ItemAvaliação da resposta imune após vacinação para covid-19(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-08-28) Masson, Letícia Carrijo; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves da; http://lattes.cnpq.br/3823367099967701; http://lattes.cnpq.br/3823367099967701; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves da; Kipnis, Ana Paula Junqueira; Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli deImmune responses after COVID-19 vaccination should be evaluated in different populations around the world. This study compared antibody responses induced by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, CoronaVac, and BNT162b2 vaccines. Blood samples from vaccinees were collected pre- and post-vaccinations with the second and third doses. The study enrolled 78 vaccinees, of whom 62.8% were women, with the following median ages: 26 years—ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; 40 years—CoronaVac; 30 years—BNT162b2. Serum samples were quantified for anti-Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) IgG and anti-RBD IgA and anti-spike IgG by ELISA. After two vaccine doses, BNT162b2 vaccinees produced higher levels of anti-RBD IgA and IgG, and anti-spike IgG compared to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and CoronaVac vaccinees. The third dose booster with BNT162b2 induced higher levels of anti-RBD IgA and IgG, and anti-spike IgG in CoronaVac vaccinees. Individuals who reported a SARS-CoV-2 infection before or during the study had higher anti-RBD IgA and IgG production. In conclusion, two doses of the studied vaccines induced detectable levels of anti-RBD IgA and IgG and anti-spike IgG in vaccinees. The heterologous booster with BNT162b2 increased anti-RBD IgA and IgG and anti-spike IgG levels in CoronaVac vaccinees and anti-RBD IgA levels in ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccinees. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced higher anti-RBD IgA and IgG levels in CoronaVac vaccinees. Novembro ItemQuitinases humanas e infecções fúngicas(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-02-27) Farias, Adriane Nunes; Amaral, André Corrêa; http://lattes.cnpq.br/8801299423520104; Amaral, André Corrêa; Silva, Daniela de Melo e; Soares, Renata de Bastos AscençoThis work deals with a systematic review of the intrinsic mechanisms used by humans to fight fungal infections, focusing on chitinases, discussing the main enzymes and gene polymorphism with them involved. Fungal infections are increasingly common in the world, being considered one of the main causes of death in immunocompromised and immunosuppressive patients. Diagnoses and treatments for these infections are still limited and prophylaxis through vaccines is still far from being achieved. Fungi, in general, have chitin in their cell wall, the second most abundant polymer in nature, not found in humans. However, enzymes capable of degrading it, called chitinases, are synthesized by them. Human chitinases are found in the family 18 of glycosyl hydrolases, of which only chitotriosidase (QT), mammalian acid chitinase (AMCase) and di-N-acetyl-chitobiase have chitinolytic activity. QT and AMCase are the most reported chitinases in humans and differ mainly in terms of the chitin cleavage region and the immune response that leads to their expression. The enzymatic activity of chitinases has been observed in several diseases, including fungal infections such as candidiasis, mycetoma and aspergillosis. It is believed that these enzymes act on the innate immune system against pathogenic fungi and their absence or inactivity leads to susceptibility to these organisms. Polymorphisms associated with genes encoding chitinases, especially QT, have been recently described. The duplication of 24 bp in exon 10 of the gene that expresses QT results in a protein with enzyme deficiency. Therefore, this review seeks to gather existing data on fungal infections, their relationship with chitinases, discussing the influence of gene polymorphisms on the chitinolytic activity of these enzymes against pathogenic fungi. ItemAvaliação do processo cicatricial utilizando biomembrana de látex de hancornia speciosa e regederm® em feridas de espessura total induzidas experimentalmente em ratos(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-09-02) Martins, Kassya Lopes Epaminondas; Reis, Paulo Roberto de Melo; http://lattes.cnpq.br/7729613632937834; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; http://lattes.cnpq.br/0372118837748010; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Mrué, Fátima; Galdino Júnior, HelioThe use of Hevea brasiliensis latex in the wound treatment have been widely studied as a biomembrane bandage. Nowadays it is comercially available as Regederm®, a gel-ointment indicated in the use of cutaneous wounds treatment. Also the Hevea brasiliensis látex has been used in the wound healing because of its angiogenic and anti-inflammatory ativities. The presente study aimed the comparison of the healing effects of H. speciosa biomembrane and Regederm®. 70 Wistar rats divided in G1 – control group, treated with physiologic solution, G2 – treated with Regederm®, G3 – treated with H. speciosa biomembrane, G4 – mixed treatment with Regederm® and physiologic solution. The euthanasia occurred at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after the induction (DAI) of the incisional injury. Morphometric, microscopic and macroscopic analysis were performed evaluating the general pathologic processes. It was possible to observe that the H. speciosa biomembrane decreased necrosis and inflammation during the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. The angiogenesis observed was similar to the one found in the Regederm® treated group. During the maturation phase of the healing process the Regederm® continued to stimulate the angiogenesis which was not observed in the H. speciosa biomembrane treated group. There was an intense stimulus of fibroblastos with the Regederm® treated group and the mixed treatment group in the proliferative and maturation phases of the healing process while in the H. speciosa biomembrane treated group there was an inhibition of these cells. It was possible to observe that in the Regederm® treated group there was a continuous inflammation of the tissue during the maturation phase of the healing process. Therefore it is possible to conclude that Regederm® contributed to the healing process in its inflammatory and proliferative phases but tended to perpetuate the inflammation process. While the H. speciosa biomembrane decreased necrosis and inflammation during the initial phases of the healing process, stimulated angiogenesis and interrupted these stimuly during the maturation phase of the healing process. The mixed treatment group decreased the delayed angiogenic effects of Regederm® however the inflammation was sustained leading to a delay in the healing process with less wound contraction. ItemIndicadores de contaminação viral em amostras de água consumida em regiões rurais de Goiás(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-11-28) Bordoni, Graziela Picciola; Carneiro, Lilian Carla; http://lattes.cnpq.br/6506744224041777; Carneiro, Lilian Carla; Albuquerque, Antônio João Carvalho de; Oliveira, Bruno Francesco Rodrigues deRural communities are located far from urban centers, where the adequate supply of potable water is hampered. In the lack of a public distribution network, water is obtained from surface and groundwater sources, where the microbial quality is often unknown. Goiás has 9.7% of the population in rural areas and previous studies carried out in some of these rural and traditional communities have already demonstrated the vulnerability of water for the consumption of these residents by waterborne pathogens, such as enteric viruses. Therefore, the aim of the work was to continue the evaluation of fecal contamination of water samples from individual and collective sources, from 24 communities in rural areas of the State of Goiás. 160 samples were collected, whose water sources were shallow tubular well, deep tubular well, dug well and spring, surface water, rainwater stored in cisterns and water truck. The enteric viruses Human Adenovirus (HAdV), Rotavirus (RV) and Enterovirus (EV) were used as indicators of fecal contamination, analyzed by qPCR. In all, 30% of the samples showed signs of fecal contamination. Detection rates were 20% for RV, 9.4% for HAdV and 4.4% for EV. The geometric means of concentration of these indicators were 1.5x106 GC/L, 1.9x106 GC/L and 7.1x105 GC/L, respectively. RV was the most prevalent viral indicator in underground sources, being statistically associated with shallow tubular wells. In spring samples, HAdV stands out with 11.8%. In the cistern samples, both HAdV and RV were found in the same prevalence. These results reveals that the analyzed population is vulnerable to waterborne diseases caused by enteric pathogens, serving to guide future decisions and improve daily water treatment practices in these communities. ItemToxicidade reprodutiva e resposta de múltiplos biomarcadores no caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (Say 1818) após exposição crônica às nanopartículas de óxido de ferro (γ-Fe2O3) funcionalizadas com ácido glucônico(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-17) Caixeta, Maxwell Batista; Silva, Luciana Damacena; http://lattes.cnpq.br/3800305083164308; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; http://lattes.cnpq.br/6325937100056775; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Fernandes, Éverton Kort KampNanotechnology has been applied to control parasites and intermediate hosts of etiologic agents of neglected global and tropical diseases, such as schistosomiasis. The parasite Schistosoma mansoni is the etiological agent of this disease in Brazil, and snails Biomphalaria spp. act as intermediate host. The use of nanomaterials (NMs) as molluscicidal agents is promising due to their specific properties that allow internalization, greater reactivity and specificity to the snail, in addition to the ease of production, and the possibility of removal from the environment. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the potential molluscicidal activity of gluconic acid - functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Initially, a bibliometric analysis associated with a systematic review of the literature identified that different NMs were able to induce oxidative stress, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, embryotoxicity, reproductive and transgenerational toxicity, immunotoxicity, mortality and behavioural changes in different species of gastropods. Regarding bioassays, after chronic exposure (28 days) of B. glabrata to different concentrations of IONPs and FeCl3 (1.0; 2.5; 6.2 and 15.6 mg L-1), a high bioaccumulation of iron by IONPs in visceral mass of the snail compared to the iron ions and the control group was observed. Likewise, there was a high frequency of behavioural changes in snails exposed to IONPs when compared to their ionic counterpart and to the control group. Both forms of Fe reduced fertility, while mortality and reduced snail’s fertility were observed only after exposure to IONPs at 15.6 mg L-1. The general results indicated behavioural impairments and reproductive toxicity, associated with the bioaccumulation of IONPs in B. glabrata. This study emphasizes that metal-based nanoparticles are potential molluscicidal agents. ItemAtividade moluscicida de nanopartículas de prata funcionalizadas com polivinilpirrolidona nos estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-16) Araújo, Paula Sampaio; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; http://lattes.cnpq.br/6325937100056775; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Monteiro, Caio Marcio de Oliveira; Barreto, Lucas PradoSchistosomiasis is a tropical disease of an endemic nature caused by the parasite Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediary host is freshwater snails, such as Biomphalaria glabrata. Among the disease control methods, the intermediate host control stands out through the use of molluscicides. Nanotechnology appears as a viable alternative for the development of new molluscicides. Among the nanoparticles with potential molluscicidal use, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) stand out due to their inherent physical and chemical properties, with an effect against bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. Thus, the general objective of the present study was to evaluate the molluscicidal potential of PVP-functionalized Ag NPs for different stages of development (embryos, newly hatched) of the snail B. glabrata. The bioassays were carried out during the embryonic development phase and in newly hatched snails for a total period of 144 h and 96 h, respectively, using concentrations from 12.1 to 1560 g L-1. Biomarkers such as mortality rate, hatch rate and morphological alteration were analyzed, together with the estimated average lethal concentration. Results showed that the embryos were more resistant to Ag NPs than the newly hatched. The toxicity was demonstrated during all phases analyzed in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to Ag NPs induced the formation of hydropic embryos. This was the first study that evaluated the toxicity of Ag NPs and their dissolved counterpart (AgNO3) in embryos and newly hatched snails B. glabrata. ItemInterleucina-17 na atividade de fagócitos inflamatórios de camundongos BALB/c(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-08-02) Lucio, Fernanda Hélia; Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli de; http://lattes.cnpq.br/2152513705182408; Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli de; Gomes, Clayson Moura; Celes, Mara Rúbia NunesIntroduction: Inflammatory macrophages express high amount of IL-17 receptor (IL17R) favoring IL-17 binding. The role of IL-17 activating macrophages to increase microbicidal activity or regulatory response is not completely clear, but previous studies demonstrated that IL-17 activates peritoneal macrophages to increase arginase and induced nitric oxide synthase. Here, we investigated the role of IL-17 and its interaction with IFN-γ, IL-4 and LPS to induce M1 or M2 profiles in wild type (WT) and IL-4 knockout (KO) BALB/c mice. Objective: Evaluate the ability of IL-17, alone or in association with other cytokines, to activate different macrophage profiles. Methods: Thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were characterized by cytometry and stimulated in vitro for 48h with different association of IL-17A, IL-17F, LPS, IL-4 and IFN-γ. The supernatant was used to evaluate NO production and lysed cells were used to evaluate arginase activity. Results: Cells harvested from different days after thioglycolate inoculation showed no variation for M1/70, F4/80 and IL-17R. Adherent cells obtained on day 5 presented the largest number of M1/70, F4/80, IL-17R positive cells. IL-17 alone did not induce arginase activity or NO production in WT and IL-4 KO mouse macrophages. Association of IL-4 with IL-17 did not induce arginase activity, but IL-17 plus IFN-γ increased NO production in both strains tested. IL-4 KO macrophages presenting high arginase activity even without stimulation with cytokines and IL-4 increased in these macrophages. ItemBioprospecção de microrganismos biodessulfurizantes de borracha vulcanizada de pneu inservível(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-09-22) Dorta, Dulcimê Gonçalves; García Rodriguez, Armando; http://lattes.cnpq.br/8414244562919300; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; http://lattes.cnpq.br/1742731776579730; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; Amaral, André Correa; Carrim, Aysha Jussara IvonildeTires have great importance, but have become a risk to public health and the environment due to the characteristics conferred by the rubber vulcanization and other components. One of the ways of reusing the tyre is rubber recycling through devulcanization. Thus, the objective was to isolate microorganisms from mechanic shop’s waste and assess their desulphurization of vulcanized rubber (VR) capacity. With selective enrichment using DMSO, two bacteria named D1 and DAF were isolated, later submitted to biochemical, metal resistance and antibiogram tests. Preliminary to the tests, fungus contamination was observed, which revealed to be from BV, being isolated and included in the protocol. It used 1% (w/v) of granulated tire rubber (BP-III) asepsis with 70% alcohol in a culture flask. Each microorganism was added with Bushnell-Haas medium without SO4-2 (BH-s) to a flask, one had no microorganism added, another contained only medium and were incubated in a shaker at 30ºC, 130 rpms. Biochemical tests indicated D1 as Pseudomonas sp. The molecular method identified DAF as Staphylococcus warneri and the fungus as Fusarium chlamydosporum. Bacteria showed tolerance to the metals tested. The D1 antibiogram had comparative data for five antibiotics, none of which were tolerant, while DAF showed sensitivity to eight. D1 had a greater amount of SO4-2 in the medium than DAF. This and the fungus degraded the rubber. However, the fungus has greater potential for desulfurization. Thus, the microbial capacity to desulfurize VR was observed, a promising and preferable method for tire recycling as it is environmentally friendly and cost-effective. ItemLactobacillus spp. como forma de controle biológico de fitobactérias do tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum L.)(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-08-27) Tavares, Rodolfo Sodré; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; http://lattes.cnpq.br/1742731776579730; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; Carneiro, Lilian Carla; Nascimento, Abadia dos ReisCurrent processes for the control of tomato diseases (Solanum lycopersicum L.) mostly include the application of chemical pesticides and the use of antibiotics in an attempt to alleviate various diseases. Among the phytobacteria, Xanthomonas spp. pathovars, Pectobacterium cavotovorum, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas corrugata and Ralstonia solanacearum are reported all over the world, leading to the appearance of diseases such as bacterial spot, soft rot and seed contamination, leading to great economic losses. The application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a form of biological control appears as a promising alternative to the main control measures adopted for diseases caused by phytobacteria, both for its effectiveness and for its viability, as is the example of countries such as Indonesia, Guatemala and Holland, who incorporated the use of biological control with good results in production. This study uses Lactobacillus spp. species as a form of biological control against tomato phytobacteria species. The collection of material from the School of Agronomy (EA) of the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) was carried out from healthy tomato plants without disease symptoms in an attempt to obtain biologically active BAL strains against selected phytobacteria. Samples of tomato leaves with symptoms of bacterial spot were also collected in the EA of the UFG; then, the selection of BAL strains from starter culture obtained from the local market was also carried out. The results of this study indicate promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity where strains of Lactobacillus johnsonii, L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. Breve and L. sporogenes demonstrated “in vitro” antimicrobial activity against different phytobacteria. The data presented in this study reveal the promising potential of BAL strains as a form of biological control as a viable alternative to chemical pesticides and antibiotics, helping to mitigate the impact on human, animal and environmental health. ItemInvestigação de Zika vírus em gestantes exantemáticas: identificação de positividade viral prolongada(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-10-25) Oliveira, Thais Santana de; Fiaccadori, Fabíola Souza; http://lattes.cnpq.br/0993842409303174; Fiaccador, Fabíola Souza; Souza, Menira Borges de Lima Dias e; Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques daZika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged causing epidemics that impacted in the Americas, Africa and Asia and, despite transmission by arthropod vectors, sexual and maternal-child transmission have already been reported. Infection during pregnancy has been associated with congenital malformations, including microcephaly. Although we have advanced in ZIKV study, there are still gaps regarding the pathogenesis of this infection. The present study objected to investigate the occurrence of ZIKV in cases of exanthematic pregnant women evaluating prolonged viral detection in urine and blood samples. The population consisted of 68 pregnant women, of whom 57 were followed up through periodic consultations, and blood and/or urine samples were collected at each visit. Samples were subjected to detection of viral RNA by real-time RT-PCR using the commercial kit, primers and probe specific for the target region to structural protein E. Positivity rate of 51.5% for ZIKV was observed (35/68). The samples colected of follow up patients, different patterns of prolonged viral detection in the blood and/or urine were identified in 19.3% of pregnant women. In urine samples, viral RNA was detected up to 147 days after onset of symptoms and in the blood up to 187 days after the onset of rash. Among the pregnant women with prolonged detection profile, the majority presented the exanthematic episode at the first and second gestational trimester. Prolonged detection for ZIKV has been reported in other clinical specimens although many questions remain. In this scenario, the information obtained in the present study contributes to the knowledge about the process of the pathogenesis of Zika virus infection in infected pregnant women. ItemFatores abióticos, tais como luz e anoxia, durante o crescimento melhoram a virulência e outras qualidades fenotípicas em Metarhizium robertsii(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-03-12) Oliveira, Ariel de Souza; Rangel, Drauzio Eduardo Naretto; http://lattes.cnpq.br/5438052072229463; Rangel, Drauzio Eduardo Naretto; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; Braga, Gilberto Úbida LeiteLight conditions, as well as hypoxia and anoxia during fungal growth, cause several physiological changes in their metabolism, germination, mycelial growth, and conidial production. In this study, conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium robertsii were produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium in the dark; under white light; under blue light; under red light; under continuous hypoxia; transient anoxia, under normoxia; and minimum medium (Czapek medium without sucrose) supplemented with 3 % lactose (MML) in the dark. The conidial production for each treatment as well as the speed of conidial germination, and virulence to the insect Tenebrio molitor were evaluated. The fungus grown under blue light produced more conidia than the fungus grown in the dark. The conidial production of the fungus grown under white and red light were similar to that obtained in the dark, and MML afforded the least conidial production. Conidia produced on MML or on PDA medium under white or blue light germinated faster than conidia produced on PDA medium in the dark or under red light. Conidia produced on PDA medium under white light were more virulent than conidia produced in the dark, under blue light or red light. The fungus grown under hypoxia or transient anoxia produced similar amounts of conidia and germinated at the same speed than the fungus grown under normoxia,. Conidia produced under transient anoxia were more virulent than conidia produced under normoxia and hypoxia, however, were less virulent than conidia produced on MML. ItemFatores abióticos, tais como luz e anoxia, durante o crescimento melhoram a virulência e outras qualidades fenotípicas em Metarhizium robertsii(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-03-12) Oliveira, Ariel de Souza; Rangel, Drauzio Eduardo Naretto; http://lattes.cnpq.br/5438052072229463; Rangel, Drauzio Eduardo Naretto; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; Braga, Gilberto Úbida LeiteLight conditions, as well as hypoxia and anoxia during fungal growth, cause several physiological changes in their metabolism, germination, mycelial growth, and conidial production. In this study, conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium robertsii were produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium in the dark; under white light; under blue light; under red light; under continuous hypoxia; transient anoxia, under normoxia; and minimum medium (Czapek medium without sucrose) supplemented with 3 % lactose (MML) in the dark. The conidial production for each treatment as well as the speed of conidial germination, and virulence to the insect Tenebrio molitor were evaluated. The fungus grown under blue light produced more conidia than the fungus grown in the dark. The conidial production of the fungus grown under white and red light were similar to that obtained in the dark, and MML afforded the least conidial production. Conidia produced on MML or on PDA medium under white or blue light germinated faster than conidia produced on PDA medium in the dark or under red light. Conidia produced on PDA medium under white light were more virulent than conidia produced in the dark, under blue light or red light. The fungus grown under hypoxia or transient anoxia produced similar amounts of conidia and germinated at the same speed than the fungus grown under normoxia,. Conidia produced under transient anoxia were more virulent than conidia produced under normoxia and hypoxia, however, were less virulent than conidia produced on MML. ItemInvestigação da ocorrência do vírus chikungunya em gestantes com quadro exantemático em Goiânia-Goiás(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-11-30) Silva, Lucélia Barbosa de Queiróz; Féres, Valéria Christina de Rezende; http://lattes.cnpq.br/8089054699896454; Fiaccadori, Fabíola Souza; http://lattes.cnpq.br/0993842409303174; Fiaccadori, Fabíola Souza; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves daThe chikungunya vírus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes associated with an infection characterized by fever, myalgia, rash and persistent arthralgia. In 2014 with the arrival of the zika virus in Brazil and its association with vertical transmission and consequent microcephaly in newborns, many questions were postulated regarding the transmission of other arboviruses. In this context, several studies point to the perinatal transmission of CHIKV with encephalitis in neonates. In view of these facts, the present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of chikungunya virus in exanthematic pregnant women, in the city of Goiânia, from January 2017 to July 2018. The study population consisted of 70 pregnant women, from which samples were collected which were subjected to the screening of IgM / IgG serological markers using commercial kit, as well as the detection of viral RNA through RT-qPCR. A CHIKV seroprevalence index of 2.8% was identified. Of the pregnant women investigated, a case of positive IgG marker was identified (Case 1) and another showed positive positivity (IgM-IgG-RNA) (Case 2), being described in both cases the symptomatic picture in the first gestational trimester. In these cases, the newborns were positive only for the IgG marker. This is the first study to investigate the occurrence of CHIKV in the state of Goiás, showing a low circulation of CHIKV in our region, especially in the pregnant population. The information obtained reinforces the importance of studies in this population, in order to better understand the profile of this infection in pregnant women, as well as to contribute to the understanding of aspects associated with the pathogeny of this agent. ItemInvestigação dos efeitos do treinamento com ß-glucana no controle da infecção por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis em camundongos C57BL/6 transgênicos para interleucina 32ƴ humana(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-03-08) Figueiredo, Ana Marina Barroso de; Dias, Fátima Ribeiro; http://lattes.cnpq.br/5741031258926403; Dias, Fátima Ribeiro; Galdino Junior, Hélio; Gomes, Clayson MouraB-glucan induces trained innate immunity in monocytes/macrophages. Studies suggest that IL-32 is involved in mecanisms important for the control of L. braziliensis and transgenic mouse for the human IL-32 gene (IL-32) is a model for evaluating the functions of this cytokine. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the effect of -glucan training on the control of Leishmania braziliensis infection in IL-32Tg or wild-type (WT) mice. The mice were trained with -glucan and infected with L. braziliensis in the paw (105 or 106 parasites). We evaluated: lesion size, parasite load, histopathological characteristics, cytokines in macerated of the infected paws, lymph node and bone marrow cell cultures. Macrophages were derived from bone marrow precursors from WT or IL-32Tg animals after training in vivo and infected with L. braziliensis to evaluate phagocytosis and leishmanicidal activity. In IL-32Tg mice infected with 105 parasites, when compared to WT animals, -glucan training led to an increase in lesion size on week 3 of infection, associated with an increased inflammatory process and increased production of interferon gamma (IFN); and less parasitic load and less intense inflammatory process after 8 weeks of infection. In bone marrow cell cultures of IL-32Tg animals, 7 days after -glucan injection, there was an increase in IL-1production after stimulation with Leishmania antigens. The phagocytic activity of macrophages from IL-32Tg animals trained with -glucan was higher than that of trained WT animals, but the ability to control infection was similar. Data with inoculum of 105 parasites suggest that IL-32 enhances the effects of ItemEscherichia coli, adenovírus e enterovírus em amostras de água consumida em áreas rurais de Goiás(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-06-23) Lima, Fernando Santos; Carneiro, Lilian Carla; http://lattes.cnpq.br/6506744224041777; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Santos, Mônica de Oliveira; Gabriel, Ellen Flávia Moreira; Gama, Aline RodriguesThe rural environment lacks basic sanitation services. Thus, the water supply and sewage disposal facilities are often under the initiative of each resident, who may not have the financial resources and technical knowledge to build and keep them functioning properly. Thus, water for human consumption is subject to fecal contamination and, consequently, to the presence of waterborne pathogens, such as enteric viruses. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fecal contamination of water samples from individual sources used for household supply in rural areas of the State of Goiás. The samples were collected from 86 homes, distributed in 15 communities, whose water sources were tubular wells, dug wells, springs, surface waters and rainwater. Escherichia coli (EC) bacteria, analyzed by the defined chromogenic substrate method, and the enteric virus human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EV), analyzed by qPCR, were used as fecal contamination indicators. It was observed that 90.7% of the samples showed indications of fecal contamination. Detection rates were 74.4% for EC, 57% for HAdV and 9.3% for EV. The concentration averages of these indicators were, respectively, 8.34 x 101 NMP / 100mL, 8.6 x 105 CG / L and 9.75 x 105 CG / L. The EC indicator was the most prevalent in ground and surface water samples. The HAdV indicator was significantly more detected in groundwater samples than in surface water and was more efficient in indicating contamination in tubular wells. In cistern samples, viral indicators were the most prevalent. There was no association of frequencies or correlation of concentrations between EC and HAdV. HAdV indicated human fecal contamination and performed well as a complementary indicator. These results reveal that the analyzed population is vulnerable to waterborne diseases caused by enteric pathogens. ItemCo-encapsulação do trans-cinamaldeído e do fluconazol em nanopartículas de quitosana para o tratamento tópico da candidíase vulvovaginal(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-04-03) Sousa, Paulo Henrique Dantas de; Amaral, André Corrêa; http://lattes.cnpq.br/8801299423520104; Amaral, André Corrêa; Alves, Suzana Ferreira; Silva, Luís Antônio DantasVulvovaginal candidiasis is an infection caused by fungi of the genus Candida. The increased incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis maybe related to the advancement of chronic and immunosuppressive diseases along with the emergence of new mechanisms of fungal resistance. The objective of the present work was to prepare and characterize chitosan nanoparticles containing fluconazole and trans-cinnamaldehyde co-encapsulated for the topical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The empty nanoparticles, fluconazole, trans-cinnamaldehyde and coencapsulated were prepared using the ionotropic gelling technique. The nanoparticles were characterized as to their average size and polydispersity index by the dynamic light scattering technique. The surface charge of the nanoparticles was obtained by the electrophoretic migration technique. The empty nanoparticles had an average size of 448,9 ± 32,9 nm, PdI of 0,4 ± 0,1 and a surface load of 31 ± 0,4 mV, the nanoparticles of fluconazole exhibited an average size of 175,3 ± 8,9 nm, PdI of 0,2 ± 0,01, surface load of 33,2 ± 0,3 mV and encapsulation efficiency of 37,5% ± 3,1. Trans-cinnamaldehyde nanoparticles showed an average size of 352,6 ± 71,6 nm, PdI of 0,4 ± 0,05, surface load of 44,6 ± 3,7 mV and encapsulation efficiency of 44,6 % ± 3,7 and the coencapsulated nanoparticles had an average size of 234,5 ± 60,2 nm, PdI of 0,4 ± 0,07, surface load of 33,2 ± 0,5 mV and encapsulation efficiency of 56,8% ± 3 for fluconazole and 46,1% ± 5,1 for trans-cinnamaldehyde. The scanning electron microscopy of the nanoparticles presented an oval shape. The nanoparticles had their antifungal efficacy against the strain of C. albicans ATCC 10231 investigated by means of the minimum inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution technique. The fluconazole nanoparticle showed antifungal efficacy with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 μg/mL and the trans-cinnamaldehyde was effective in the concentration of 75 μg/mL. The coencapsulated nanoparticle exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 μg/mL for fluconazole and 37,5 μg/mL for trans-cinnamaldehyde. The coencapsulated nanoparticle exhibited the same minimal inhibitory concentrations as the fluconazole and trans-cinnamaldehyde nanoparticles. As for in vitro toxicity, nanoparticles were considered non-toxic. Regarding the in vivo toxicity test, only the empty nanoparticles exhibited a cytotoxic effect. All groups of nanoparticles proved to be effective in inhibiting fungal growth. ItemFluconazol e própolis co-encapsulados em nanopartículas mucoadesivas para o tratamento da candidíase vulvovaginal(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-04-03) Silva, Jacqueline Teixeira da; Alves, Suzana Ferreira; http://lattes.cnpq.br/9799183444893510; Amaral, André Corrêia; http://lattes.cnpq.br/8801299423520104; Amaral, André Corrêia; Costa, Carolina Rodrigues da; Pereira, MaristelaVulvovaginal Candidiasis is the second most common infection in women of childbearing age, in about 70 to 90% of cases; the associated etiologic agent is C. albicans. The increase in the incidence of non-albicans species has led to the emergence of cases of resistance to antifungals, which is why the importance of new approaches in treatment. The objective of the present work was to develop and test in vivo a nanostructured system containing fluconazole and Green Propolis for the treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. The nanoparticles containing Fluconazole and Green Propolis were prepared following the technique of ionic gelation and presented satisfactory physical characteristics for the intended purpose. The association efficiency for the complexed compounds was performed using the technique of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometry. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) for Fluconazole, Green Propolis and nanoparticles were determined, showing efficacy for use and fungistatic action on C. albicans ATCC 10231. Release analyzes of up to 72 hours with stabilization up to 96 hours were verified in the nanoparticles. The toxicity tests by hemolysis and Galleria mellonella, demonstrated positive results for propolis and negative for nanoparticles, suggesting safety in their use in a method with a murine model. In vivo tests were performed with an indication of efficacy for the proposed formulation. ItemMapeamento imunoinformático de regiões conservadas da proteína hexon de adenovírus humano(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-17) Anjos, Déborah Carolina Carvalho dos; Souza, Menira Borges de Lima Dias e; http://lattes.cnpq.br/0054562567103606; Souza, Menira Borges de Lima Dias e; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves da; Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo AraújoHuman Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are important infectious agents associated with high incidence, morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, such as those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (allo-TCPH). HAdVs belong to the family Adenoviridae, genus Mastadenovirus, and further classified into seven species (A-G) and 103 genotypes, characterized so far. The HAdV capsid consists mainly of the hexon protein, which has four highly conserved regions (CR1 - 4) that are known for their immunogenic potential, being one of the main targets of the T and B cell-mediated anti-HAdV immune response. The aim of the present study was to perform the mapping of potentially immunogenic epitopes, located in the HAdV hexon CRs and to evaluate the HAdV infection in patients undergoing allo-TCPH. To this end, predictions of T and B cell epitopes and IFN-γ induction were performed, considering 101 HAdV genotypes with sequences available in databases. The most conserved and best classified epitopes were then selected by the prediction programs to perform the molecular docking analysis with HLA alleles of the study population, consisting of nine adult patients undergoing allo-TCPH. It was also carried out the HAdV research by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the patient's serum samples. As a result, regions containing overlapping T and B cell epitopes were obtained and, based on immunoinformatics analysis (prediction and molecular docking), two peptides with high conservation and immunogenic potential were designed. Nine patients were positive for HAdV by qPCR TaqMan, with the average viral load found in the serum samples of the study population being 6.71x1011 CG / mL. The genomic sequencing of the positive samples returned sequences that showed 100% similarity with sequences of the HAdV C hexon protein, deposited in a database. The present study allowed the mapping of the main immunogenic regions located in the CRs of the HAdV hexon, as well as the construction of two peptides that will be used in future studies to evaluate the immune response of patients undergoing allo-TCPH, participating in the present study. ItemParticipação e regulação de macrófagos na malária experimental(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-07-01) Tomé, Fernanda Dias; Nagib, Patrícia Resende Alo; http://lattes.cnpq.br/7172668220681444; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves da; Celes, Mara Rubia Nunes; Nagib, Patrícia Resende AloMalaria is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium sp., which is capable of infecting red blood and liver cells. Profile Th1 and Th2 cells play an important role and can determine whether there is an effective response or increased sensitivity to the disease. Several factors may act on these cells and influence the immune response, such as leptin hormone, which in high concentrations stimulates Th1 cells and consequently M1 macrophages; on the other hand, leptin low levels may favor Th2 profile and M2 macrophages polarization. The macrophages role in the experimental fatal malaria is not clearly described. Thus, this work aimed evaluate the regulation of M1 and M2 macrophages during infection with P. berghei NK65 in vitro and regulatory mechanisms, leptin and cytokines in BALB / c mice. The animals were infected with iRBCs / P. berghei and euthanized at 4; 7 or 14 d.p.i. Every two days, the mice were weighed and parasitemia was estimated; it assessed the weight of the perigonadal fat, liver and spleen for index analysis thereof, as well as macroscopic of these organs. It was performed spleen and liver histological analysis and tissue extract was transferred to cytokine assay by ELISA. Serum leptin was determined by ELISA. M1 and M2 macrophages were differentiated and placed, in vitro, in the presence of infected mice erythrocytes to evaluate phagocytosis, elimination of the parasite, urea and NO production. Our data showed that the infection led to hepatosplenomegaly, fat loss and tissue damage. Initially infection by P. berghei led to increasing leptin and Th1 cytokines, followed by a immunoregulation and increasing IL-4 and IL-10 that characterize the regulation and Th2 polarization at 14 day after infection. In vitro, infected erythrocytes were able to induce a M2 macrophages regulation, causing the same to produce NO, a characteristic molecule of M1 macrophages. Despite the NO production, there was no decrease in infection rate, indicating escapement mechanism. These data together with previous data from our group show that the experimental malaria is able to induce immunomodulation and change macrophages profiles, and that this is due to polarization of cytokine response that is directly influenced by the leptin hormone; causing tissue damage and leading to high levels of parasitaemia, perpetuating the infection and subsequent death. ItemStaphylococcus aureus isolados da nasofaringe de crianças que frequentam creches no município de Goiânia-GO: prevalência de colonização, suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e fatores de virulência(Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-02-15) Santana, Fernando Gomes Pereira; Cardoso, Juliana Lamaro; http://lattes.cnpq.br/0768752229180519; André, Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfirio Borges; http://lattes.cnpq.br/1475834090578722; André, Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfirio Borges; Ternes, Yves Mauro Fernandes; Carneiro, Lilian CarlaStaphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens, accounting for infectious diseases that can range from simple infections to serious complications such as meningitis and sepsis, reaching tod eath. S. aureus naturally colonizes the human anterior nostril and has a high spreading power, which may be potentiated according to some external factors, such as the case of children attending day care centers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus colonization in children between 36 and 59 months, the profile of antimicrobial susceptibility and to detect virulence factors in the isolated bacteria. From October to December 2010, swabs of nasal secretion from children in 59 Municipal Centers of Early Childhood Education were collected in the city of Goiânia, Goiás The samples were sent to the Laboratory of Applied Bacteriology of Tropical Pathology and Public Health at the Federal University of Goias for processing. The isolation was performed by standardized methodology. The conventional PCR was used for detection of femA (identification of the species) and mecA and lukS-F genes (virulence factors). The susceptibility profile was determined by disk diffusion and Etest® method. In total, 1,135 swabs were collected. A prevalence of 30.7% (348 isolates) was achieved for S. aureus. Through the antimicrobial susceptibility test, isolates showed resistance to the following antimicrobials: penicillin (94.5%), quinupristin / dalfopristin (35.6%), erythromycin (34.1%), clindamycin (28.6%), sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim (9.9%), tetracycline (6.1%), ciprofloxacin (4.7%), cefoxitin (3.5%) and rifampicin (0.9%). The MLSb phenotype was detected em 93 isolates (27.1%). Among the 12 isolates resistant to cefoxitin, five (0.44%) presented the mecA gene, characterized as MRSA. The multidrug resistance profile was identified in 107 isolates (31.2%). Gene lukS-F was found in 26 isolates (7.5%). The results showed that the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA colonization in children at this age remain constant compared to previous studies. However, the multidrug resistance that was found in 1⁄4 of the isolates and the detection of the gene that encodes the PVL are cause for concern because represent difficulty of treatment, increased virulence and risk of dissemination in the community that the daycare environment provides.