Aptidão agrícola, mudanças de usos dos solos, conflitos e impactos diretos e indiretos da expansão da cana-de-açúcar na região sudoeste goiano

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


During the last 40 years, Cerrado in Goiás crossed to big changes of land use associated with the Green Revolution and the Agriculture Modernization. These modifications were based on grains production, cattle raising, in minor scale, sugar cane production. Goiás Sowth-west Planning Region (RPSG) was a great notability in this scenery that, since 1980 decade, because your elevated agricultural aptness, turned great objective of Agroindustrial complexes, grains and meat and, more recently, of sugar cane. Recently, the sugar cane sector retakes your expansion starting a new phase in 2004, extending from the same anterior surface from east, where more able soils dominated. Since this, a strong and fast expansion has been realized in this route, reaching the RPSG extreme west in 2008. The present thesis objective to recognize the special standard in these two sugar cane expansion phases in RPSG, between 1985 and 2013 and identify your relations with the lands use changes and with the agricultural aptness classes, for presenting the particular spatial standards of sugar cane expansion and having uses conflicts discrepancy indicators. It was used remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques, specially SIG, for the mapping of environmental characteristics, agricultural aptness and uses and soil uses conflicts, in historic succession of representative five years of use changes and sugar cane expansion; they were 1985 and 1995 in the first phase, and 2005, 2010 and 2013 in the second phase. The cartography results were submitted on statistic analyze ANOVA Fatorial and Principal Component Analyses (PCA). The results showed that the recent sugar cane expansion presented two spatial standards: the first, until 2005, in surfaces with more agricultural aptness, before with grains culture; the second, since 2005, in moderately or very fragile soils zones, able for natural pastures or recommended for flora e fauna conservation. It still revealed that sugar cane expansion reprises the agroexporting model, this time including the national market of ethanol consumption, however, in two successive itineraries: the first, that represents the itinerary resulting of spatial selectivity irradiated type, also practiced in Agricultural Frontier expansion (1970-80), looking for more able soils to cultivates with high technology level and taking advantage of structure, specially the logistic. The second, after 2005, that runs away this standard and goes to the extreme west of region, upon less able soils, in general sandy soils, with elevated erodibility, little fertility and cohesion, named fragile soils, with pasture and Cerrado’s reminders. It discusses that this process caused direct and indirect impacts in successions of covering/cane and pasture/cane, respectively, in consequence of deforestation, upon areas with moderated or elevated use discrepancy in respect to agricultural aptness. It concludes that the sugar cane expansion is occurring in RPSG for spatial irradiated selectivity, expanding upon the best lands (1960-80 in the east) and, before, 2005, for diffusion, in dispersed spots on direction to extreme west upon less able lands with fragile soils. In the first, the impacts were directs, by reconversion grains/cane; in the second, it were directs (like the first, added for pasture/cane and remaining/cane) and indirects (grains/pasture, remaining/pasture) also associated to the remaining deforestation. It was noted that the privation/insufficiency of regulatory marks for sugar cane expansion and planning and environmental govern in levels of state and region, favoring pressure upon natural resources and the installation of environmental (un)sustentability sceneries.



TRINDADE, S. P. Aptidão agrícola, mudanças de usos dos solos, conflitos e impactos diretos e indiretos da expansão da cana-de-açúcar na região sudoeste goiano. 2015. 187 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências Ambientais) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2015.