O acidente radiológico de Goiânia e seus desdobramentos nos currículos da licenciatura em Química em Goiás: uma leitura freireana

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


In Goiânia, in 1987, a radiological accident occurred with a Cesium 137 source, which could have been avoided if those involved had basic knowledge about some symbols related to the scientific context and to Radioactivity, which highlights the role of the school and teachers with regard to scientific literacy. Thus, this research sought to understand the relationship between the theme Radioactivity and scientific literacy, in the formation of Chemistry teachers, in the state of Goiás and the possible implications for their teaching performance. For this, a reading of the radiological was made from the Freireana perspective, seeking to understand the social relations that emerged in the context of the actions imbricated in the history of the accident. We also analyzed the PPC for degrees in Chemistry offered by the IES in the state and questionnaires sent to basic education teachers, in order to identify whether the courses include the theme Radioactivity and the accident in focus, so that we can understand, in terms of teacher training and action, the obliterating reflexes of the (non)approach to the Radioactivity theme in initial training for a pedagogical practice that considers scientific literacy as a (trans)forming element. In the analytical process, two a priori categories were used: the formation of Chemistry teachers in the state of Goiás and scientific literacy; and the approach of Radioactivity in the training of Chemistry teachers and na emerging category: the influences of initial training in relation to the theme Radioactivity in the teaching performace of Chemistry teachers in basic education. As a theoretical interlocutor for this tese and for data analysis, we used the theoretical framework from Paulo Freire. By analyzing the first category, we see that in the PPC there is evidence that the IES are conducting the training of undergraduates in Chemistry through the bias of scientific literacy, as all documents bring elements that indicate a pedagogical proposal that seeks to train teachers through a critical and reflective considering elements that characterize the formation for citizenship. In the processo of analyzing the second category, it was observed that of the 16 IES that offer the degree course in Chemistry, nine PPC have disciplines that somehow address the theme Radioactivity, three PPC have specific disciplines on the theme, but only one explicit in its menu that will address nuclear accidents. The analysis of the questionnaries showed that the teachers either did not study on the theme, or studied it superficially and the accident was little discussed, which reverberated in their teaching performance. Thus, what we infer from the analyzed documents was that, although there are indications that guide the reader initially to glimpse that the undersgraduate are being trained in the perspective of being prepared to, in their future teaching action, act as Chemistry teachers, who literate their students scientifically, the work as a whole shows that this training will most likely not be achieved in relation to the theme Radioactivity. Because, in general, teachers trained in Chemistry at the IES in the state of Goiás do not have opportunities to learn and discuss Radioactivity content and, specially the accident with Cesium 137, therefore, they are not prepared to scientifically literate education students basic in relation to theme Radioactivity.



NUNES, L. D. O acidente radiológico de Goiânia e seus desdobramentos nos currículos da licenciatura em química em Goiás: uma leitura freireana. 2021. 207 f. Tese (Doutorado em Química) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2021.