Grandes rios e a distribuição de Odonata na Amazônia: similaridade de composição, limitação à dispersão e endemismo.
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
The forests of Amazon Basin contain the most part of species diversity in the world. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin and maintenance of this great diversity, based mainly in mechanisms of migration, speciation and environmental constraints imposed by environment to the organisms. One of these hypotheses is the Theory of River Hypothesis, proposed by Alfred Russell Wallace during his studies in the Neotropical region, which relates variation in species richness with large rivers, suggesting that these rivers serve as a barrier preventing the dispersal of organisms. Thus, this study aimed to know the distribution and pattern of species diversity of Odonata community present in the interfluve areas of large rivers of Amazon Basin, and evaluate if this distribution corresponds to the Theory of Rivers Hypothesis, testing 1) the relative importance of the biogeographic history and of ecological hypotheses to explain the endemism patterns in interfluve areas of Amazonian biome in Brazil; 2) if the pattern of species distribution in interfluve areas of large Amazonian rivers is supported by the Theory of Rivers Hypothesis; and 3) the relative importance of spatial and environmental features in variation of adult Odonata community composition. To test this, were carried out samplings in 92 igarapés distributed in five interfluve regions, and occurrence data of species based in recent literature compilations, museums and other studies carried out in the region were also collected. Results showed that: 1) the environmental similarity can be considered the main feature in the Odonata distribution, possibly due to environmental specificity developed during the long history of some clades in this system. The group with the smaller dispersal ability, Zygoptera, retained more biogeographic information on possible historical features that determine the current distribution. The great vagility of Anisoptera may have facilitated the crossing of rivers. The transport of larvae through macrophyte banks, the lateral change of river course and the inversion of basin drainage system can be explanations for the absence of isolation effect on species groups studied. 2) Rivers did not show any effect of dispersal barrier to the distribution of species, probably because of the dispersal ability of species, mainly Anisoptera, together with the lateral migration of river channels, macrophyte banks, and rivers with presence of many meanders, which would promote dispersal, diluting the barrier effect. 3) Environmental and geographical features are important to determine the patterns of beta diversity among studied sites. The effect found varied considerably between the two suborders. The initial similarity was higher for Zygoptera. For the geographical distance necessary to reach the half of similarity (halving distance), the results were higher for Anisoptera. Ecological requirements and dispersal ability of species can explain the environmental and spatial effects on beta diversity. Variation found between the suborders can be due to the different requirements of species, which can be related to body size. Smaller species may be more sensitive to environmental variations by ecophysiological constraints. If we consider the frequency of endemism between these groups (Chapters 1 and 2), Zygoptera and the families with species with smaller body size (Coenagrionidae and Protoneuridae) may be considered as priority focus for conservation strategies or as surrogates for selection of priority areas for conservation of this group, and, assuming the scarce amount of biogeographical information of Amazonia, also for other invertebrate groups.
JUEN, Leandro. Large Rivers and the distribution in Amazon: Similarity of composition,dispersal constraints and endemism.. 2011. 201 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências Biológicas - Biologia) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2011.