Macroecologia evolutiva de morcegos do Novo Mundo: uma abordagem filogenética

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


Macroecology studies ecological patterns on large spatial scales, at these scales the main source of information is the geographical distribution of species. From the distribution of species emerge spatial patterns of richness, geographic range size, and endemism. Recently, evolutionary macroecology has been proposing a new approach to macroecological patterns of biodiversity when using metrics that combine the effect of time accumulation with the basic element of macroecology, the area of distribution of the species. In this thesis, we explore how another perspective of the biodiversity patterns can be obtained using phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism and how the evolutionary response of distribution sizes changes between parts of the phylogeny. First, we tested how beta diversity can evince ecological and evolutionary processes that act with different intensity along spatial scales and are determinants of the geographical pattern of biodiversity. We find that when we consider only small-scale phylogenetic diversity, beta diversity is important for increasing diversity in the tropics. On larger scales, and for species richness on all scales, the diversity gradient is determined by an effect of species removal in areas with a more seasonal temperature towards the subtropical region. We tested the effect of climate stability in the past as a determinant of the phylogenetic endemism pattern, that captures the accumulation of evolutionary time in a restricted distribution area, in more stable regions throughout the glacial cycles. We find that more stable areas presented deeper phylogenetic endemism, and also that areas of paleo-endemism are concentrated in more stable areas than areas of mixed endemism. However, areas of neo-endemism are located in stable areas surounded by unstable regions and areas of super endemism are located in climatically stable areas that present conditions of isolation by distances, as in the Caribbean islands. Lastly, we tested how the historical origin of groups can affect the range size evolution in relation to the climatic attribute of the species niches. We found that species of groups of temperate origin tend to have larger range sizes in colder and seasonal areas, following a Rapoport effect as a function of climate variability. Conversely, species of groups of tropical origin tend to broaden their range sizes in less seasonal areas, presenting a pattern contrary to the Rapoport effect, indicating a historical effect, determined by a trend of phylogenetic conservatism of ancestral climate preferences. Thus, in this thesis, we show some alternatives of how to integrate the main geographic patterns of biodiversity through an evolutionary macroecology approach based on phylogenies for a better understanding of macroecological and macroevolutionary processes.



FORTUNATO, D. S. Macroecologia evolutiva de morcegos do Novo Mundo: uma abordagem filogenética. 2019. 159 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ecologia e Evolução) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2019.