Mestrado em Engenharia do Meio Ambiente (EEC)

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    Avaliação do desempenho de pavimentos permeáveis
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2011-09-22) Castro, Thiago Quintiliano de; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de;; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de; Zuffo, Antônio Carlos; Rezende, Lílian Ribeiro Rezende; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins
    This study aimed to evaluate the experimental performance of three types of permeable pavements constructed in three different structural conditions in order to control runoff in urbanized areas of the city of Goiania, Goias, adapting to the legal requirements and using local manufactured materials. It was evaluated nine experimental plots of 3.2 m² as the following types: PAV - concrete block "paver", PCP - porous concrete plate and GCC - concrete block "concregrama" and the following structural conditions: I - base of sand and natural subgrade, II - base of sand and compacted subgrade and III - base of sand, gravel subbase and compacted subgrade. Using an artificial rain simulator, 18 tests were performed with two pre-defined rain, a medium intensity (69 mm / h) and a high intensity (180 mm / h). The subgrade soil and building materials were characterized, measured the surface and subsurface runoff, and moisture of the layers of the pavement. The parameters of the models of Horton and Green-Ampt were obtained by adjusting the calculated data infiltration. Combinations PCP-II, PCP-III, II-CCG, CCG-III and PAV-III showed little or no runoff. The delay and persistence in critical times of the runoff hydrograph also secured good results to the PCP, which generally showed higher soaking times (7,2 to 30,4 minutes) compared to the other types of pavement. The structure that showed the best hydrological performance was the III, whose results ranged from 0 to 0,19 for the runoff coefficient. The results showed that porous pavements evaluated in this study contribute to the reduction of runoff, because of low runoff coefficients (0 to 0,36) obtained. Constructive guidelines on the type of permeable pavement that performed better were drawn and described.
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    Avaliação de utilização e desempenho de resíduos de construção e demolição em bases e sub-bases de pavimentos flexíveis
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2008-08-21) Quintanilha, Frederico Santana; Oliveira, João Carlos de; Rezende, Lilian Ribeiro de;; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de; Geyer, André Luis Bortolacci; Farias, Rideci de Jesus Costa
    The increase in the generation of Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste and their subsequent accommodation have become, along with other urban problems, one of the major obstacles faced by Brazilian society. The debris generated by construction, renovation and demolition have, generally, high volume and high specific weight (relationship between mass and volume), which makes their transport and final disposal laborious. Besides, these materials are responsible for the rapid filling of available landfills and, when deposited irregularly, they cause potential social and environmental problems, such as the proliferation of vectors of urban diseases, which mainly affect the outskirts of large cities. One of the alternatives that can minimize the socio-environmental problem is the reuse of C&D aggregates in urban roads with low traffic volume. In addition to presenting one possible solution to an environmental issue, the provided alternative can minimize significant problems in the construction chain, once deforestation and depletion of natural sources often occur in the construction of roads. The alternative use of C&D as constituents of the structure of roads is the theme of this dissertation. Through laboratory tests, the physical and mechanical properties of three doses containing recycled aggregates were determined, to use as reinforcement of natural terrain, sub-base and base. The laboratory tests involves the compaction of the samples with Proctor’s modified energy and consequent evaluation; Limits of Atterberg; Specific weight of grain; Water absorption of the large stage of the aggregates; check the pH as a measure of occurrence of pozolanic reactions (self-cementation) and tests of expansion and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). With laboratory analysis, was evaluated a case study - two experimental tracks built in Goiania, Goiás. The first one has total length of 56 meters built with recycled aggregates in its base and sub-base layers, and the thickness of these layers is fifteen centimeters each. This track was executed at the buyers entrance of CEASA-GO. The second experimental track is a street built on Recanto of Minas Gerais and has total length of 140 meters long, whose base has thirty centimeters of thickness and was executed with recycled aggregate of RCD in its layers. The field tests covered the resistance to penetration with Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP), measurement of total and partial deflections with Benkelman Beam and proceed the investigation with Plate Load tests. The results of laboratory experiments indicated that the samples could achieve Brazilian standards for its uses in bases and sub-bases of flexible pavements. The results of field tests indicated that the tracks still have good structural behavior, after a period of approximately four years old, which supports the technical viability of the application of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition in flexible pavements.
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    Codisposição de lodo de fossa séptica em aterro sanitário do tipo trincheira
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-09-21) Souza, Patrícia Caldeira de; Pfeiffer, Simone Costa;; Pfeiffer, Simone Costa; Carvalho, Eraldo Henrique de; Pasqualetto, Antonio
    Given the problematic situation of basic sanitation in Brazil, where many regions are not served by sewage systems, one of the alternatives of the municipalities is to use Individual and Household Sewage Disposal (SITDE), attached as an option for the disposal of domestic sewage. The Residue of Fossa and Septic Tank (RFTS), generated in SITDE is intended, for the most part Sewage Treatment Station (ETE). However, not all municipalities have ETE and due to high load of pollutants and pathogenic organisms in RFTS, there must be an alternative to its proper destination in order to ensure the quality of the environment and preserve public health. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluation of codisposição of RFTS impacts with Urban Solid Waste (RSU) in landfills trench type. For this, four experimental cells were built in the open in the area of the landfill in the city of Goiânia, to receive the following sludge percentage: 0%, 2%, 5% and 9%. Based on the individual volume of the trenches (5 m3), set up an array of 40 kg/day of RSU in each trench, three times a week for five months, from April to August 2013. After the release of RSU in the trenches, they were compressed manually, RFTS codisposto on waste and later it was used to cover the ground. The RFTS used in the study was characterized according to the parameters pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (DBO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (DQO), total solids, fixed total solids, total volatile solids, total suspended solids, fixed suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, sedimented solids, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus. The results showed that the moisture content of RSU grounded to a depth meter increased with the incubation time, and the volatile solids remained constant. In quantitative terms, the sludge codisposition in different percentages did not affect the volume of leachate generated. As to the quality of the leachate, there was an increase in total solids concentrations for the parameters, COD, BOD and ammonia nitrogen in the trenches receiving cavity residues and septic tank, in particular at concentrations of 5 and 9%. The presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli was stabilized in very close values with the passage of time in all trenches do not indicate a long-term impact. For pH, who always remained in the alkaline range, the addition of the sludge did not result in changes considered significant. It is recommended to carry out further studies adopting other levels of pit residue concentrations and septic tank trench in landfills.
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    Avaliação do uso de resíduo de estação de tratamento de água na produção de espécies vegetais com ocorrência no cerrado
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-11-23) Ramalho, Raquel Pinheiro Reis Souza; Albuquerque, Antonio João Carvalho de; Scalize, Paulo sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sergio; Almeida, Rogério de Araújo; Ruggeri Júnior, Humberto Carlos
    One of the major environmental challenges in Brazil is the proper disposal of Drinking Water Treatment Plant Residue (RETA). In view of logistical and financial difficulties, only about 1% of the country's municipalities perform some kind of reuse of this waste. Faced with this obstacle, the present study aimed to reuse the RETA to vegetal species occurring in the Cerrado. This waste was collected in the Water Treatment Plant Eng. Rodolfo José da Costa, located in Goiania. One soil type from the Cerrado was used to plant four species occurring in the Cerrado: Hymenaea courbaril, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Copaifera langsdorfii and Peltophorum dubiu. The soil and the RETA were characterized according to their chemical and physical compositions. Different strengths (0,4,8,16 and 32 t ha-1) of RETA for planting in pots of seedlings were used. During the experiment were conducted biometric analyses (shoot height and stem diameter) every 15 days. After 210 days, the specimens were collected, divided into aerial and root parts and dried in an oven at 65 ° C. Fresh and dry weight, root length, height and final diameter were checked, and analyzes of chlorophyll and chemical constitution of the leaves of the species were performed. The RETA applied in this study has physical and chemical properties very similar to the soil of the Cerrado. Because of this, the dosages used in the treatments did not significantly affect plant growth. In any case, the RETA Water Treatment Plant Eng. Rodolfo José da Costa, used in dosages considered here, can be applied to the soil as an environmentally correct alternative of disposal. It is of low risk of environmental contamination to the soil, and the specimens showed no morphological or nutritional deficit.
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    Mapeamento da vulnerabilidade de águas subterrâneas nos municípios do eixo Goiânia - Anápolis, Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-12-10) Crispim, Diogo Coelho; Araújo, José Vicente Granato de;; Araújo, José Vicente Granato de; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Pasqualetto, Antônio
    Human activities and the growing urban sprawl have caused a degradation in both quantity and quality of surface water and as a consequence the increase in the search for alternative sources of water resources. This research sought to contribute to the preservation of aquifers, by mapping the vulnerability to contamination and evaluation of the ionic quality of groundwater. The use of vulnerability maps is of real importance when planning to promote groundwater conservation activities, because, knowing the areas susceptible to contamination, can align the activities to be installed in these regions. The objective of this work was to develop vulnerability maps of groundwater contamination for municipalities located in the Goiania-Anápolis Axis and to evaluate the ionic quality of the groundwater in the Goiânia county. The vulnerability assessment used the GOD method that considers the following parameters: type of the aquifer, depth of water level and characteristics of rock strata above the layer of interest. The GOD method comprises a simple methodology that generates practical results of real usefulness and importance. The study comprises the following municipalities: Anápolis, Campo Limpo de Goiás, Goianápolis, Goiânia, Terezópolis de Goiás, Nerópolis, Ouro Verde and Senador Canedo, which belong to a region of great interest because they have important economic activities and high population density. The vulnerability map obtained show highly vulnerable regions corresponding to 8% of the total area; medium vulnerability, equal to 24%; low vulnerability with 57% being the most prevalent, and insignificant vulnerable regions, totaling 11%. These results are similar to those obtained by Nogueira (2010) for a specific part of the same region, making the maps an important planning tool to assist managers in the definition of risk areas for occupation and in the identification of regions with less possibility of contamination.
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    Estimativa da temperatura de superfície na região metropolitana de Goiânia por meio de imagens Landsat e previsão de temperaturas para períodos posteriores
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-12-03) Siqueira, Rubens Villar; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino;; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Soares, Alexandre Keppler; Boggione, Giovanni de Araújo
    Climate analysis, whether at global, regional or local level, it has been the subject of research in various fields of earth sciences. Among the climatic parameters, temperature and precipitation have gained importance in recent decades because of significant changes in their magnitudes. Thus, this work performs a detailed analysis of the temperature for the Greater Goiânia, using satellite images to generate surface temperature for the study area, at first, through an analysis between the years 1997 and 2008 and after in about twenty years, periodically every four years, for the years 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2014. The elaborate maps, besides showing the spatial variation of urban heat islands, show that there was significant changes to the minimum temperature, maximum and average. Between the period 1997 and 2008, the minimum decrease about 1.4°C and maximum jump of 31.2°C to 36.0°C. Test results for the five periods between 1997 and 2014, show that the year 2014 is presented as the hottest in the years studied. Through the resulting maps of this analysis, it can see that the range of temperatures, the difference between the maximum and minimum, grow with the years. An estimated temperature of satellite validation model was performed by direct comparison between the surface temperature and the data of GOIÂNIA weather station belonging to INMET, with differences of 0.7°C to 1.9°C between the temperatures demonstrating the applicability of satellite images to estimate temperatures in areas that do not have a dense meteorological network. The last analysis performed is forecast monthly temperatures for the period between the years 2040-2047, using the method of Holt-Winters. The model used for predicting allowed the computation of the seasonality of the minimum monthly temperatures, average and maximum for the historical period between the years 1970 to 2015. The predicted temperatures renew the expectation of increased minimum temperatures, average and maximum presented by the analysis of Historic data. As shown, in addition to the monthly increases in temperature, the occurrence of these will be situated in the highest classes of about 1.0° C warmer. We can see that, too, after 2000, all temperatures rise significantly, where their amplitudes between the minimum and maximum are located at a higher level than in previous years.
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    Diretrizes para proposição de planos de segurança da água em sistemas de abastecimento municipais goianos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-12-10) Braga, Rafaela Jacob de Oliveira; Lobon, German Sanz;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Barros, Rosana Gonçalves
    Water supply systems (WSS) for human consumption aim to produce and supply drinking water to the population through the distribution network. However, the need to revise the actuals methodological procedures that maintain the water quantity and water quality in satisfactory levels for domestic consumption has caused the World Health Organization to propose a new methodology called Water Safety Plan (WSP), still incipient at state of Goiás. In this way, this study aims to propose Safety Plan of Water to 21 cities located at the state of Goiás that presenting WSS managed by local governments. The study was divided into two chapters. The first chapter characterized the WSS of this 21 cities in the state of Goiás, including the collect, treatment and distribution of treated water, and identified ways of managing providers of sanitation services. It was observed that 61% of the supply systems provide by surface water supply system (SWSS). Mixed water supply systems (MWSS) and underground water supply system (UWSS) found up to 50% non-specific departments and 50% for the departments, respectively. Regarding the source of supply, it was noted that the worst results for the quality of supply source were assigned by the WSS managed by non-specific sanitary services departments. Only the cities Abadiânia, Corumbá de Goiás, Mineiros, Rio Quente, Trombas, Caldas Novas, Catalão, Panamá and Senador Canedo add fluorine to their treated water. In relation of the reservation and distribution system of treated water, there is the prevalence of elevated tanks. The worst scenarios for the reservation system and treated water distribution were found at the cities Cachoeira de Goiás, Guarinos, Mossâmedes, Nova Roma, Paranaiguara and São Simão. It was concluded that the WSS have diverse scenarios regarding the treatment of the water and the planning monitoring and maintenance of them are deficient. The second chapter identified the elements of risk perceived by the population associated with water resources. They evaluated the dangerous events by qualitative and quantitative techniques applied to goianos WSS managed by the own cities. The WSS were evaluated by collect system component, raw water reservoir and adduction (A); water treatment system (B); reservation system and distribution of treated water (C). The studied cities that have more high and very high risk, considering all components of the systems, are Cachoeira de Goiás, Guarinos, Mossâmedes, Nova Roma, Paranaiguara and São Simão. Regarding the UWSS, it seems that the A system component registered the same percentage to Cachoeira de Goiás and Guarinos. The B and C system components registered 62.5% and 50% at Cachoeira de Goiás and 75% and 78.5 % at Guarinos. The MWSS with the highest percentage of high and very high risks were situated at the cities Santa Rita do Novo Destino and Nova Roma (52.4 % for question A). Mossâmedes and Nova Roma were the cities that had the highest number of high risks and too high risks for the components B and C in MWSS. The cities Paranaiguara and São Simão had UWSS with the highest number of high and very high risk. The WSS at cities in the state of Goiás managed by the own cities feature deficiencies in the safe management of the water distributed to the population. It is necessary to adopt methodologies that addresses all components of the WSS regardless of system type.
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    Satisfação quanto aos serviços de abastecimento de água e esgotamento sanitário prestados em Goiás e a influência da qualidade da água na saúde da população
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-11-24) Arruda, Poliana Nascimento; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Barros, Rosana Gonçalves; Hora, Karla Emmanuela Ribeiro
    The existence of basic sanitation, as well as its quality is essential to the composition of a healthy environment. Several factors influence the search for quality services as fair tariffs, satisfaction of users of services, the management and the management sanitary actions among other attributes that basic sanitation of the municipality must contain and influence in achieving satisfactory index under health, education, economy, etc. This study aimed conduct a survey the characteristics of the Water Supply Systems (SAA) and System Sewage (SES), covering the management of services, collection and control, user satisfaction and the quality of the water distributed, and as the contents of Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases (DDA) in 21 municipalities in the state of Goiás in the management of sanitation services are performed by public bodies, or by municipalities through local authorities, departments and offices. The characteristics of the systems were obtained through on-site visits with application forms for healthcare managers, as well as forms of satisfaction for consumers in the period 2012 to 2014. The water quality data and DDA incidence come from respectively the Ministry of Health programs, Environmental Health Surveillance related to Water Quality for Human Consumption (Vigiagua) and Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases Monitoring (MDDA) for the year 2014. It was observed that in ten municipalities systems are managed by local authorities, four by departments and offices and seven without specific organ. The absence of water treatment was found in seven counties, six without specific organ, explaining the relationship with the management. In sewage noticed a deficiency in the presence of black tanks fully in 57,1% of the municipalities. The satisfaction of the population is related to economic, cultural and political factors, the latter being the predominant on the situation of public water and sewage, wherein the way management influences the existence of better infrastructure conditions. In the 21 municipalities tariff revisions occur in different ways and there is not a specific regulatory entity, the collection was observed in 67% of these municipalities. It was observed that in 21 municipalities there is a greater need as investment in infrastructure and the Goiana Agency Regulation, the regulatory body of the 225 remaining municipalities in the state of Goiás, while not complying with the law in all its spheres, contributes effectively in quality the services offered. As for water quality, it was found that the municipalities that do not have treated water levels above 70% of samples outside the potability standard were found, not being a correlation between the incidence of DDA and this aspect. Compliance with the guidelines Vigiagua is unsatisfactory, particularly for fluoride parameter and turbidity. It needs to occur an interaction between environmental and health sectors for the data to be analyzed together in order to be practical preventive, educational and corrective actions.
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    Degradação de etinilestradiol por meio de fotocatálise heterogênea e radiação UV
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-04-28) Isecke, Bruna Guimarães; Teran, Francisco Javier Cuba;; Teran, Francisco Javier Cuba; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Oliveira , Sérgio Botelho de
    Several studies point to the presence of emerging pollutants in surface water, groundwater and public water supply in many countries. Such substances are not covered by legislation and derived from effluent discharges with inadequate or no treatment. In this context, fall within the synthetic estrogens as EE2 (ethinylestradiol) that are found in the residual medium in the environment, which can have adverse effects on aquatic organisms as well as for terrestrial organisms. These hormones are absorbed by the body, suffer metabolic reactions and a quantity of them, both in its form as unmetabolised in metabolized form, it is excreted to the environment. As these substances are not easily biodegradable and have harmful pharmacological properties when used incorrectly, through contaminated water, there is growing concern about its destination, especially when taking into account the environmental risk assessment. For these reasons, the detection, elimination and investigation of the fate of these estrogens has become priority on environmental chemistry. These products are found in low concentrations (μg.L-1 and ng.L-1), but even so, can be harmful to organisms through bioaccumulation. There are still few ecotoxicological studies related to the exposure of organisms to substances considered endocrine disruptors. The aim of the study was to develop and validate an analytical method for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and quantify ethinyl estradiol, the study of degradation of the same compound in a photocatalytic reactor and also the calculation of the reaction kinetics for each curve ethinyl estradiol degradation. For analytical validation experiments were performed as set forth in the RE 899 2003 ANVISA. For the degradation experiments were carried application of UV settling and also photocatalysis experiments using titanium dioxide (TiO2) in suspension. By applying a 22 factorial design pH parameters were studied and mass of the catalyst and also its interaction with regard to treatment efficiency. The reactor was operated in batch and in continuous flow, in both cases there optimization. The analytical method was effective for detection and quantification of ethinylestradiol. The photocatalytic degradation test batch procedure presented great efficiency degradation of ethinyl estradiol present in water, obtaining a mean degradation of about 99% in about 120 minutes. The factorial design has shown that the most relevant factor in relation to the degradation efficiency was the pH, although there has been the appearance of a degradation by-product when used a basic pH (8.0). A greater treatment efficiency with smaller mass of TiO2 (0.05 gL-1). The reaction order and constant speed found for the experiments were as between 1 and 2. When the system is operating in continuous flow ethinyl estradiol degradation was approximately about 84% after optimization. The study shows that photocatalysis is very efficient to ethinyl estradiol degradation in water.
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    Panorama dos resíduos sólidos industriais e de mineração do estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-09-22) Oliveira, Adjane Damasceno de; Pfeiffer, Simone Costa;; Pfeiffer, Simone Costa; Carvalho, Eraldo Henriques de; Rios, Fernandes Posch
    The increase the state of Goiás should come accompanied of a administration that look for the balance between economic, social and environmental sectors, In this last, it is included an appropriate management of solid waste generate at the territory. In this study was elaborated an overview of the current situation of industrial and mining solid waste, contributing directly to supply the lack of data that subsidize the elaboration of policies that strengthen the guidelines of administration in Goiás, and also contribute with the proposition of mechanisms to structure the state information system of solid waste. For this, information was collected in several databases, official (Department of the Environment, infrastructure, Cities and Metropolitan Issues, State Treasury Office, National Department of Mineral Research) and non-official (Goiás Federation of Industries) databases and a primary data collection system has been developed so that the information was as close to reality as possible. The databases accessed was compared and analyzed. To carry out the review of waste destinations was necessary some adjustment and revaluation of the coding used in the process that received these wastes. Even with the establishment of a mechanism with closed answers, it was still necessary to evaluate what was declared to carry out an overview that matches to the reality. After the data compilation, it was possible to establish results of estimative for the generation, composition and disposal of industrial and mining waste in the State of Goiás. A comparison with these results with the 2001 inventory data was carried out, and to complete the state overview, the data of the authorizations for the waste entries in the state of Goiás issued in 2013 were collected. Finally, there was an analysis of the strategic areas for installation of industrial waste centers within the state territory. According to the results obtained were estimated one generation of 8.481.680 tons of industrial waste and 10.781.011 tons of mining waste. As the destination, the destination for another forms of reuse and recycling was the most representative with almost 38% from the total of industrial waste generated, whereas, the largest portion of the mining waste was destined to landfills of the own generators of waste, approximately 75% of the total. This study demonstrated that one of the difficulties encountered in collecting information is to perform the inventory data involving the largest number of possible waste generators and allow to conclude that the results found until the time can`t be considerate satisfactory, but make a landmark for the consolidation of solid waste data collected in Goiás. Therefore it is important to promote more comprehensive training throughout the territory and the establishment of mandatory participation in data reporting. In addition, it is essential that the States and Union work together so that the databases can be compatible to the point that they can be manipulated and can produce reliable results.
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    Gestão e gerenciamento de resíduos de serviço de saúde dos grupos “A”, “B” e “E” no estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-09-25) Ariza, Bernardo Guedes; Carvalho, Eraldo Henriques de;; Carvalho, Eraldo Henriques de; Pfeiffer, Simone Costa; Pasqualetto, Antônio
    The growing generation of Health Services Waste is made by one of the great environmental preoccupations of the humanity. After the promulgation of the law 12305 in the August 02 of 2010 that established the National Politics of the Solid Residues, the theme solid residues gained distinction in national level. Health Services Waste, for definition, is the resultant residue of activities of unities of health that, for his characteristics, need processes differentiated in the handling, demanding or prior non-treatment for the final arrangement. The diagnosis of the current situation of the Health Services Waste attests with the preparation of policies that attend the demand of recuperation, treatment and final arrangement of these residues. The unsuitable handling of the Health Services Waste can be the cause of situations of risk, what in the alert on the necessity of the management being diagnosed in Goiás. In this way, in visit to establishments of health (pharmacy, odontologic clinic, veterinary clinic, basic unity of health and general hospital) in 6 local authorities from Goiás (Piranhas, Rubiataba, Santa Helena de Goiás, Goianésia, Luziânia and Goiânia), representing different population belts, it happened quantitativamente and qualitatively the Health Services Waste of the groups A, B and E produced in Goiás. In each establishment, the Health Services Waste were segregated and weighed. The hospitals, bigger creators of Health Services Waste, produce, on average, 1,76 Kg of Health Services Waste for bed occupied one service day. In Brazil, these values vary from 1,2 to 3,5 kg/ Regarding final destination, the incineration is the technology chosen by 76 % of the local authorities from Goiás for the destination of the RSS produced in public establishments of health. Meantime, the most viable alternative for the destination of the Health Services Waste, considering the reality from Goiás, is at disposal of the RSS of the groups A and E together with the municipal solid waste in joined sanitary landfills. For the destination of the Health Services Waste of group B, the most viable alternative is the incineration.
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    Avaliação da qualidade da água e sedimento de microbacias utilizadas para abastecimento público da região metropolitana de Goiânia
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-11-19) Batista, Maria Alciony Rosa da Silva; Kopp, Katia Alcione;; Kopp, Katia Alcione; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de; Brito, Nubia Natália de
    Water resources used for human consumption have been changing due to population growth that occurs often in a disorganized way, and the growing expansion of agriculture and industry, thus leading to degradation of water sources. Thus, given the impacts on water resources, it was established that water intended for human consumption must meet quality standards prepared in Resolution CONAMA No. 357/2005. This resolution regulates the quality standards which water intended for human consumption must have so that after treatment, can be used by the population. However, although the water for human consumption should be protected to prevent any contamination, it does not mean that this will be according to law. This is due to the fact that water resources in general, end up being the final destination of various types of pollutants. Thus, it is necessary to carry out analysis of sediments to complement the analysis of water quality that is intended for human consumption due to the fact that he act as a potential source of contaminants. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality and sediment of four supply sources located in the metropolitan area of Goiânia/GO – Recanto Dourado, Ribeirão das Lajes, Córrego Vereda e Córrego Bom Sucesso. The study was divided into two chapters. The first chapter evaluated the quality of water sources from the results obtained from carrying out the temperature analysis, pH, electrical conductivity, DO, BOD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total dissolved solids, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in the water. In the sediment, pH analyzes,% moisture,% organic matter and particle size were performed. The four supply sources were evaluated as belonging to the fresh water Class II according to CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. The results of physicochemical parameters have OD values and total phosphorus at odds with the established by legislation to fresh water Class II. In the second chapter, the quality of water and sediment of these four rivers was evaluated through the analysis of metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb. Only copper (Cu) concentrations were found, in water, in disagreement with the maximum values established by law. In the sediment there were no disagreements metal concentrations because all were below the established by the legislation. As the results of these parameters, except for the OD and total phosphorus, it can be concluded that these water supply sources, even displaying some kind of impact, in general, have good water quality, and may continue to be used for public supply. However, in all the rivers were found problems that can compromise their future use as water supply source such as loss of forest cover and silting. This, is needed continuous monitoring and the establishment of recovery actions of these water sources in order to ensure not only water quality, but its future permanence as source of water supply.
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    Avaliação do desempenho hidrológico de pavimentos permeáveis
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-03-12) Guedes, Cláudia de Sousa; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de;; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de; Milograna, Jussanã; Vasco, Joel Roberto Guimarães
    This study evaluated the performance of permeable pavements with coatings the type Paver, Porous and Concregrama under different basic conditions in order to control runoff at the source. Were simulated by means of a simulated rainfall, the rain event intensity 100.80 mm/h with a duration of 30 minutes and 64.20 mm/h for 60 minutes, on the floor constructed in three different structural conditions. The stretch I with 15 cm storage layer, the stretch II with 7 cm and the stretch III with only 4 cm. The tests were performed in duplicate and all simulations were performed 36. The pavements were evaluated for the generation runoff, storage and retention of the flow. The nine permeable pavements evaluated in this study allowed a reduction of more than 50% of the runoff and the delay on average 17 minutes runoff, as well as the temporary storage of rainwater. In terms of coefficient C, the structure that presented the best hydrologic performance was the stretch I, the results varied from 0 to 0.20. Only pavements with Paver coating showed runoff.
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    Diagnóstico das condições de saneamento básico dos municípios do Estado de Goiás operados pelas prefeituras
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2014-04-07) Lima, Aline Souza Carvalho; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Pádua , Valter Lúcio de; Teixeira, Denilson
    Despite all progress made in the areas of environmental sanitation , a large number of people who do not have access to all necessary to promote quality of life components . Thus, this study examined the conditions of sanitation, by calculating the Indicator of Environmental Health ( ISA ) , and consumer satisfaction of 21 municipalities in Goiás operated directly by the City Halls . The methodological process involved the technical visits in all municipalities , application forms with the managers of sanitation systems and consumers as well as secondary data . It was observed that the most deprived areas are related to sewage and solid waste , revealing that most of the municipalities visited not manage these systems properly. In addition , the study noted the lack of water treatment in 33.3 % of the municipalities . As for consumer satisfaction , it was noticed in most of the municipalities visited dissatisfaction precisely in the most deprived areas observed during the calculation of the ISA . In general , all studied municipalities must conform to some health component.
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    Simulação computacional de bombas com velocidade de rotação variável no EPANET
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-12-10) Coutinho, Ricardo Santos; Soares, Alexandre Kepler;; Soares, Alexandre Kepler; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Vasco, Joel Roberto Guimarães
    In water distribution systems, most of the electricity is consumed by pumping systems. Thus, reducing the inefficiency of the pump can provide significant energy savings. This can be achieved by substituting fixed-speed pumps by variable-speed pumps (VSP). However, the high costs of installation and operation of the VSPs require a preliminary economic assessment of the design, which is usually accompanied by the use of hydraulic solvers to simulate the behavior of the water network. One of the most used softwares for this purpose is the EPANET 2, which uses the gradient method for the hydraulic analysis of the steady flow. However, the EPANET 2 is inaccurate when computing the VSP efficiency. This is because the software does not take into account the changes in the pump efficiency curve when the pump speed is changed. In this study, a routine for calculating VSPs efficiency, based on the Sârbu and Borza (1998) formula, is implemented in the source code of the EPANET 2. The influence of the new routine on the results predicted by the software for efficiency, power and energy consumption of the VSP is evaluated in simulations with a hypothetical network. The results showed that the original version of EPANET 2 tends to underestimate the efficiency and thus overestimate the power and energy consumption of the VSPs. In the present case, the energy consumption of the system predicted by the original version of EPANET 2 was 21.99% higher than the predicted by the modified version. These results point out that the modified version of EPANET 2 provides a better prediction of VSPs behavior and thus its use is recommended in the simulation of water distribution networks equipped with VSPs.
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    Degradação de antibióticos de uso veterinário em reator de carbonização hidrotermal
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-09-28) Santos Júnior, Laurivê Antônio dos; Zang, Joachim Werner;; Santiago, Mariângela Fontes;; Santiago, Mariângela Fontes; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de; Oliveira, Sérgio Botelho de
    Antibiotics are widely used in human and veterinary medicine. After consumption, much of the drug is excreted unchanged or in the form of metabolites, and through the release of sewage treatment plants, agricultural waste and leaching, reach natural ecosystems. The occurrence of antibiotics in aquatic environments has become a growing concern worldwide mainly due to the emergence of resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria. The indiscriminate use and the use of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics cause the emergence of resistance. In Goiás, a recent survey showed the presence of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics in hospital wastewater and Goiania sewage treatment plant. The wastewater treatment processes based on biological degradation have low efficiency of removal of residual drugs due to recalcitrant structure and biocide effect of antibiotics. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of hydrothermal decomposition of the antibiotic ampicillin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin sulphaquinoxaline. For this purpose, the antibiotic solutions were prepared at a concentration of 50 μg.mL-1 and pH correction to the range 3-7, with phosphoric acid solution for the hydrothermal carbonization treatment. Treatment by the hydrothermal carbonization process of oxytetracycline with pH adjustment made with phosphoric acid, pH 3, 170 ° C temperature and 90 minutes reaction time showed total decomposition as a result of this antibiotic (100%). The highest decomposition rate (98.37%) for enrofloxacin was observed when they were used the reaction time of 120 minutes, pH 3, 200 ° C temperature and phosphoric acid as a catalyst. The highest decomposition rate of ampicillin (94.86%) was observed when using time of 120 minutes reaction, pH 4, 200 ° C temperature and phosphoric acid as a catalyst. The most suitable conditions for the decomposition of sulphaquinoxaline, observing the greatest reduction rate (95.71%) was observed when they were used the reaction time of 120 minutes, pH 5, temperature 180 ° C and phosphoric acid as a catalyst. All conditions, except for the pH 7, led to complete decomposition of tylosin (100%) of the samples. The best condition for the decomposition of tylosin, observing a lower energy expenditure, and reaction time spent catalyst was one which was used 90 minutes reaction time, pH 4, 180 ° C temperature and phosphoric acid as a catalyst. In the germination test with Allium cepa, the solutions treated, except ampicillin, had similar germination rates found in the control group. The solutions of antibiotics with no treatment showed higher rates of growth of buds when compared to the control group. These results show that the hydrothermal carbonization process has potential for future applications decomposition of antibiotics in contaminated water and effluent.
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    Degradação de hormônio sintético por meio de lacases fúngicas imobilizadas em fibras de Luffa cylindrica
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-09-24) Lacerda, Monike Fabiane Alves Ribeiro; Lopes, Flávio Marques; Santiago, Mariângela Fontes;; Santiago, Mariângela Fontes; Siqueira, Eduardo Queija de; Schimidt, Fernando
    The 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen used in contraceptive and hormone replacement therapies; is an environmental contaminant potential, it is not completely removed in sewage treatment plants, reaching the aquatic environment, with the aggravating factor interfere the endocrine system of humans and other animals. For this reason there is great interest in the removal of EE2 present in wastewater, surface water and groundwater. Thus the use of laccase for this purpose may be promising because of low specificity of this enzyme to the substrate. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of laccase produced by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus immobilized in Luffa cylindrica (loofah) fibers in EE2 degradation. Therefore the best means for production of laccase and the best conditions of pH and temperature were investigated. The immobilization process was realized and removal of the EE2 assay was conducted in flasks and in a batch reactor. Thus, the best means for producing laccase were Potato Dextrose and Potato Dextrose Modified with guariroba straw. Readings taken with 2.2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothializone-6-sulfonic acid) - ABTS revealed best pH between 3.6 and 4.6 and optimal band temperature between 30 and 50 °C for free and immobilized enzymes. The laccase produced in both media had an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa. The best conditions found for the immobilization process were glutaraldehyde concentration of 2% and reaction with the support 1 hour under stirring (120 rpm); drying the loofah prior to the reaction with glutaraldehyde; time of 24 hours of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme showed best enzymatic activity in alkaline pH, and at higher temperatures, compared to the free enzyme. The operational stability, storage and thermostability were not significant. Best removals for tests in flasks were 79.22% and 75.0% for free and immobilized enzyme, respectively. As the tests carried out in the reactor showed removal by adsorption of 99.3% and 73.14% in the Luffa cylindrica, the immobilized enzyme. However, it is necessary to optimize the immobilization process, as well as the test in the reactor to increase the degradation EE2.
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    Diagnóstico do estresse hídrico na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão João Leite
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-09-21) Keller, Patrícia Pereira Ribeiro; Aguila, Nora Katia Saavedra del;; Aguila, Nora Katia Saavedra del; Teran, Francisco Javier Cuba; Carrijo, Ivaltemir Barros
    The survey was developed with the objective of diagnosis of water stress in the catchment area of the hydrografic basin João Leite River, whereas seasonal aspects and the water regime (lotic system and still water system). Historic survey was conducted of the anthropogenic activities (industry, commerce, farmers, vegetable and mineral extraction) inserted into the catchment area of João Leite River. Following, he proceeded historical survey (2012 and 2013) of physico-chemical parameters (ambientte temperature, water temperature, turbidity, pH, nitrogen series, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen - OD, biochemical demand of oxigênico - DBO, total dissolved solids - STD) and bacterial (Escherichia coli), resulting in the calculation of the Water Quality Index (IQA) in eleven (11) sampling points (Reservoir João Leite River, João Leite River, Bandeira Stream, Jenipapo Stream, Jurubatuba Stream, Rosa Stream, Descoberto Stream, Maria Paula Stream, Posse Stream, Mata Pasto Stream, Pedras Stream). It was found that five (5) sampling points highlighted by the lower IQA (Jurubatuba Stream - IQA 58.81; João Leite River - IQA 61.50; Bandeira Stream - IQA 63.41; Jenipapo Stream - IQA 65.22 ) or environmental significance in the Reservoir João Leite River - IQA 75.12 Subsequently, these five (5) points were monitored every two months in 2014 (3 collections in rainy season and 3 collections in dry season) analyzing 100 ( one hundred) parameters: 6 physical parameter (water temperature, transparency, quota, turbidity, apparent color and true), 89 chemical parameter (43 Organic 23 metals, caffeine, total solids, total nitrogen, pH, conductivity, STD, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, sulphate, total organic carbon, alkalinity, hardness, consumed oxygen, OD, DBO, chemical oxygen demand, surfactant, total iron and carbon dioxide) and 5 biological parameter (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, clorophyll- a, pheophytin and phytoplankton). The annual average of the data obtained showed the Water Quality Index 65.80 (good), Trophic State Index 52.93 (mesotrophic) and Community Index Phytoplankton 2.20 (good). Caffeine was quantified (0.315 mg L-1 to 1.512 mg L -1) at all sampling sites in the basin indicating contamination by domestic sewage. The present study demonstrated a resilient bowl with the presence of stress factors: micropollutants (demeton, atrazine, glyphosate, malathion, metolachlor, carbon tetrachloride, xylene, dichloromethane, dichloroethene, toluene), trace elements (As, Hg, Sb, Se, Cu , Fe, Al, Cr, Zn, In, Cd, Co, B, Mn, Li, Ag, Be, V, Ni, U, Ba, Pb), pathogenic organisms (Escherichia coli, Microcystis sp.) and first-order impacts (deforestation, presence of effluents and solid wastes) related to anthropogenic activities developed in the watershed region of João Leite River.
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    Percepção dos integrantes do programa produtor de água sobre os desafios do processo de implantação
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-09-30) Ribeiro , Aristela Resende; Teixeira, Denilson;; Teixeira, Denilson; Hora, Karla Emmanuela Ribeiro; Godoi, Emiliano Lôbo de
    The Payment Programs for Environmental Services (PES) have been widely researched. However, there is a need to invest in studies that discuss the influence of perception on different members of the program in relation to the success of it. Along this, the objective of the research was to present the perception of the members involved in the process of implementation of Brook Joao Leite in the Water Producer Program (RJLWPP). For that, we interviewed 10 farmers and 15 members of the Project Management Unit (PMU), in addition to the identification and analysis of the aspects of implementation and operation of the Program. Analyzing the perception of the members in relation to the program, we understand that farmers possess adequate knowledge about environmental problems. Regarding the proposed amount to be paid to the owner, 60% considered insufficient or regular, as opposed to 20% who felt the same offer as good or sufficient. On the other hand, 90% of respondents expressed interest in participating effectively in the program. The required paperwork was the main reason for disinterest in the program for 10% of the owners. As the main negative points of the Program, the PMU members pointed out: conflicts between institutions, the length of referrals and the bureaucracy of the Program implementation process. The survey also points out that the institutions have shown uncertainty about the degree of commitment and responsibilities to one another. The program is expected to face difficulties in the process of implementation and consolidation mainly due to the complexity of the legal framework and lack of institutional commitment among members. What means the need to strengthen the institutions involved (resources, technical training, autonomy) for added assurance of maintenance and operation of the Program, regardless of political changes.
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    Utilização de modelo hidrodinâmico para mapeamento de áreas inundáveis
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-12-10) Santos, Kamila Almeida dos; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins;; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Soares, Alexandre Kepler; Rios, Fernanda Posch
    The urbanization issues is taking place in Brazilian cities has proved disorganized and thus the floods are becoming a recurring phenomenon. The growth of waterproofing in urban land decreases the amount of infiltrated water in the soil during the rainy season, the rivers might otherwise not conform the water demand in the channels in addition to receive a lot of water runoff In this context the hydrodynamic modeling is an important tool to assess the drainage systems and predict the effects of flooding. This study was applied to the watershed of Ribeirão Anicuns in Goiania, where a considerable part of the basin is in an urban area. Using the hydrodynamic model HECRAS were created various flood scenarios with return periods of 15, 25, 50 and 100 years for the project rainfall; there was aid of a geographic information system, using ArcMap 10.0 to the high-resolution orthophoto city and DEM made from airborne laser scanner, with this material extracted the geometry of the basin. In hydrodynamic modeling crafted the model was run in unsteady flow considering the full Saint Venant equation. In addition to the hydrodynamic modeling was carried out a simulation on the INPE simplified model called HAND, which turned out to be an inexpensive tool, easily accessible and with quality results. With the results obtained (flood hydrograph and flood patches concerning the different return times) flood areas were shown in different scenarios created, and you can compare them. The results showed that the flood spot along the basin have become significantly larger as the return periods grow. In urbanized streams were no major changes than the changes that occurred in streams away from the urban area. Streams that are outside the urbanized area focuses on the alert, they are natural streams and showed that will not support the volume of water resulting from this work.