body.
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    Heidegger: a linguagem poética como superação da metafísica
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-08-01) Barbosa, Alexandre Guedes; Duarte, Irene Borges;; Korelc, Martina;; Korelc, Martina; Casanova, Marco Antonio dos Santos; Fernandes, Marcos Aurélio; Almeida, Fábio Ferreira de; Drucker, Claudia Pellegrini
    In the spread of his self-titled “path of thought”, Martin Heidegger framed metaphysics from the ontological difference, a theme that deals with the difference between Being and being, which allows him to affirm that metaphysics neither thinks nor represents Being by itself, but as entity (being of beings). Thus, since for Heidegger the History of Western Thought is a reflection of the way in which metaphysics treats ontology, he sees the need to understand Being properly, then, launches the project of overcoming metaphysics. Given the different interpretations on that subject, ranging from the allegation of a failure to a visualization of a possible transformation of the initial project, the guiding objective of this work is to identify the establishment of this overcoming based on what we believe to be two essential goals of the project: 1) the reach of understanding of Being by itself; 2) the establishment of a language appropriate to this understanding. We will see that the poetic language, for being the free manifestation of time as imagetic prefiguration, intuitive element of the inaugural and creator naming of arising presence, gathering the above goals, allows us to identify that, with the effectiveness of metaphysics’ overcoming (Überwindung), there is a transposition to the unthinking and unsaid by it, which is only possible by abandoning it (Überlassen). However, in this abandonment, it will be possible to understand that metaphysics is not rejected, but transformed in its essence by Being’s thought.
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    Autoridade, coerção e liberdade: a formação moral do homem em Rousseau
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-07-26) Santos, Anderson Carvalho dos; Moscateli, Renato;; Moscateli, Renato; Vento, Marisa Alves; Paiva, Wilson Alves de; Corôa, Pedro Paulo da Costa; Reis, Helena Esser dos
    L'étude de l'homme a été un thème central dans les réflexions de Rousseau. Dans ses œuvres, il s'est préoccupé de comprendre comment s'est formée l'humanité tant sur le plan individuel que collectif. Dans sa quête de compréhension de ce processus de formation, le philosophe genevois a emprunté un chemin qui a englobé des discussions sur l'éducation, la politique, la morale et bien plus encore. Au cours de ces explorations, certains concepts sont devenus récurrents et se sont révélés essentiels dans sa structure théorique. Le principal d'entre eux était le concept de liberté, pour lequel il a été à la fois loué et critiqué. Cette thèse revisite ce concept en le reliant aux idées d'autorité et de coercition afin de réfléchir au processus de formation de l'homme visant à atteindre la liberté morale, c'est-à-dire l'autonomie. En suivant un fil conducteur qui traverse les différentes conceptions de la liberté, depuis le Discours sur les sciences et les arts et le Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes, en passant par le Contrat social et d'autres œuvres jusqu'à Emile ou De l'éducation, nous cherchons à démontrer que l'idée d'autorité apparaît comme indispensable dans les réflexions du Genevois sur la formation de l'homme. En intégrant, dans ses écrits, des figures d'autorité telles que le Législateur, le Précepteur et le couple Wolmar, capables de façonner les individus, notre auteur a montré que "tous ont également besoin de guides", mais pas n'importe quel type de guide, tous ont besoin de bons guides, de bonnes autorités qui sont capables, même par des actes coercitifs, de conduire l'être humain vers l'autonomie.
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    A letra e o espírito da lei
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-12-16) Fernandes, Darley Alves; Klotz, Hans Christian;; Klotz, Hans Christian; Altmann, Silvia; Lima, Erick Calheiros de; Silva, Márcia Zebina Araújo da; Dalla Vecchia, Ricardo Bazilio
    In the current dissertation, we discuss the way that the norms and the moral principles objectively justified by the reason can become subjective grounds of determination of the will (motive). Taking into account that the moral norms are normative principles that affirm something about us, telling us what to do and claiming that we must to do so, our thesis is that we only can understand the motivational character of the moral norms through the "moral consciousness". The consciousness of duty is the conscience of being submitted to a moral obligation that is valid for me because it is inevitable to me, once I recognize my "reasons for acting" through it. From this premise we can defend that: (i) there is just a formal distinction between the objective grounds and the subjective grounds so that the "objective grounds" are "motives"; (ii) the subjective validity of these norms it is not independent on the subject who judges and is submitted to them. Therefore, we cannot understand the motivational character of the reason without comprehending its normativity, once both are capabilities that form what we call "practical reason". Then, to talk about the motivational ability of the practical reason is to talk of its normativity and vice-versa, it is because of that the moral consciousness purchase central relevance in our investigation, once it reveals these two virtues of the practical reason. Insofar this fundamental consciousness of the "law of duty" is presented as a "fact of reason", it is the highest point of Kantian moral philosophy. Exploring the fundamental consciousness of the law we are affirming that the condition of the subjective validity of the norms and moral principles is the own "immanence" of these principles, this immanence is revealed by the consciousness.
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    Foucault e a filosofia: da crítica do mesmo à abertura para o outro
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-05-03) Leal, Guilherme de Freitas; Lopes, Adriana Delbó;; Lopes, Adriana Delbó; Almeida, Fábio Ferreira de; Kraemer, Celso; Marinho, Cristiane Maria; Aggio, Juliana Ortegosa
    The thesis aims to collaborate in understanding the relationship between Foucault and philosophy. Glimpsing the tripartite field of philosophy observed to occur post-Kant, Foucault calls this moment philosophical modernity precisely because the infinite as foundation leaves the scene and finitude starts to sustain itself. Crossing the critical project — the Critique of Pure Reason, the Critique of Practical Reason, and the Faculty of Judgment — with Anthropological Reflection, Foucault absorbs the philosophical tradition through Kant, concatenating, in addition, in Nietzsche a radical answer that will allow him to build his own thought analytics. Foucault observes that the source, the limit, and the extent of knowing, doing, and hoping reside between truth and freedom, concluding that man makes himself in the course of his history, in the interaction of his language, and in the use of his bios. Foucault's analyses constitute a Critique of the Same that necessarily consolidates itself into an Opening to the Other. In other words, by doing the Critique of the Same, that is, by delimiting the formations of knowledge, by establishing the limits of power relations, by fixing the possibilities of the practices of the self, one can promote Openness to Other ways of being, one can construct other discursive forms, other power relations, other subjectivities. In this sense, archeology, genealogy, and hermeneutics are read as methodological tools used by Foucault to perform this Critical determination of what is the Same of a certain time and place in order to finally make us think about the Opening to the Other. Literature and language are seen as knowledge Other, painting, engraving, photography, cinema, and theater as power Other, and the aesthetics of the self together with politics are seen as expecting Other. Experiences that manage to go beyond the Same and establish in the spheres of Knowledge, Power, and Self, the unheard of, what was never there before, neither as a source, nor as a limit, nor as an extension of theoretical, practical, or moral knowledge in the establishment of man's way of being. In this way, making possible an experience beyond man's being
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    Da interpretação Bhk à teoria intuicionista dos tipos: a construção mental como conceito primitivo fundamental
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-03-31) Albernaz, Filipe Borges; Porto, André da Silva;; Porto, André da Silva; Filho, Abilio Azambuja Rodrigues; Legris, Javier; Pereira, Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Dias; Queiroz, Ruy José Guerra Barretto de
    In the midst of a dispute over philosophical foundations that has lasted for over a hundred years, the intuitionistic foundations of mathematics seems ever closer to being an alternative to classical foundation. Interpretation of fundamental and primitive notions and consequences for the interpretation of logical connectives are some of the issues to be addressed in this text, in a framework that intends to show the fundamental and primitive role of the notion of mental construction in Intuitionism, from Brouwer's proposal to Martin-Löf's Intuitionistic Type Theory. The discussion of particular aspects of the Martin-Löf’s proposal does not allow us to lose sight of the fact that it is essentially a formal system, universal, however, open, but also a language for the practice of intuitionist mathematics. These and other characteristics of Martin-Löf’s formal intuitionism needed to go beyond the definitions and concepts of Brouwer's original intuitionism, until then, considered as more speculative and impractical from a practical point of view. Precisely, the conceptual deepening of the Martin-Löf’s system brought light to intuitionism and make it unique and so important, not only for mathematics, but also for logic, philosophy and even for computation. With an adequate understanding of the Intuitionistic Type Theory, especially from the fundamental intuitionist interpretation of proofs as mental constructions, we have a more accurate measure of what intuitionism is about and its main consequences. Some of them dealt with in this work are the refusal of the law of excluded middle, the interpretation of notions such as “existence”, “construction”, “proposition” and “assertion”, in addition to the compulsory constructive character for formal mathematical proofs. In the specific case of the Martin-Löf’s system, we also discuss the ideas of truth and bivalence of propositions, primitive domains and propositional domains, essential for the system and distinct from classical conceptions, despite the terminological coincidence.
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    Sobre o problema do mal no mundo contemporâneo a partir do pensamento de Hannah Arendt
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-07-08) Vaz, Éden Farias; Silva, Adriano Correia;; Silva, Adriano Correia; Lopes, Adriana Delbó; Reis, Helena Esser dos
    This thesis proposes to investigate the problem of evil in today's world based on considerations by Hannah Arendt and her notions of radical evil and banality of evil. In addition, this research encompasses a series of philosophers, personalities, characters, reflections and episodes that can clarify the extreme proportions that evil can reach in certain political environments. It starts, therefore, from the analysis of what the thinking of Arendt can contribute to understand recent phenomena that involve the current political scenario, as well as reviewing the problem of evil throughout the thinking in the light of Immanuel Kant, responsible for conceiving the concept of evil radical resignified by Arendt in the context of the book The Origins of Totalitarianism. It also alludes the question of evil-by-evil, mentioned by Kant and Arendt, but never deepened in his own philosophies. The text also proposes to examine the meaning of radical evil in the aforementioned book as a system of human superfluity and to establish the possible reasons why Arendt no longer resorted to terminology, but speaks about banality of evil since the judgment of Adolf Eichmann in Israel in which it became clear to the author that the worst evil could be linked to a genuine inability to think. Finally, this thesis aims to understand what is the philosopher's reason to say that totalitarian crimes discover that there are crimes that cannot be punished because it is not possible to forgive because this is the element that persists in both nomenclatures and in which this statement is related to the fact that the international community considers crimes against humanity to be imprescriptible by nature, at any time or place.
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    A exigência política do despertar: escrita, política e revolução em Walter Benjamin
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-07-23) Costa, Gilmário Guerreiro da; Damião, Carla Milani;; Damião, Carla Milani; Aquino, João Emiliano Fortaleza de; Vieira, Rafael Barros; Machado, Francisco de Ambrosis Pinheiro; Palhares, Taisa Helena Pascale
    The concept of revolution in Walter Benjamin´s philosophy has received meaningful reformulations from 1925 on, when his approach of Marxism became increasingly more systematic. In several works from the period, one can distinguish an interest in examining the reasons and possibilities of overcoming the capitalist mode of production and in discerning the means of confronting fascism. The works that he dedicated to the problem of revolution situates in this concrete historical horizon. In this regard, his investigations deal with the need for overcoming the dreamlike character inherited from the 19th century, which implies giving the theme of awakening a specific critical character, especially in his essays on aesthetics and politics. Coherently, he refuses any mechanistic formulations, mainly those that arose in the time of the Second International Socialist, responsible for stressing the dynamics of the objective forces to such an extent that they did leave no significant space for the revolutionary praxis strictly speaking. Benjamin thus moves forward in the philosophy of praxis and class struggle horizon, which give him the necessary themes and justification for a radical critic of bourgeoise society. Such presuppositions underly the Benjaminian concepts of writing and history, which structure, each of them, the two parts of our thesis. They emphasise the tension existing in this thought, between examining the possibilities of overcoming capitalism and remembering the ruins of the current catastrophe. Our purpose in this research is to understand and to explain this critical activity.
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    As bases do intuicionismo matemático de Brouwer a natureza do continuum intuicionista
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-04-15) Oliveira, Paulo Júnio de; Porto, André da Silva;; Pereira, Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Dias; Rodrigues Filho, Abílio Azambuja; Rezende , Cristiano Novaes de; Klotz, Hans Christian; Porto, André da Silva
    This dissertation has as its aim the philosophical presentation and discussion of the nature of the intuitionist continuum of Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (1881-1966) and of its philosophical bases. This conception of the nature of the intuitionist continuum led to the development of the notion of “real numbers” distinct from classical analysis. Such a notion of “real numbers” does not accept the principle of excluded middle as universally valid and, as a result, it would not be possible to accept, for example, the law of trichotomy. The refusal of the principle of excluded middle does not arise from vacuum, and it is not the central focus of mathematical intuitionism. It is, as one would put it, a consequence of the conception of intuitionist “continuum”. The notions of “continuum” and “mathematical entity” are, as one would put it, the main focus of Brouwer’s analysis. From his point of view, the continuum is not a collection of absolutely individualized already given discrete points, which could in some way be extracted and used. The mathematical points in intuitionism are, so to speak, mentally constructed as sequences of infinitely converging intervals. Thus, no interval has an absolutely segmented, intrinsically formed, and/or absolutely individualized “limit”. For any “stage” of the interval there is always a space of infinite possibilities of other intervals. Hence there would be no point of infinitely distant cumulation of the intervals that could be found by the mathematician, as if the continuum were mappable such as a city is mappable by a geographer. From this point of view, the classical perspective would need to subscribe, even if not intentionally, to the existence of absolutely individualized discrete points in order to be able to make some kind of sense of its analysis of real numbers, of calculus, in short, of classical mathematics. This intuitionist notions of “continuum” and “real numbers” qua “infinitely converging intervals” became possible because of the type of philosophical bases that precede them. Such bases were developed from two fundamental acts that are understood in the context of an idealistic philosophy of Kantian inspiration. Thus, such acts are comprehended from a “Neo-Kantian” framework, in some sense or, more accurately, to use Brouwer’s expression, from an “up-to-date Kantism”. They are: (i) the act of mental recognition of the distinction between mathematical entities and linguistic entities and (ii) the act of mental recognition of the possibility of new mathematical entities. Both acts are interconnected and presuppose the same bases. In fact, the first act is connected with the radically intuitive aspect of the mental construction of mathematical entities, and the second act brings to light particularly important notes of the nature of the intuitionist continuum through the possibility of always emerging new mathematical entities, i.e., the continuum is a type of entity that is never determinable, it does not ever have an absolute form determined by a collection of discrete points that are absolutely individualizable. Therefore, the continuum is definitely indeterminate. In other words, the second act acknowledges that mathematical entities are intensionally “expansible” through the notion of “choice sequences”. Thus, these sequences are fundamental to the intuitionist continuum. In this dissertation, we present these philosophical bases in the first chapters and apply them to some specific mathematical contexts in the last chapters so as to try to elucidate the philosophical and mathematical nature of the intuitionist continuum and/or real numbers through the explicitness of properties of cohesion, viscosity, and infinitely converging intervals.
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    Responsabilidade política pelo mundo comum: diálogos entre Hans Jonas e Hannah Arendt
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-03-04) Farias Junior, João Batista; Silva, Adriano Correia;; Silva, Adriano Correia; Sá, Alexandre Guilherme Barroso de Matos Franco de; Rocha, Alexandrina Paiva da; Assy, Bethania de Albuquerque; Carvalho, Helder Buenos Aires de
    Modernity has bequeathed us a highly developed world, especially from a scientific and technological point of view, but it has not safeguarded us from the dangers and atrocities that we could inflict against the world in which we live and against humanity. Examples of horror and unbridled power, the extermination camps in Nazi Germany during the Second World War and the two atomic bombs dropped in Japan at the end of the same war, show us in what proportion we are at the mercy of our own artifacts and of evil capable of appearing in the banalest individuals. Hans Jonas has formulated a sagacious critique of what he calls the “modified nature of human action” brought about by modern technology, presenting responsibility to us as a moral principle appropriate to the new challenges that our actions impose on us. With the same attention and concern to reflect on her time, Hannah Arendt dissected the phenomenon of totalitarianism in its two appearances in the last century, Nazism and Stalinism, as well as leaving us a rich literature on political philosophy. This thesis aims to present how responsibility should emerge both as a political principle and as a moral principle in contemporary times for the preservation and continuity of the world. Since Jonas did not develop the political aspects of his ethics of responsibility, we defend the existence in Arendt's work of elements that lead us to the construction of a politics of responsibility. The revolutionary experiences of assemblies and council systems become examples of extraordinary policies and point to other possibilities for politics to reconcile freedom with responsibility in the form of direct participation of citizens in common affairs and the flourishing of responsibility for the world in which we act.
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    Heidegger: da analítica existencial à filosofia da interpelação
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-03-29) Martins Filho, José Reinaldo Felipe; Herrmann, Friedrich-Wilhelm von; Almeida, Fábio Ferreira de;; Almeida, Fábio Ferreira de; Casanova, Marco Antonio dos Santos; Duarte, Irene Filomena Borges; Korelc, Martina; Christino, Daniel
    Since the 1970s, the studies on Martin Heidegger’s thought in Brazil have focused mainly on the insights gathered from Being and Time, and some other contemporary works. Over the past few years, however, there has been an increasing interest in texts related to what is known as the second phase of Heidegger’s Thought, that is, compiled in the midst of the reorientation given by the author to his philosophy from 1930 onwards. This is true not only in the field of interpretative analysis but also in the implementation of works’ translations that until recently were unavailable to Brazilian readers. Nowadays the panorama is quite different, making it possible to approach concepts that cross from one phase to another, and, more than that, guarantee the “internal cohesion” and/or “organicity” inherent in Heidegger’s work seen in a more comprehensive way. Among other possible approaches, this is the case of the Dasein concept, already introduced in the lectures of the early 1920s, although with a notably more evident repercussion from Being and Time. At that point, in order to reintroduce the question of the meaning of Being in general to Philosophy, Heidegger had come up against two problems: on the one hand, the impossibility of a frontal approach to Being; on the other, the insufficiency of the history of metaphysics in the treatment given to the theme. Precisely in the horizon of this methodological impasse is the election of the entity with ontic-ontological precedence, that is, Dasein, the human phenomenon perceived as existence. There is, then, a crucial conflict between the function of Dasein, such as the one that would deny inheritance to traditional metaphysics, and a concept that for Heidegger had represented its maximum unfolding, namely: the subject. Thus, the project to overcome metaphysics is, in a sense, the attempt to move beyond the subject, in the exploration of a completely new conceptual-hermeneutical apparatus. However, there are those who suspect the capacity of Being and Time to achieve this goal – as is the case with Edith Stein and Jean-Luc Marion – questioning the extent to which Dasein can be perceived as a focus for overcoming metaphysics. In this regard, the texts that have been created from the 1930s have important indications about the evolution process, whether from Heidegger’s understanding of Being, or from the reformulation of the place attributed to the Dasein concept: since the change in its spelling, appearing from there onwards as Da-sein (separated by a hyphen), even the adjectives that started to qualify him, no longer the “holder of the being”, but the “seeker”, the “custodian”, the “caregiver of the truth”. Thereupon, the counterpoint with Being and Time can be carried out mainly from Contributions to Philosophy, written between 1936 and 1938, although published only in 1989. In intermediation between Being and Time and Contributions to Philosophy, works that can be considered the main exponents of the trajectory of Martin Heidegger in a spectrum of more than three decades, the present investigation aims to measure the function of the Dasein concept, raising it as an amalgam in the continuation of a thought intended to the original thinking (Das anfängliche Denken).
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    Processos de subjetivação, governamentalidade neoliberal e resistência: uma leitura a partir de Michel Foucault e Judith Butler
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-11-30) Marinho, Cristiane Maria; Lopes, Adriana Delbó;; Aguiar, Odilio Alves; Candiotto, Cesar; Duarte, André de Macedo; Lopes, Adriana Delbó; Silva, Adriano Correia
    This research aims at presenting the analytic of power and the notion of resistence in Michel Foucault's thinking, as well as to explain the way in which Judith Butler talks over these concepts and develops them in an original and updated reading of the contemporary neoliberal governmentality. The thesis defended here, was that, to those two philosophers, exists a crucial importance in the subjectivation process, both in the exercise of power of neoliberal governanmentability as for the formation of resistence against this governementality in particular, and in the ethical-political-economic contemporaneity of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Firstly, it  has been presented here Foulcadian analytic of  power, highlighting the same subjectivation processes in the exercise of the mechanisms of modern and contemporary power and in Butler's proposition about the need for developing a new analytic  of power,  updating Foucault's writings, but starting off from the new movements of contemporary  power  and describing the upsurge of sovereignty within governamentality. And then, it has been further developed the notion of neoliberal governmentality, typifying the German and American neoliberalism and, following foucaultian's analysis, it has been proved that the neoliberalism is, more than just an economic paradigm, a liberal rationality, being the process of subjetivation a critical category in the exercise of power. There has also been presented Butler's dialogue with these foucauldian issues with regard to the "assujettissement" in which criticizes Foucault for disregarding some subvertion potential within the psyche in the analysis of power and in the formation of resistence to the exercise of governmentality. Finally, it has been addressed the possibilities of resistence to the power of neoliberal governmentality in Foucault and Butler and their agonistic clash, in addition to a short genealogy of the notion of resistence in  Foulcault's  work, exploiting the importance of the processes of subjectivation in the exercise of the governmental power as well as in the  exercise of resistence to mechanisms of power starting off with the practices of freedom, of aesthetics of existence as well as the Criticism, taking into account the notions of "parresía" and counter-conduct. It has also been presented that Butler, inspired by Foucault, thinks about  the centrality of processes of subjectvation in the resistence to the neoliberal governmentality, starting off from foucaudian criticism as virtue; of performative politics; of neoliberal precariety; of alliance of the diversities  in search of recognition; of the post-identity interdependence, but without refusal of identities.
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    O tempo do fim: diálogo e antítese no uso do messianismo paulino pela filosofia de Giorgio Agamben
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-11-12) Pereira, Pedro Lucas Dulci; Lopes, Adriana Delbó;; Giacoia Junior, Oswaldo; Ruiz, Castor Bartolomé; Paula, Marcio Gimenes de; Correia, Adriano; Lopes, Adriana Delbó
    This work has as its main objective to defend the political importance of the messianic theme of the time of the end. Unlike the superficiality of relations established between time and politics by the advocates of the thesis about the end of history, this formulation of the political significance of the messianic theme of the time of the end, comes from the analysis in ethics and political philosophy of the work of Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben, and the dialogue he establishes with the Western theological and philosophical tradition. Regarding this theme, our arguments in the present work will take the following path. First, we will dedicate the initial chapter to an archeology of the way of governing infinitely individuals, characteristic of our political contemporaneity. The key question in this first chapter is, therefore, why has politics been transformed into mere body management? With the help of a thematic relationship established with some courses taught by Michel Foucault at the Collège de France, we will seek to defend the Agambenian reading from the state of decline in which contemporary ethics and politics are found. We will try to make it clear that the current political configuration does not only concern what Foucault called modern governmentality, but also Agamben's arguments about the need for praise and glory for the undetermined functioning of the political machine. Second, we will focus itself in the messianic theme of the time of the end, in his Pauline formulation, as a Agamben’s strategy to address to the legal and political situation of our time described in the first chapter. Our objective in the second chapter, therefore, will be to argue that the use, by Agamben, of theological paradigms arising from the epistles of Paul de Tarsus, presents itself as a useful intellectual alternative to equip his readers with a theoretical repertoire that be subordinate to the end-of-history theses – and be able to carry out a renewal in our framework of categories and concepts in a way that opens up the possibility of new free uses of the essential components for political philosophy and ethics in the contemporary world. The recovery of these theological paradigms will mean asking ourselves in general terms why Paul de Tarsus is important for contemporary philosophy and, specifically, why he is important for Agamben's philosophy. Finally, in the third chapter, we will try to make a critical assessment of the content of the Agambenian theses, trying to answer the question why is it difficult to be an Agambenian? With this question, we will try to explain the challenges that are inherent in the possibilities of using the Pauline paradigms for political challenges, as well as the difficulty of dealing with the long linearities that the Italian philosopher establishes from his representations of the time lived in the messiah. Through a careful reading of some methodological pillars in the philosophy of the Italian thinker, we believe that it will be possible to show not only the contributions, but also the limits of his intellectual project. Therefore, this thesis establishes both the dialogue and the antithesis with the use that Agamben makes of the messianic themes formulated by the apostle Paul. We believe that with this argument, as well as with the conclusions we reached, we will be able to contribute to a little explored theme, both as a key-hermeneutics of Agamben's philosophy, as a paradigm for the renewal of the frameworks of contemporary political and ethical philosophy. With that, we try to offer an original contribution to the agambenian studies in the Brazilian territory.
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    A autogênese do conceito especulativo de subjetividade na Ciência da Lógica de Hegel
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-12-01) Morais, Júlia Sebba Ramalho; Klotz, Hans Christian;; Klotz, Hans Christian; Silva, Márcia Zebina Araújo da; Suman, Thiago Santoro; Pertille, José Pinheiro; Gonçalves, Márcia Cristina Ferreira
    In this paper, I investigate the logical genesis of the theoretical concept of subjectivity (Subjektivität) in Hegel's Science of Logic. In my view, this genesis has three aspects. The first aspect is external to the Hegelian system and concerns Hegel's critical interpretations of the concept of self in Kant and Fichte's philosophies. I contend that Kant's argument about the notion of pure transcendental apperception was fundamental to the Hegelian elaboration of the concept of subjectivity as deeply conceptual. The Fichtian notion of the self, as an absolute principle of science, contributed to Hegel's understanding of a self-referential subjectivity as immanent to his absolute system. However, as I will show, the Hegelian interpretation of such concepts goes through an intense speculative transformation within its philosophy scope. The second and third aspects of the subjectivity's autogenesis occur internally to the logical element. The second aspect concerns the meta-logical and dialectical activity of the subjective concept. In my view, the concept (Begriff), when driving the dialectical method in the Hegel system, can be seen as its immanent and active subjective principle and, in its formal meta-logical performance, subjectively self-sets. Finally, the third aspect of the subjectivity concept of logical autogenesis refers to the progressive development of certain logical categories of the "Doctrine of Being" and the "Doctrine of the Essence." In my view, they are proto-subjectives, contributing genetically to the subsequent manifestation of the subjectivity of the concept in the "Doctrine of the Concept."
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    O lugar da arte no mundo da técnica - aproximações e distanciamentos entre arte e técnica no pensamento de Martin Heidegger
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-08-04) Castro, Leidiane Coimbra de Lima; Damião, Carla Milani;; Damião, Carla Milani; Duarte, Irene Filomena Borges; Pádua, Lígia Teresa Saramago; Sombra, Laurenio Leite; Almeida, Fábio Ferreira de
    Ge-stell is described by Martin Heidegger as the essence of modern technology. Contemporarily, it stands quite distinctively from the instrumental and anthropological relationship involved in the daily chores or in the day-to-day labor with technological objects. As a manifestation of being, Ge-stell offers man another possibility of being-in-the-world. He realizes his technological way of being from the attunement (Stimmung) he can achieve in his new disposition (Befindlichkeit). Characterized by limiting its possibilities to a single way of being - particularly as calculative thinking is inherent to Ge-stell, the technological way of being prevents man from reasoning on what constitutes his self: the openness for ways of being. Heidegger suggests thinking about technology within the limits of art as an alternative to reasoning on the opening of possibilities that compose the human existence. The relationship between technology and art, however, is built upon the tensions on which one can establish proximity and distance between them. This is possible because both are types of disclosure (alétheia), of creation and disposition (Befindlichkeit). If, on the one hand, art discloses the world, on the other, technology does the same. If the former opens up man’s ways of being, the latter does likewise. Unquestionably both reveal beings through their creations. However, the world, the disposition and the beings disclosed by both, present themselves in a complete distinctive way. This reasoning leads this thesis to address both types of disclosure (alétheia), and the way man experiences the world through them.
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    Interlocução e analogias enganadoras no The big typescript e no Livro azul de Wittgenstein
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-08-13) Costa , Paulo Henrique Silva; Porto, André da Silva;; Porto, André da Silva; Engelmann, Mauro Luiz; Carvalho, Marcelo Silva de; Silva, Guilherme Ghisoni da; Velloso, Araceli Rosich Soares
    The present thesis deals with the crucial role that “misleading analogies” play in relation to the formulation and dissolution of philosophical problems in Wittgenstein. For this, we will restrict our discussion to the end of the middle period and the beginning of the final period, respectively, to The Big Typescript (1932-1933) and the Blue Book (1933-1934). The reason why we will restrict the discussion to this period of transition concerns the fact that there is a growing concern of Wittgenstein about the pragmatic character of language there, which we will call in the text “interlocutory conception of language”. Therefore, we will argue that, during the transition period between The Big Typescript and the Blue Book, there is a change in respect to the conception of language in question, supported, firstly, by the idea of “grammar as a system of rules”, which we will refer to as conception of language that “operates in a vacuum” and, secondly, in the pragmatic character of language, which we will refer to as a language that describes “interlocutory situations”. In this way, we will show that the notion of “rule” behind each conception of language is distinct, namely, in The Big Typescript there is, on the one hand, an operational conception of rule, and in the Blue Book, on the other, there is a relational conception. Given that, we will argue that misleading analogies play a crucial role in the formulation and dissolution of philosophical problems due to the improper import of grammars involved. This occurs in The Big Typescript because of improper importation of different grammars and their respective systems of rule, and in the Blue Book because of the use established within an interlocutory situation.
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    Senso comum e juízo político em Hannah Arendt
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-20) Santos Filho, José dos; Silva, Adriano Correia;; Silva, Adriano Correia; Lopes, Adriana Delbó; Moscateli, Renato; Müller, Maria Cristina; Aguiar, Odílio Alves
    This research aims to reflect on the potentialities inherent in common sense from which Hannah Arendt will think the effectiveness of a political judgment. The first impressions of a systematic reflection of the author on the subject show that the reasoning from human common sense, as opposed to philosophical thinking, is directly related to a mundane reality where everything comes to be in its own “appearance”. At this moment, common sense is responsible for bringing together all the particular impressions of men and conforming them to standards compatible with the human condition of sentient beings. Here, the common sense is literally understood as a sense that guarantees to men the worldly reality of "appearances." From dialogical reading with Kant, Arendt discovers that there is a direct link between common sense and the judgment of taste, or reflexive judgment. In this context the common sense is understood as sensus comunnis, or as a sense that establishes community. The purpose of the sensus comunnis is to ensure that our reflective judgment, or our judgment of taste, reaches a common agreement between the members of the same community. This understanding goes back to the humanist tradition that, since Cicero, already recognized the political potential contained in the cultivation of the sensus commum that guided men to always judge on the basis of the values shared by the community. We emphasize that common sense, in both contexts presented by Hannah Arendt, is invariably oriented toward the judgment of the world. Judgment from common sense, whether by sensible criteria compatible with the condition of sentient beings or by the very reflective nature of the judges of taste, constitutes a political judgment par excellence.
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    O personagem Descartes: as tensões de Nietzsche com o projeto inicial da modernidade
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-10-04) Melo, Eder David de Freitas; Richardson, John;; Lopes, Adriana Delbó;; Lopes, Adriana Delbó; Viesenteiner, Jorge Luiz; Frezzatti Júnior, Wilson Antônio; Itaparica, André Luis Mota; Dalla Vecchia, Ricardo Bazílio
    With this dissertation we aim to analyze Nietzsche writings on Descartes, focusing mainly, but not exclusively, on the book Beyond Good and Evil. Our central hypothesis is that such mentions, in a critical perspective, are configured by Nietzsche as controversy, as an argumentative strategy of philosophical opposition to Descartes as a character, forming tensions with the grounds and the edges of the early modernity. In other words, Descartes, as Nietzsche writes about him in Beyond Good and Evil, would be a character that, as a magnifying glass, works as a rhetorical element to display problems barely noticed, aside and remaining elements that, despite their marginality, would tacitly rule modernity. The result of this approach, coupled with our defense of Descartes as a character in Beyond Good and Evil, will be an exposition of some limits of the Cartesian philosophical project, relatively to those aside and remaining elements. In addition, some Nietzsche's new determinations will be underlined, such as an organic sense identified through thought, this as an element of the body; a meaning of conscious thoughts as ruled by instincts; subjectivity as an expression of the gregarious demands of the species and the self as a silent expression of individuality.
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    Dos fundamentos à teoria da convenção em Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-08-28) Abreu, Wilame Gomes de; Reis, Helena Esser dos;; Reis, Helena Esser dos; Souza, Maria das Graças de; Nascimento, Milton Meira do; Sahad, Luiz Felipe Netto de Andrade e Silva; Moscateli, Renato
    This research comprises the foundations that make up the formulation and explanation of the theory of the convention in the political works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whose philosophical approach delineates in the ethico-political scope. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the foundations of political thought from the conditions of possibility and validity in the theoretical-practical field with the purpose of explaining the formulation of the theory of the convention in Jean-Jacques Rousseau. So that, from the point of view of the problematization, the research that resulted in this systematization was motivated by the fact that the formulation and explanation of the convention locates its thread in an ontological foundation. Is it possible to project philosophical studies of such obvious rational data? It has been accepted since Galileo that unanswered questions are not intelligent, precisely because it contains no possible answers. What is the stimulus if they seem so obvious or feasible? The fact is, properly, the supposition that the social order results only from a convention; that convention is not a reality derived from nature, but only an act of human will, whose possible occurrence is made by the convergence of interests. There are, then, two problems, one unfolds in the other, so that the first refers to the foundations of convention, and the second responds to the formulation of convention theory. First, how is convergence of interests possible for the attainment of the general will within civil society? What would make a man want to agree, submit to a body other than himself? - Because? Perhaps if he had been left alone under the care of provident nature his life would be sufficiently well supplied, to whose real delivery he would have made all the necessities that we longed for outside her, apart from having no meaning for him, would have been out of his reach. Secondly, how is the convergence of interests for the attainment of the general will possible without the need to suppress the conflict of interests within civil society and their competition between individuals and parties? Thus, the objective is the formal radicality of the Contract against the factual to clarify the anthropological, psychological, historical, political and juridical foundations, to which we think to constitute as a real unit of the theory of the convention in Jean-Jacques Rousseau. It has also been sought to show that convergence of interests is possible for the attainment of the general will without the need to suppress the conflict of interests within civil society and their competition between individuals and parties. Convention as the spirit of the social order indicates that the continuity of the possible basis of conventional unity depends on the cultivation and substantial re-signification of the dignity of its components. So that the possibility of perpetuity of the obligations is conditioned to the real effectiveness of protection of the individual members of society. This leads us to infer that the duration of the body politic can be measured by the size and depth of care devoted to each of its parts.