Segurança hídrica e dimensão social: um olhar sobre a região metropolitana de Goiânia
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
The water crisis is result of a combination of factors that go beyond the relation between the lack of rainfall and population growth. In addition, elements such as conflicts for water use; deficits in water supply and sanitation networks; shattered governance of water; physical-natural conditions; unequal socioeconomic situations and climate changes interact with each other and form the conditionings to the intensification of the crisis in a scenario of risks and uncertainties. The risks are produced by society, which in its turn, becomes receptive of the own risks produced. However, the distribution of the risks are unequal, once the most vulnerable individuals, from the social and economic perspective, are the most affected. The water security, as emergent paradigm allows us to discuss questions related to the access to water, establishing relations between water, the water crisis and the social inequalities. Starting from the following questions: which theoretical frameworks help in the comprehension of water security - WS, measuring it? Can these propositions be applied to distinct realities? How does it manifest in the metropolitan region of Goiânia - RMG? Two hypotheses were built: (1) the idea of water security is a concept under dispute in the spaces of governance of water, sometimes tending to focus on the maintenance of human and animal life, sometimes in the multiple uses of water, with an economic bias; (2) the RMG presents an unequal spatial distribution of water security among its component counties, considering the contribution of water supply and sewage collection infrastructure and socioeconomic characteristics of the population. To comprehend that, the general objective of investigation was to analyze the water security conditions of the metropolitan region of Goiânia observing the distinctions amongst its counties. In parallel, the research investigated the theoretical framework regarding the water security theme; systemized the methodology implied in the water security measurement, evaluation and analysis and appropriated from the Water Security Index - WSI of Brazil’s National Water and Sanitation Agency - ANA, incorporating the social dimension. The methodologic procedures were anchored in the revision of literature, subsidized by a redirected rereading over the WSI, besides documental research and systemization of secondary data and information in the regard of the Geographic Information System - GIS. The selected theoretical framework led to a multiscalar approach, and to the problematization of the WSI developed by ANA. The results denoted that are distinct views on the WS, with predominance, yet that in transformation, of analyses based on the modern rationality that aim to comprehend the conditions of quantity and quality. New analytical perspectives are being developed in ample ways and in interrelations, but encounter its bounds in the availability of data and information. The seek after the indices and indicators are still present elements in the water security conditions and the idea of risk is comprehended as something potential to be avoided or mitigated, but, most important monitored. Regarding the RMG, the application of the WSI point out to distinctions in the region, but the incorporation of a new social dimension allows denoting local asymmetries, pointing out to new possibilities of actions to face the risk.
BARBOSA, P. M. Segurança hídrica e dimensão social: um olhar sobre a região metropolitana de Goiânia. 2022. 180 f. Tese (Doutorado em Geografia) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2022.