Doutorado em Ecologia e Evolução (ICB)

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    Efeitos espaciais e ambientais sobre diferentes medidas de diversidade beta em ecossistemas continentais
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-10-30) Rezende, Breno Laio Medeiros de; Melo, Adriano Sanches;; Melo, Adriano Sanches; Granzotti, Rafaela Vendrametto; Terribile, Levi Carina; Becker, Fernando Gertum; Teresa, Fabrício Barreto
    It has been many years since the term beta diversity has been the subject of discussion and application in Ecology studies, and apparently its methodological approaches and applications seems to be inexhaustible, as different measures of beta diversity have emerged over the years. The first chapter of this thesis is a systematic review in which I investigated whether the amplitude of environmental differences is responsible for influencing effect sizes in studies that assessed the relationship between beta dissimilarity and environmental variables in freshwater environments. According to the results obtained, the amplitude does not seem to influence effect sizes. In the second chapter I investigate whether dispersal costs effects in lotic metacommunities are responsible for determining the beta dissimilarity of fishes. The results revealed the influence of dispersal costs associated with distances between locations along rivers and streams for three basins, while dispersal costs represented by the combination of distances and channel slope were only observed in a single basin. Furthermore, for one of the river basins, the influence of dispersal costs was represented by mutual effects of the distance between locations and the total area of reservoirs formed by dams between locations. In the third chapter I investigate whether the latitudinal gradient is responsible for influencing the relationships between environmental differences and beta dissimilarity obtained in square cell format for the entire continent of America using records of distribution of terrestrial birds and mammals. Beta dissimilarity in both terrestrial birds and mammals was explained by environmental variables, but only the relationship between environmental differences and beta diversity of mammals appears to be influenced by latitudinal patterns.
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    Modelos mecanicistas para entender dinâmicas populacionais e adaptação termal como fatores emergentes
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-11-30) Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Klein de; Marco Júnior, Paulo De;; Marco Júnior, Paulo De; Silva, Daniel de Brito Cândido da; Prado, Paulo Inácio de Knegt López de; Paglia, Adriano Pereira; Andrade, André Felipe Alves de
    At first, I review the effects of temperature on organisms and higher levels of biological organization in the first chapter. After that, in the second chapter, my goal was to develop an IBM that predicts realistic population dynamics in different temperature regimes, and that can be general enough to account for the responses of a variety of species. I used theoretical knowledge of thermal ecology, coupled with some principles of dynamic energy budget theory to reach realistic population outcomes for generated random species. After those models were complete, in the third chapter, I incorporated variability and heritability in the organisms’ thermal traits, so that it was be possible to glimpse on the possibilities for fast adaptation to abrupt changes in temperature. A mechanistic approach to those questions can be important for theoretical developments, and may open possibilities to understanding of other questions related to models’ assumptions and predictions.
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    Extinção, descrição de espécies e estratégias de conservação da biodiversidade
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-08-31) Moreira, Mateus Atadeu; Ribeiro, Matheus de Souza Lima;; Ribeiro, Matheus de Souza Lima; Terribile, Levi Carina; Nomura, Fausto; Faleiro, Frederico Augusto Martins Valtuille; Bernardo, Paulo Vitor dos Santos
    In the first chapter of this thesis, we evaluated the main trends and patterns of spatio-temporal research associated with analytical articles (articles in which researchers performed spatial prioritization analyzes using real data) on Systematic Conservation Planning. In the second chapter of this thesis we briefly review what we know about some patterns, possible causes and consequences of mammalian extinction over the last 126,000 years. We also briefly discuss the knowledge gaps and methodological challenges we face in studying such extinctions. In the third chapter of this thesis, we investigate the balance between described, extinct and categorized as endangered species within Tetrapoda. Our data show 519 extinct tetrapods in 519 years and 6673 species receiving threatened status in 56 years (1965-2021) (119.16 spp/year). When we count the number of species that went extinct before, in the same year, or a few years after their description (up to 20 years later) we have 318 species. The distribution of years of description of these 318 species is concentrated in recent years (from the 1970s to the 2000s). Our results corroborate what other researchers have found: recently described species (and therefore very likely undescribed species as well) are at greater risk than other species. Many species are likely to become extinct without ever having been described. Investing in intensive research targeting areas with high diversity of undescribed species in tropical areas can be of great help to protect species with small populations and small distribution sizes that face severe threats.
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    Macroecologia evolutiva de morcegos do Novo Mundo: uma abordagem filogenética
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-08-28) Fortunato, Danilo de Siqueira; Diniz Filho, José Alexandre Felizola;; Camacho, Crisóforo Fabricio Villalobos;; Camacho, Crisóforo Fabricio Villalobos; Lima, André Felipe Barreto; Martínez, Pablo Ariel; Maestri, Renan; Faleiro, Frederico Augusto Martins Valtuille
    Macroecology studies ecological patterns on large spatial scales, at these scales the main source of information is the geographical distribution of species. From the distribution of species emerge spatial patterns of richness, geographic range size, and endemism. Recently, evolutionary macroecology has been proposing a new approach to macroecological patterns of biodiversity when using metrics that combine the effect of time accumulation with the basic element of macroecology, the area of distribution of the species. In this thesis, we explore how another perspective of the biodiversity patterns can be obtained using phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism and how the evolutionary response of distribution sizes changes between parts of the phylogeny. First, we tested how beta diversity can evince ecological and evolutionary processes that act with different intensity along spatial scales and are determinants of the geographical pattern of biodiversity. We find that when we consider only small-scale phylogenetic diversity, beta diversity is important for increasing diversity in the tropics. On larger scales, and for species richness on all scales, the diversity gradient is determined by an effect of species removal in areas with a more seasonal temperature towards the subtropical region. We tested the effect of climate stability in the past as a determinant of the phylogenetic endemism pattern, that captures the accumulation of evolutionary time in a restricted distribution area, in more stable regions throughout the glacial cycles. We find that more stable areas presented deeper phylogenetic endemism, and also that areas of paleo-endemism are concentrated in more stable areas than areas of mixed endemism. However, areas of neo-endemism are located in stable areas surounded by unstable regions and areas of super endemism are located in climatically stable areas that present conditions of isolation by distances, as in the Caribbean islands. Lastly, we tested how the historical origin of groups can affect the range size evolution in relation to the climatic attribute of the species niches. We found that species of groups of temperate origin tend to have larger range sizes in colder and seasonal areas, following a Rapoport effect as a function of climate variability. Conversely, species of groups of tropical origin tend to broaden their range sizes in less seasonal areas, presenting a pattern contrary to the Rapoport effect, indicating a historical effect, determined by a trend of phylogenetic conservatism of ancestral climate preferences. Thus, in this thesis, we show some alternatives of how to integrate the main geographic patterns of biodiversity through an evolutionary macroecology approach based on phylogenies for a better understanding of macroecological and macroevolutionary processes.
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    Avaliação da importância de vertebrados e invertebrados carniceiros na dinâmica local e global de remoção de carcaças de vertebrados
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-08-16) Rocha, Joedison dos Santos; Carvalheiro, Luisa Mafalda Gigante Rodrigues;; Almeida Neto, Mário;; Almeida Neto, Mário; Nabout, João Carlos; Lopes, Welinton Ribamar; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Carlucci, Marcos Bergmann
    Vertebrate carcasses compose the pool of dead organic matter in the ecosystems, highlighting as a food resource for a plethora of living organisms, from microorganisms to large vertebrates. A decomposition island is established when a vertebrate dies, altering the nutrient inputs and diversity of microorganisms in the soil, as well as the composition of plant communities. Scavenger animals (invertebrates and vertebrates) are responsible for recycling nutrients from carcasses, thus preventing dead animals from accumulating in natural environments. Therefore, scavengers act both in the large-scale distribution of nutrients and in sanitation and ecosystem health. Despite this, there are several gaps regarding how these scavenger groups affect the dynamics of carcass removal and their effects on ecosystem functioning. Even basic information such as which species are involved in the removal process is scarce in the literature. The present thesis aimed to elucidate the local and global importance of vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers for: a) removal efficiency; b) nutrient cycling; and c) disease control in vertebrate carcasses, as well as d) interactions between both groups. First, an experiment using caged and uncaged carcasses (n=16) was conducted in a well-conserved Cerrado area to test the effect of loss of vertebrate actions on removal time and nutrient inputs to the soil. After 10 days, all carcasses were removed by vultures and invertebrates, without difference between treatments, suggesting that invertebrates can compensate for the absence of vertebrates. Also, the experiment showed that potassium and magnesium inputs increase in the soil around carcasses when vertebrates are absent. Besides the typical scavenger species (necrophagous flies and vultures), carcasses were largely visited by opportunistic or facultative species (e.g. wasps, butterflies, and mammals). From two global systematic reviews, we observed that the complementary activity of vertebrates and invertebrates ensures high removal efficiency compared to carcasses removed experimentally in the absence of vertebrates. Furthermore, vertebrate communities that are highly efficient in removing carcasses are typically composed of few species (<10 spp.) and higher proportion of birds. This result highlighted the functionally unique contribution provided by vultures and crows across the world. Finally, based on a model relating scavenger vertebrates to cases of zoonoses, a higher prevalence of anthrax was associated with a high diversity of facultative scavengers (e.g. eagles and mammalian carnivores), but not with the richness of vultures. Thus, the study demonstrated that vertebrate diversity represents an important factor in carcass removal efficiency. However, invertebrates can outperform vertebrate functions in certain contexts, as observed in the Cerrado. The actions of both groups affect the rates of nutrient inputs from carcasses to the soil, while partially affecting the spread of zoonoses around the world.
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    Contribuição relativa de preditores de dispersão simétrica e assimétrica nos modelos de nicho ecológico em ambientes aquáticos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-07-26) Parreira, Micael Rosa; Nabout, João Carlos;; Ribeiro, Matheus de Souza Lima; Terribile, Levi Carina; Silva, Daniel de Paiva; Oliveira, Guilherme de; Nabout, João Carlos
    Species distribution models are based mainly on environmental (mostly climatic) and species distribution data to predict the potential distribution of species. In this sense, the species dispersal (i.e., movement) is often ignored in their predictions. In freshwater habitats, species dispersal is not restricted only by physical barriers but also by the directional movement of the hydrographic network, which can be considered through spatial predictors. Here, we aim to evaluate the effect of including asymmetrical dispersal predictors in the potential geographic distribution of a freshwater fish in the Tocantins-Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Furthermore, we aim to assess if the predictions using climatic and asymmetrical dispersal vary depending on multiple species occurrence distribution and range, and on the inclusion of hydropower plants as dispersal barriers in the predictions. For this, we built models with seven variable sets representing environmental (climatic) and dispersal models, as well as their interactions. The models’ accuracy metrics were then used to compare the performance of different model sets (e.g., asymmetrical and symmetrical dispersal and environmental predictors), the performance of multiple species models based on their occurrence distribution among sub-basins and range, and the effect of including dispersal barriers into the models. First, we found that the models with higher performance are those built using asymmetrical dispersal predictors, either solo or combined with environmental variables. Second, species more restricted had models with higher performance when modeled using asymmetrical dispersal predictors, especially when distributed in different sub-basins. Third, predictions including the hydropower plants as dispersal barriers showed a higher loss of species richness and composition, especially for the areas with the highest number of dams. Therefore, the inclusion of asymmetrical dispersal variables, taking into account dispersal limitations of species, decreased the overprediction to climatically suitable but disconnected areas through rivers. Furthermore, those models using asymmetrical dispersal better represented restricted species distributed in both sub-basins of the basin and also the effect of dispersal barriers in the fish species richness and composition along the basin. Therefore, future SDM studies, especially those using species groups with asymmetrical dispersal, should consider the inclusion of asymmetrical dispersal predictors to increase the model’s accuracy and ecological reality of predictions.
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    Sobre a ecomorfologia de girinos: as implicações funcionais da variação nas estruturas orais
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-03-26) Annibale, Fabiane Santana; Rossa-Feres, Denise de Cerqueira;; Nomura, Fausto;; Nomura, Fausto; Bastos, Rogério Pereira; Maciel, Natan Medeiros; Prado, Cynthia Peralta de Almeida; Pezzuti, Tiago Leite
    The role of morphology on animals’ ecology helps us understand the adaptive significance of variation in anatomical structures among species. However, for tadpoles the implications of variation in species morphology on resource use and partitioning among species are poorly understood. This thesis was elaborated in order to better understand tadpoles’ ecomorphology, and is divided into three chapters. The first chapter consists on a bibliographical review and a scientometric analysis on tadpoles’ ecomorphology. Through the data survey we described the tadpoles’ ecomorphological trajectory, quantified the scientific knowledge produced in this study area, and identified the main gaps that may guide future studies. We verified that ecomorphological studies on tadpoles have been increasing over time, with modifications in methodologies and new perspectives to understand the ecology and evolution of tadpoles. However, many of these studies are descriptive or investigate the phenotypic plasticity of larvae in response to predators. Thus, there are still many environmental factors to be explored, as well as the necessity of studying beyond inferences. As such, tadpoles’ ecomorphology will be able to help us understand the diversity of anuran larvae (i.e., ecology and evolution) and with conservation of these animals. Aiming to fill some of these gaps in knowledge, the second and third chapters correspond to researches on how variation in external oral morphology influences tadpoles’ ability to feed on substrates with different properties. In the second chapter we tested the performance of tadpoles feeding on substrates at different orientations. We found that species with similar oral morphology also have similar performances when feeding on substrates positioned at different orientations. Only species that occur at different depths in the environment varied in performance at a specific orientation (i.e. vertical). Among tadpoles that occur in the same place, but vary in terms of external oral morphology, whereas some species have high performances feeding on substrates regardless their orientation, other species are more efficient feeding at specific orientations of substrates. We concluded that these differences in performance may determine how tadpoles select and/or share resources in the environment. In the third chapter, we studied with more details the influence of variation in external oral morphology, testing the species performance when feeding on substrates with different textures. Differences in the number of labial tooth rows and in the marginal papillae configuration affected tadpoles’ grazing performance on substrates with different textures, indicating specializations of feeding behavior. In addition, we verified that tadpoles with the most common oral morphology among anuran larvae had the best performances in comparison to all the other species. This result may help explain the adaptive significance of morphological variation among anuran larvae.
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    Efeito da estrutura da paisagem na diversidade genética neutra e adaptativa de Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-10-26) Amaral, Tatiana Souza do; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar;; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia;; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; Marco Júnior, Paulo De; Lima, Natacia Evangelista de; Chaves, Lázaro José
    Understanding how the human-caused impacts and environmental heterogeneity caused by these changes affect genetic variability is essential for the preservation and planning of animal and plant species management. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of landscape changes on diversity and on the adaptive and neutral genetic differentiation of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae), an endemic species and tree symbol of Cerrrado. To do so, we selected five landscapes in regions near Goiânia, in the state of Goiás. Within each landscape, we selected two sample sites. To measure the structure of the landscape, we calculated metrics related to the amount of habitat, connectivity and heterogeneity in buffers of 2km, 4km and 6km that delimited the landscapes and in buffers of 500m around the sampling sites. In each site, we collect fruits of, on average, 10 mother-trees. The seeds of these fruits were measured (longitudinal diameter, transverse diameter and mass) and planted in a greenhouse. Afterwards, we performed character measurements of that were known to be important for the early stages of the plant, such as: percentage and germination time, initial and final heights, height growth rate, initial and final diameters, growth rate of diameter, number of leaves, leaf length and width, fresh and dry mass of root and shoot, root and shoot length. The experiment carried out in the greenhouse allowed us to access the quantitative genetic variability and the evolutionary potential of C. brasiliense in the sampled sites. Thus, in the first chapter, we evaluated the evolutionary potential of C. brasiliense in each sampled site and the effects of landscape structure on quantitative genetic variability. In the second chapter, we analyzed the effects of landscape structure on the diversity and genetic differentiation of adults and juveniles of C. brasiliense and verified if there is a time-lag of the effects of habitat change on the loss of genetic diversity in these landscapes. For this, in the same sites where we sampled the fruits, we collected leaves of adults and juveniles for DNA extraction. From the genotypes obtained using nine microsatellite loci, we access the neutral genetic diversity of C. brasiliense and relate it with the landscape metrics and the population effective size. From these analyzes, we found that functional connectivity was an important variable to explain the patterns observed in the quantitative genetic variability of most of the characters studied, such as those related to seeds, seedling diameter and leaf characters. The amount of habitat (%) was the variable that determined the patterns of genetic-quantitative differentiation for the growth rates of height and diameter, as well as being important to explain the neutral genetic diversity of juveniles. Intermediate levels of the amount of habitat had the highest values of allelic richness and heterozygosity expected for juveniles, while loss of genetic diversity, measured as the difference between adult and juvenile genetic diversity, was influenced by functional connectivity. The reduction of the genetic diversity detected mainly in juveniles evidences a time-lag effect, and corroborates with studies that affirm that species of long life, as C. brasiliense, require a long period of fragmentation so that the changes in heterozigosity are detected. In general, the movement of the pollinators and dispersers, and consequently the gene flow, is an important process in the maintenance of the evolutionary potential and genetic diversity of this species since functional connectivity was the most important variable influencing the neutral and adaptive genetic diversity of C. brasiliense. In this way, our results demonstrate that restoring or conserving habitat areas in key places that allow the connectivity of the landscape are essential for the conservation of this species.
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    Macroecologia e distribuição geográfica da tribo Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-02-26) Meyer, Leila; Lohmann, Lúcia Garcez;; Diniz Filho, José Alexandre Felizola;; Diniz Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Ribeiro, Matheus Souza Lima; Terribile, Levi Carina; Tessarolo, Geiziane; Alcantara, Suzana de Fátima
    Understanding geographical patterns of species diversity and their underlying processes is one of the major goals of biogeography and macroecology. This thesis contributes to this topic as its main aim was to investigate patterns in the distribution of species richness of the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae), the largest clade of Neotropical lianas with almost 400 species. Comparing two hull methods used to build species ranges (i.e., convex hull and alpha hull) (Chapter 1), we found that both methods can be considered as equivalent for mapping species richness patterns. However, the alpha hull is a more conservative approach that tends to reduce the chance of species range overestimation in comparison to the convex hull. We found that species ranges and the overall Bignonieae richness pattern respond similarly to environmental and spatial variables (Chapter 2), which suggests that the same process are acting to determine both species ranges and species richness in Bignonieae. Nonetheless, some species attributes reduced the congruence in ranges and richness response, such as: (i) lack of extrafloral nectaries, (ii) small to medium range sizes, and (iii) late-diverging species. We also found that canopy height is a main driver of richness patterns of liana species of the tribe (Chapter 3), in addition to climate and soil variables. However, the relationship of liana richness and canopy height changes according to the habitat where species occur. Lianas from forest and riparian habitats increase in number in taller canopies, while savanna lianas increase in shorter canopies. We noticed the distribution of species richness of the tribe is associated with the current distribution of forest and savanna habitats in the Neotropics, with a great species accumulation in forest habitats such as the Amazon and the Atlantic rainforests.
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    Teoria e métodos ecológicos e evolutivos aplicados a dados humanos: de diversidade biocultural à propagação de doenças
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-04-25) Borges, Christielly Mendonça; Rangel, Thiago Fernando Lopes Valle de Britto;; Rangel, Thiago Fernando Lopes Valle de Britto; Diniz Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco; Chacon, Thiago Costa; Silva, Bruno Vilela de Moraes e
    Traditionally, Homo sapiens have been an exclusive subject of study of the humanities. The resistance of natural scientists to study humans from an eco-evolutionary point of view is easily explained by the unfolding of the 20th century eugenics movement. Starting from the scientific advances on the low genetic variability between human populations and the spatial patterns of language diversity, the idea of a non-biological human diversity emerged, where humans form numerous cultural groups with complex global spatial and demographic patterns. In this thesis, we apply eco-evolutionary theories and methods to human data, focusing on different aspects of linguistic diversity, following a macroecological approach and also analyzing the propagation dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Chapter 1, we reviewed how the evolution of languages and species goes far beyond mere analogies and has accumulated a growing literature that supports these parallels at both micro and macroevolutionary scales. In Chapter 2 we created a dialect quiz to collect linguistic data from Brazilian Portuguese (BP), and thus complement existing data, fill in gaps and later demarcate the different BP dialects, reconstruct the immigration history in Brazil, and research the evolution of BP. In Chapter 3 we investigate the mechanisms responsible for linguistic diversity in the Neotropical region (Mexico, Central and South America). We created a spatially explicit mechanistic model that incorporates altitude, water resources, precipitation and population group size as mechanisms capable of predicting the pre-Columbian linguistic diversity observed on the continent. In Chapter 4, we used a SIR (Susceptible, Infected, Removed) epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of public policies of the state of Goiás in containing the spread of COVID-19 in its initial stage, between March and May 2020. In all chapters we successfully apply ecological theories and methods to data originated from humans, whether it's the language they speak or the virus that infects them. Therefore, we demonstrate how the methods and theories developed in biological disciplines can be applied to advance knowledge in the humanities, especially in linguistics and public administration. In this sense, we demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of multidisciplinary studies, especially for an object of study as complex as Homo sapiens.
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    Contingência histórica e o debate macroevolutivo generalismo especialismo
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-12-08) Lemes, Larissa Pereira; Rangel, Thiago Fernando Lopes Valle de Britto;; Carvalheiro, Luisa Mafalda Gigante Rodrigues; Terribile, Levi Carina; Faleiro, Frederico Augusto Martins Valtuille; Dala Corte, Renato Bolson; Rangel, Thiago Fernando Lopes Valle de Britto
    Contingent events are unpredictable phenomena happening along lineages evolutionary history. These events have huge impact on evolution’s course because it leads to historical contingency. Historical contingency is the term used to say that the evolutionary history of lineages and their descendants changes after it experiences random and unpredictable events. Accordingly, the several contingent events happening along history together with historical contingency led to several but unique evolutionary histories. Therefore, if historical contingency prevents lineages to respond evenly to drivers, why macroecologists and macroevolutionists search for global patterns? Here I show that ignoring local effects in the relationship between drivers and lineages evolutionary dynamics (i.e., non-stationarity) leads to contradictions, wrong conclusions and loss of information. On the first chapter of this thesis I show, through a review, traditional and well accepted macroecological theories commited and even invalidated by non-stationarity. I argue that every macroecological e macroevolutionary theories exhibit local effects and must consider them previously in theories formulation or during analyses. On the second and third chapter I show that the generalism-specialism macroevolutionary conundrum standing for over 150 years emerged due to non-stationarity neglecting. Specifically, I show in the second chapter that both evolution towards generalism and specialism is possible, conversely to what have been claimed until now. The surprisingly non verified role of geographic regions on lineages diet evolution allows both increasing and decreasing of the dietary niche breadth, with tropical lineages mostly evolving towards generalism and temperate lineages mostly evolving towards specialism. This result not only explains why generalism still exists but also lead to the proposition of a new and original theory for the species richness latitudinal gradient. On the third chapter I showed that space does also changes the relationship between species diet and their diversification rates. Generalism is correlated to higher speciation rates only in the tropics, with descendants conserving their ancestral’s generalist dietary niche and consequent maintenance of higher speciation rates in this region. I also show that traitdependent diversification theories are commited by phylogenetic non-stationarity due to their historical contingency. I argue that the future of trait-dependent diversification theories lies on, theoretically or analytically, relaxing the assumption of stationarity.
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    Meta-research in aquatic ecology
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-07-30) Spacek, Sara Lodi de Carvalho; Bini, Luis Mauricio;; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Carvalho, Priscilla de; Bortolini, Jascieli Carla; Michelan, Thaísa Sala; Vieira, Ludgero Cardoso Galli
    As revisões sistemáticas valorizam a transparência, a comunicação sistemática e a reprodutibilidade, e seguem orientações claras e diretas. É tão simples como sistematizar a revisão qualitativa, como o nome implica. Uma revisão quantitativa (ou meta-análise) também pode ser conduzida e vai um passo além ao fornecer apoio empírico para as conclusões. Utilizando esta técnica, podemos combinar estudos múltiplos e independentes, calculando um tamanho de efeito médio ponderado pela precisão do estudo, o que proporciona à análise um maior poder estatístico. Esta tese aborda a meta-análise como tema principal, e está dividida em três capítulos, todos relacionados com meta investigação em ambientes de água doce. No Capítulo 1, avaliei a qualidade das meta-análises em ecologia de água doce e fiz recomendações sobre como podemos aumentar a qualidade das meta-análises em ecologia aquática. Avaliei outra questão de qualidade no Capítulo 2, especificamente vieses de resultados positivos. No Capítulo 3 realizei uma meta-análise utilizando estudos de avaliação dos efeitos do uso do solo em ambientes de água doce nas escalas regional e local. Comparei as dimensões dos efeitos obtidos ao utilizar variáveis da paisagem local e terrestre. Curiosamente, também forneço um exemplo de um estudo com resultados negativos, uma vez que as minhas hipóteses não foram confirmadas. Acredito que esta tese irá expandir a visão dos limnólogos sobre as possibilidades da técnica meta-analítica aplicada ao nosso campo de investigação.
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    O papel da variação intraespecífica de atributos funcionais na estruturação de comunidades ecológicas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-09-15) Nobre, Paola Arielle Ferreira; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius;; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Nabour, João Carlos; Almeida Neto, Mário; Silvério, Divino Vicente; Loiola, Priscilla de Paula
    Variations in characteristics such as size, behavior and physiology among individuals of the same species are the raw material for natural selection. These characteristics are defined as functional attributes, which can directly or indirectly affect the individual performance and fitness of the species. As interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are based on individuals, this type of approach makes a major contribution to community ecology. A high intraspecific variation of an attribute may reflect on local adaptation, as a response to biotic interactions or environmental filtering. Here I explored aspects of intraspecific variation of functional attributes related to publication trends, abundance, geographic distribution of species, and establishment in contrasting environments based on information from individuals. In the first chapter, I studied the main trends in the scientific literature on intraspecific variation of functional attributes (intraspecific trait variation – ITV). I analyzed the number of publications, the main groups of organisms and attributes, and data collection methods. I found an upward trend in ITV publications. The main groups studied were vascular plants, insects, and fish. For the group of sessile organisms, the specific leaf area was the most analyzed attribute and for the group of non-sessile organisms, the body size. Observational data were predominant in both groups. For this review, I indicated the importance of collaborative processes between scientists, with the consolidation of databases as well as sampling protocols that allowed comparing and aggregating data, allowing the continuation of this growing number of articles on ITV allowing more ecological responses about organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. In the second chapter, I investigated the role of three determinants of species abundance. Using the specific leaf area (SLA) and data from 29 communities in seven countries, I tested whether the mean SLA values, the niche overlap between individuals of different species and the SLA ITV explained the abundance of species in the communities. I found that the most abundant species had low SLA and individuals with low niche overlap, this can be associated with resource conservation strategies and with reduced interspecific competition. In the third chapter, I studied the relationship between ITV and the geographic distribution of species using data from 554 species of native trees from the American continent and the intraspecific variation of functional attributes related to dispersal, establishment, and persistence strategies of plant species in communities (SLA, height and mass of seeds). I found that species with high values of intraspecific variation in specific leaf area and seed mass, and smaller variations in height, had larger geographic distributions. This result suggests that the variability of attribute values and environmental filters are key factors in determining ITV. Finally, in the fourth chapter, I investigated how intraspecific attribute variations differ between contrasting environments with different resource availability and environmental conditions, comparing the SLA ITV of 14 pairs of cospecific and cogeneric species between contrasting environments (semi-deciduous seasonal forests and savannas) in Brazilian cerrado. I found that species from seasonal semideciduous forests have higher SLA ITV than cospecific and cogeneric species in savannah environments. However, for wood density I did not find biologically relevant ITV. These results suggest an association between selection pressures due to competitive processes and environmental filtering in the establishment of cogeneric and cospecific species in these environments. With this study, I reaffirm the importance of using functional attributes at the scale of individuals to understand how communities are structured based on specific characteristics related to development strategies and species persistence in the environment.
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    Avaliação e síntese do estado de conservação da flora brasileira
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-08-31) Ribeiro, Bruno Roberto; Diniz Filho, Jose Alexandre Felizola; Loyola, Rafael Dias;; Loyola, Rafael Dias; Diniz Filho, Jose Alexandre Felizola; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini
    Brazil harbors the richest and perhaps the most endangered flora on the planet, and its effective conservation is still a significant challenge. In the first chapter of this Ph.D. dissertation, we thoroughly analyzed the extinction risk assessment process, highlighting its strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities to expand and streamline risk assessments. In the second chapter, we aggregated and developed a series of tools for integrating and analyzing the quality of species occurrence records in an R package. We exemplified its functionality by showing how errors and uncertainties in occurrence records change the species richness pattern of plants in Brazil. In the third chapter, we assessed how errors present in taxonomic, spatial, and temporal information from occurrence records can lead to erroneous classifications of the risk of extinction of plant species in Brazil. Our results indicate that high-quality data are needed for an accurate prediction of threatened species and that preliminary assessments can predict the extinction risk of non-threatened species even in the presence of taxonomic, geographic, and temporal issues. In the fourth chapter, we assessed the effectiveness of protected areas and indigenous lands in representing all known threatened plant species in Brazil. We found that between 10 and 33% of species are entirely outside protected areas. Finally, in the fifth chapter and in Appendix I, we presented outreach texts aimed at children describing in a simple and detailed way the risk assessment process and the current situation of threat experienced by species in Brazil. The results of this thesis point out avenues for a greater understanding and expansion of the extinction risk assessment process to enable the effective conservation of biodiversity.
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    Contrafactuais para estudos de avaliação de impacto em ecologia e biologia da conservação
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-16) Ribas, Luiz Guilherme dos Santos; Bini, Luis Mauricio;; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Brum, Fernanda Thiesen; Silva, Daniel De Brito Cândido da; Diniz Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Vieira, Ludgero Cardoso Galli
    Several impact analysis methods based on counterfactuals have been recurrently applied in different areas of knowledge. These methods, under different aspects, tend to give more accurate and precise estimates of the effect of a given intervention and potentially establish causal relationships more convincingly. Counterfactual methods seek, for example, an answer to the following question: what would be the rate of deforestation if an area had not been protected? When comparing counterfactual states with factual states, one can infer about causal relationships to understand how a given event impacts the outcomes in a system of interest. However, only recently and superficially these methods have been applied in Ecology and Conservation Biology. This thesis is divided into four chapters and aims to address the application of counterfactual methods in Ecology and Conservation Biology to estimate the impact of different interventions. The first chapter discusses the possibilities and implications of using counterfactuals in Aquatic Ecology and related areas. The second chapter consisted of a systematic review of the effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating deforestation. In addition, the estimates of effectiveness of protected areas (in avoiding deforestation) given by traditional and counterfactual methods were compared. The third chapter is a review of a set of methods used to estimate counterfactual states. The fourth chapter investigates the impact of the "Day of Fire" on forest fire rates in the Amazon region. In this chapter, new counterfactual approaches (directed acyclic graph and Bayesian structural time-series model), at least in Ecology and Conservation Biology, were applied. In general, this thesis aims to promote the use of counterfactual methods in the environmental area.
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    Estudo empírico, teórico e metodológico em macroecologia de interações ecológicas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-19) Higino, Gracielle Teixeira; Poisot, Timothée; Rangel, Thiago Fernando Lopes Valle de Britto;; Terribile, Levi Carina; Vital, Marcos Vinícius Carneiro; Costa, Paula Lemos da; Tessarolo, Geiziane; Rangel, Thiago Fernando Lopes Valle de Britto
    A set of interdependent factors, such as the limits of tolerance to environmental variables, the dispersing capacity of individuals and the evolutionary history of lineages determine the distribution of species on our planet. These factors act in different ways in different units of the ecosystem, affecting from the abundance of populations to the regional combination of possible interactions. By investigating the behaviour of biodiversity in different environmental scenarios and at different resolutions of observation, we can understand the history of nature and what can happen in the coming years. This thesis is an empirical, theoretical and methodological study on macroecology of interactions. The first chapter addresses the interface between evolutionary factors and the diversification of ecological networks within a meta-network structure of parasitism in Eurasia. The second chapter discusses the mechanisms, challenges, and opportunities of integrating ecological interactions into species distribution models. This discussion underpins a perspective of research lines with immense potential for the near future of Theoretical Ecology. The final chapter presents the theoretical and methodological foundations for the development of models based on individuals that would enable the investigation of the Eltonian noise hypothesis. Finally, the annexes of this thesis are composed of articles developed in parallel, but with the same theme: the first explains in a didactic way how species distribution modelling works, while the second is an extensive theoretical exercise on what is most recent in the methods of predicting ecological networks in space and time. By exploring the macroecology of interactions from such diverse perspectives, this thesis shows how beta-diversity and phylogenetic diversity tell complementary stories about the history of biodiversity of parasites and hosts, demonstrates how we can integrate potential interactions and models of the distribution of species and questions whether the effect of interactions on the distribution of biodiversity is actually null at large geographical scales.
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    Lacunas de conhecimentos e a conservação de marsupiais
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-05-31) Sousa, Nayara Pereira Rezende de; Tessarolo, Geiziane;; Silva, Daniel de Brito Cândido da;; Silva, Daniel de Brito Cândido da; Carneiro, Juliana Stropp; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; Bastos, Rogério Pereira; Silva, Priscila Lemes de Azevedo
    Conservation biology has a number of challenges, one of which is the loss of species. Human activities are the main cause of species loss in recent decades, impacting the diverse global ecosystems, causing fragmentation and overexploitation of habitats. If, on the one hand, there is an increasing loss of diversity at different levels of biological organization; on the other hand, there is still incomplete knowledge of biodiversity. In this context, maximizing the conservation of species diversity is a common objective in environmental research and public policies. One of the main conservation strategies in situ is to preserve or restore natural habitats that maintain maximum biodiversity, ecosystem processes and services. Despite the increase in protected areas, several studies have revealed the relative inefficiency of protected areas in representing biodiversity in general. In view of these challenges, the main objective of this work is to identify how knowledge gaps may be present in the scientific literature about planning for conservation (section 1), biodiversity - taxonomic wealth (section 2), in the use of this information to establish targets priorities for conservation (section 3) and species protection (section 4).
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    Padrões biogeográficos da especialização e distribuição de insetos herbívoros
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-25) Mamede, Angélica Francisca Mendes; Almeida Neto, Mário;; Araújo, Walter Santos de; Nabout, João Carlos; Cunha, Hélida Ferreira da; Santos, Carolina Moreno dos; Almeida Neto, Mário
    Some studies have questioned the theory that species are more specialized in biotic interactions in tropical regions. On the other hand, there are an increasing number of studies including biotic interactions to understand the distribution of species and their responses to climate change. Species distribution can be affected by factors linked to their ecological niche. However, biotic interactions are often associated with small spatial scales, while environmental conditions are associated with the distribution of species on a biogeographic scale. Using interaction networks compiled from the literature, I sought to understand: (i) the effect of different measures of specialization on the detectability of the relationship between latitude and feeding specialization of herbivorous insects; (ii) how the latitudinal distribution of frugivorous flies (Tephritidae) in the Americas is related to the specialization in the use of host plants and climatic seasonality; (iii) how climate change can alter the distribution of species of frugivorous flies of the genus Anastrepha spp. (modeled considering abiotic and biotic factors) and how the degree of specialization in plants can influence species responses to climate change. We found that secondary factors, related to the data sets, and not the difference in calculating the different indexes of specialization affected the specialization of herbivorous insects. Additionally, we observed no evidence of a relationship between the latitude and specialization of herbivorous insects after estimating different specialization indexes using the same data set. We also show that fruit flies species that occur at higher latitudes have smaller distribution ranges, thus contradicting the expectation according to the Rapoport effect. The breadth of latitudinal distribution were explained by the width of the feeding niche, seasonality in precipitation and the species origin (being native or introduced). Finally, we find that the Anastrepha fruit flies from the American continent will have their distributions increased as a result of climate change and this increase is related to the degree of specialization in host plants.
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    Dinâmica evolutiva do nicho ecológico em mamíferos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-27) Mendoza Rodriguez, Victor Hugo; Ribeiro, Matheus de Souza Lima;; Ribeiro, Matheus de Souza Lima; Terribile, Levi Carina; Faleiro, Frederico Augusto Martins Valtuille; Machado, Flávia de Figueiredo; Nabout, João Carlos
    The different environmental conditions and the evolutionary history of each region prevent a homogeneous species distribution worldwide, creating the observed richness and diversity pattern. What allows two species to share the same habitat? What allows species to settle in certain places than in others on the planet? At this thesis, I contrasted phylogenetic history versus functional information for 4480 terrestrial and marine species of extant mammals in three ecological niche scales that correspond to Robert H. Whittaker's hierarchical biodiversity scales: α (local), β (regional) and γ (geographic). Thus, Niche α includes the competition dynamics. Niche β, represents the environmental filters on the communities and niche γ is the geographical space represented by the biogeographical realms where species occur. In the first chapter, I partitioned the three niche scales to assess evolutionary dynamics within scales, expected an evolutionary gradient, with the α scale as the most evolutionary labile, and the γ scale as the most conserved. For all species, I gathered ecological traits of diet, diel activity, and strata use for the α scale, environmental tolerances, and habitat types, for the β scale, and for the biogeographic realm where each species occurs the γ scale. I correlated the traits at each scale with phylogenetic distance for all mammals and subsequently for seventeen individual orders. Contrary to expectations, the α scale showed higher evolutionary divergence, suggesting the most conservative dynamics and the β scale the most labile. In the second chapter, I analyzed how the evolutionary dynamics of the niche scales are structured in the global geographic space. I expected more evolutionary conservatism in tropical latitudes at all three scales and higher lability as they approach the poles, both in terrestrial and marine species. Terrestrial mammals exhibited the expected pattern; however, marine species showed the opposite pattern, with a higher conservatism in high latitudes. In the third chapter, I explored the evolutionary dynamics of niche scales concerning critical climatic variables (low temperatures, high elevations, and low availability of water energy) versus regions with stable conditions. I expected differential environmental filtering for α, β, and γ scales, where species with similar niches converge under similar environmental conditions. Finally, as a fourth chapter, I carried out a systematic mapping about the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), analyzing the Spatio-temporal trend of the scientific literature, identifying the most relevant countries and institutions in scientific production for this topic.
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    Experimentação e replicabilidade em ecologia aquática
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-31) Santos, Letícia Pereira dos; Carvalho, Priscilla de;; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Bortolini, Jascieli Carla; Carneiro, Fernanda Melo; Lopes, Vanessa Guimarães; Carvalho, Priscilla de
    Experimentation in ecology has been widely addressed by researchers due to its ability to control environmental and biological effects of interest, and thus obtain more robust scientific evidence. However, in recent years there has been a growing debate about the “reproducibility crisis” in science. The main issue in the lack of reproducibility of the results is the failure of the scientific theory validation process that occurs through the accumulation of evidence by Works replicated by several researchers. Considering the continental aquatic ecosystems, for example, in the last decades, several experiments have sought to explain the consequences generated by changes in the composition and wealth of communities on ecosystem functions and services. Thus, within the context of experimental replication in ecology of continental aquatic environments, the present study had as objectives, divided into three chapters: (i) to evaluate experimental studies in aquatic ecology through a systematic review; (ii) discuss the replicability and reproducibility of the most prominent experiments in aquatic ecology and (iii) quantify the global effect of biodiversity on the functioning of continental aquatic ecosystems through a meta-analysis. In general, the themes addressed experimentally in aquatic ecology are quite diverse and dynamic over time. In the first decades there was an increase in the number of new topics developed through experiments. In recent decades, researchers have sought to focus mainly on replicating the different dimensions of ecological questions that were initially tested. It is important to note, however, that the confirmation or not of the original results of the experiments in aquatic ecology occurs at different levels of secondary replication. Exact replications, for example, do not exist, since there is always, to some degree, heterogeneity between studies. On the other hand, in general, the original questions replicated can be generalized to other organisms and ecosystems. However, at the same time it is necessary caution when interpreting generalizations in nature, due to the different conditions of heterogeneity that the experiments are manipulated. Although it is known that biodiversity improves the functioning of ecosystems, due to several experimental evidences that corroborate this premise, given the different experimental conditions that a given hypothesis test of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning may occur, the effect of this relationship may be overestimated or underestimated when jointly comparing individual results in a meta analytical synthesis. In general terms, the ecological issues addressed in the experiments are replicated at different levels, considering different conceptual and methodological approaches to reproduce similar results and search for ecological patterns.