Doutorado em Geografia (IESA)

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    Os riscos tecnológicos na sociedade de risco: possíveis danos da poluição eletromagnética à saúde humana
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-12-12) Alves, Mônica Oliveira; Barros, Juliana Ramalho;; Barros, Juliana Ramalho; Leite, Marcos Esdras; Lima, Cláudia Valéria de; Chaveiro, Eguimar Felício; Santos, Nicali Bleyer Ferreira dos
    The technological advancement experienced from the mid-20th century onwards has brought about a series of transformations in modern society. This applies both in terms of the benefits and conveniences offered by new technologies and the potential health risks, such as electromagnetic pollution, generated by products and infrastructures designed to meet the needs of urban populations. Globally, there is a growing public and regulatory concern about the impacts on human health due to exposure to risks generated by high-voltage power transmission lines in urban areas. In this context, there is a noticeable need to investigate this issue in Brazil, where cities, both medium and large, have experienced rapid and unplanned population growth, leading many people to reside near these infrastructures. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to analyze the issues related to the health risks generated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation from high-voltage power transmission lines in the urban space of Montes Claros/MG. The chosen location for the investigation was the city of Montes Claros, located in the north of Minas Gerais, where various population groups were observed inhabiting areas considered exposed to electromagnetic pollution generated by the mentioned sources. The methodological procedures involved literature and documentary research, mapping of areas exposed to risk, and surveys with the general population, particularly those residing in one of the risk areas in the city of Montes Claros. The results obtained demonstrated that there are various population groups residing in risk areas in the city, often in locations where occupation occurred irregularly, such as in the servitude zones of high-voltage lines, accentuating social exclusion and socio-spatial segregation in Montes Claros. It was also noted that the population has limited awareness of the risks they are exposed to, hindering the search for strategies and actions by civil society to mitigate the problem. Given the identified issues, it is suggested that further studies be conducted, and precautionary measures be implemented regarding these risks. This should involve the participation of public and private entities, the scientific community, and the general public, promoting a democratic risk management approach in Montes Claros and other urban centers in Brazil.
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    Da modernização à globalização alimentar: o local e o global na região metropolitana de Goiânia
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2024-08-18) Sena, Caio César Alencar de; Castilho, Denis;; Castilho, Denis; Menezes, Sônia de Souza Mendonça; Chaveiro, Eguimar Felício; Araújo Sobrinho, Fernando Luiz; Mendonça, Marcelo Rodrigues
    The process of globalization of food cultures advances over the territories of the Metropolitan Region of Goiânia (RMG) in a forceful way. In this sense, it is proposed to discuss the dense and complex relationships between local, regional, and global contexts related to the intensification of foreign influences in the productions, habits, and food cultures of the people of Goiás. To this end, we evaluated elements such as: the role of the State in the modernization of agriculture, the mapping of the challenges of eating in the metropolis, the discussion about the paths and perspectives of globalization as well as its influences on urban landscapes, spectacularization of the act of eating, and the notions of food heritage. While we recognize the role of the food industry and its recurrent strategies of taste training and domination of regional cuisines via the cultural industry, we verify the impact of the main modern food discourses and practices in dialogue with the critical cultural perspective in Geography. The research methodology involved questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, fieldwork in the RMG, participant observation in food festivals, theoretical reviews, and critical analysis of the theme dialoguing mainly with the concept of territory. The outline of the thesis points out that food is an important cultural element of societies and that there is an ongoing exercise of power via the appropriation of eating habits and cultures that is almost irreversible, due to the current contours of globalization that advances over food and the meanings individuals attribute to them. In this process, the food industry and fast-food chains try to occupy the dining spaces of modern life, pushing traditional recipes, eating habits, local ingredients, and individuals’ significant moments with food to the background, or just for specific days of occasional rites, reaching people of all ages and social classes, in the countryside and in the cities, but especially in the big cities. There is a constant attempt to appropriate food cultures, where territories that are less strengthened in terms of their unique elements are more vulnerable to the impacts of globalization. As research results, we seek to contribute to structuring the concept of food globalization by noting that this phenomenon has changed the way societies and official bodies of memory and legislation organize our ancestral food heritage. We defend the strengthening of local and regional food culture based on new perspectives on Cerrado foods, in search of sovereign practices that strengthen small producers and expand the possibility of the state of Goiás to produce different foods, in addition to the ongoing monoculture. We recognize that food producers organized in cooperatives, when aware of their political and social role, can claim other directions for agricultural public policies. It is also verified that the Geographical Indications can present themselves as alternatives to social organization and valorization of food production more connected with individuals and the local cultures.
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    A paisagem, o mapa e os raciocínios geográficos: mediação didática para o desenvolvimento do pensamento geográfico no ensino médio
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-05-25) Pinheiro, Igor de Araújo; Richter, Denis;; Richter, Denis; Cavalcanti, Lana de Souza; Bueno, Miriam Aparecida; Gomes, Marquiana de Freitas Vilas Boas; Duarte, Ronaldo Goulart
    The development of students' geographic thinking should be the main objective of Geography school practices, in the current context. We believe in the relevance of knowing how to think about spatial issues, the order of phenomena and all the relationships between them, creating the possibility of exercising our citizenship more fully, as reasoning and thinking from a Geography perspective have proven to be important for understanding the spatiality of phenomena experienced by the subjects. In this way, we thought about how to guarantee the necessary conditions at school, through didactic mediation in high school, for the development of students' geographic thinking. Through this research, we sought to understand the potential of integration between the study of landscape, the use of maps and geographic reasoning of location, distribution, distance, density, scale and analogy for the development of geographic thinking in high school students. . To achieve this purpose, the following specific objectives will be pursued: deepen debates on the theoretical-conceptual bases of landscape and geographic reasoning, within the academic and school context of Geography; characterize maps as a potential language for didactic mediation of Geography school content; identify in school Geography the theoreticalmethodological foundations that guide didactic mediation and the formation of geographic thinking in High School; analyze the process of methodological integration between landscape, maps and geographic reasoning through Geography Didactic Mediation; and reflect on the theoretical-methodological elements established by Geography Didactic Mediation, which enhance the development of geographic thinking in high school students. Established as a qualitative research, based on the methodology of participatory research, in order to achieve the objectives mentioned above, it was necessary to carry out two stages of investigation: bibliographic and field. The latter involved the selection of two public schools in Teresina-PI (universe), two Geography teachers (subjects) and two High School classes (sample). Thus, six didactic sequences were developed, and three didactic sequences were applied in each school researched, over the course of three weeks of development of Geography Didactic Mediation, as well as a semi-structured interview with the teachers-subjects of the research and semi-structured questionnaires applied together. to students. The production, compilation and processing of data through the Content Analysis Technique (BARDIN, 1977) revealed the potential in operationalizing Geography Didactic Mediation that integrates the study of landscape, reading and construction of maps and geographic reasoning , which formed the basis for the development of geographic thinking among high school students.
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    A consolidação do setor farmacêutico na economia global: crescimento, influência, desvios e marketing
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-10-02) Stacciarini, João Henrique Santana; Chaveiro, Eguimar Felício;; Chaveiro, Eguimar Felício; Castilho, Denis; Vasconcellos, Luiz Carlos Fadel de; Marques, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Silva, Ronaldo da
    This study investigates how the pharmaceutical sector has become one of the largest and most influential economic sectors of our time. It presents figures and information that support this claim and aims to elucidate the factors that contributed to such a rise. Since Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin in 1928, pharmaceutical industries have evolved from small entities - often family-owned and operating locally - to multinational corporations valued at hundreds of billions of dollars with global influence. However, beyond the discovery and diversification of drugs, increased demand, and expansion of production capacity, part of this evolution is underpinned by complex, and in some cases perverse, strategies prioritizing profit maximization over public and individual health. The findings of this study reveal that, over the past two decades, the sector's revenues have quadrupled, reaching $1.48 trillion in 2022, an amount comparable to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of developed countries such as Spain. The twenty largest companies in the sector have a combined market value of $3.5 trillion and assets totaling $1.86 trillion, generating annual revenues of $820 billion and profits of $181.6 billion. For context, the assets of these companies alone are comparable to the GDP of all Sub-Saharan African countries. Companies, like Johnson & Johnson, have a market value exceeding the GDP of 184 nations. The study also examines and discusses questionable practices adopted by the pharmaceutical industry, including investing billions in lobbying and election financing, influencing regulatory agencies, financially supporting patient organizations, sponsoring authors of "Clinical Guidelines", manipulating and concealing drug research and tests, and directing massive investments to strengthen ties with prescribers, university hospitals, and academic institutions. Concrete examples of these actions are provided, backed by studies, data surveys, and court decisions, underscoring the alarming consequences of this reality. Lastly, the research analyzes pharmaceutical marketing as a primary sales boost strategy. Despite drugs not being ordinary commodities, susceptible to promotion under the lens of rampant consumption, companies invest billions annually in directto-consumer advertising. In the Brazilian context, the pharmaceutical sector stands out as one of the main investors in marketing. In recent years, several companies in the field have ranked among the highest individual advertising spenders. The emergence of digital marketing strategies driven by the internet, advanced algorithms, and social networks, combined with advertising campaigns harmful to public and collective health, underscore a concerning and challenging scenario.
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    Concentração de elementos potencialmente tóxicos e radionuclideos nos solos da área de influência do Parque Nacional das Emas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-09-07) Ramalho, Fernanda Luisa; Cabral, João Batista Pereira;; Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares;; Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares; Bueno, Guilherme Taitson; Miyazaki, Leda Correia Pedro; Becegato, Valter Antonio; Rubin, Júlio Cesar Rubin de
    The research was based on the explanation of the history of use and occupation of the Chapadões areas in the southwest of Goiás and, based on this analysis, the hypothesis that the soils, which are associated with the intensive use of agriculture and livestock, may be enriched with potentially toxic elements (PTEs), such as zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and radionuclides , such as uranium, thorium and potassium (238U, 232Th and 40K). Based on this hypothesis, the main objective of the thesis is to evaluate the environmental quality of the soils of the river basins in the PARNA das Emas area of influence through the creation of Environmental Compartments that will serve as a reference for the plateau regions of the Brazilian cerrado. To achieve this objective, 3 specific objectives were proposed, namely: 1. Establish analogous natural areas of the river basins that drain the PARNA das Emas, with hydrographic sub-basins as a mapping unit, 2. Analyze the spatialization of EPTs and radionuclides in the chosen region ; 3. Analyze the levels of EPTs and radionuclides in the region's soils, based on the Environmental Compartments created. To achieve these objectives, it was supported by various methodologies, such as the creation of Landscape Units (UP), multivariate statistical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) for the interpretation of ETPs and radionuclides data, in addition to the use of values reference based on CONAMA Resolution n.460/2003, Cetesb (2004) and work by (BOCARDI, 2019), to help support the geochemical values found in the area. As a result, the UP enabled the creation of eight Environmental Compartments (CA) that represent river basins outside the Emas National Park that are analogous to the river basins inside the Park. When comparing the results of CA EPTs with CONAMA Resolution n.460/2013 and Cetesb (2014) and the radiogenic elements with the work of Bocardi (2019) it is possible to verify that the elements that presented the greatest problems were the ETPs As and Cd , which resulted in research values in areas intended for agricultural use in CA-2 and CA-3. In CA-4, all points resulted in investigational values for As and Cd, both in agricultural areas and in PARNA das Emas. CA-5 showed investigational values for the ETPs As and Cd at points inside PARNA das Emas and in CA-6, P11, which is in the UC area, presented investigational value for As and prevention value for Cd. CA-7 and 8 resulted in prevention value for As and investigational value for Cd, both CA were in agricultural areas. Overall, the CA4 was the one that presented the most problems in relation to the elements analyzed. The PCA showed that different CAs can have the same response in relation to the spatialization of the elements, such as CA 8, 7 and 6 of group 3, which have the same characteristics due to the geological formation of the Vale do Rio do Peixe, which will give rise to to the sandiest soils in the region, with CA having fewer problems regarding the adsorption of elements. Group 4 also has points that have higher percentages of sand in their structure and groups 1 and 2 have a higher concentration of clay and OM in their structure. These are points that are mainly influenced by Detritus-Lateritic Covers. Through the outliers, the PCA was able to verify that there are CA (4, 2 and 1) that were enriched with P, Ca, Mg, in addition to ETPs and radionuclides from the management of agricultural areas. Therefore, they are different CAs that present the same response in relation to the type of use in question. These points are part of the plateau areas of Central Brazil, converted into extensive monoculture areas of sole, corn, sugar cane and cotton over the last 50 years. In this way, the PCA was crucial to demonstrate, above all, these points that are radically different from the others.
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    Evolução da paisagem em relevo de chapada no Cerrado
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-08-11) Borges, Mariley Gonçalves; Bueno, Guilherme Taitson;; Bueno , Guilherme Taitson; Almeida, Maria Ivete Soares de; Leite, Marcos Esdras; Zancopé, Márcio Henrique de Campos; Bayer, Maximiliano
    The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between the spatial representation of wetlands (veredas) in the context of the watershed from the Cerrado, the stage of evolution of the reliefs of planation surfaces and their reflections on the dynamics of the slopes and on the functioning of the river channels. The study was carried out in the watersheds of Catolé (BHCC) and Borrachudo (BHRB) rivers, in the North of Minas Gerais. It is justified by 1) the importance of understanding the evolution of the reliefs of planation surfaces in the Cerrado and its reflections on the landscapes, on the functioning of the slopes and on the hydrological dynamics of the river channels, in the context of the hydrographic basins; and 2) the environmental relevance of the Cerrado wetlands, which ar responsible for increasing the residence time of water in the basins, for the quality of river water, and for the stock of organic C. For this purpose, the morphometric study of the watersheds, the application of dissection and moisture indices, the estimation of soil loss potential (USLE) and the mapping and classification of wetlands were performed using geoprocessing. River discharge measurements, of the physical and physicochemical parameters of water analyzes were also carried out in loco and in the laboratory over a hydrological year. It was found that the wetlands of the BHCC have greater spatial representation than for BHRB, that is, 27.9 km² more area. The distribution of wetlands in the study area is associated with the areas of still preserved planation surfaces. Compared to the BHRB, it was found that the BHCC has less dissected relief, lower drainage density and lower slopes. Its moisture content is higher and the longitudinal profile of its main channel is less adjusted to the profile considered in "balance", that is, a significant part of the basin is located upstream of the main knickpoint of the channel, therefore not yet adjusted to the current baselevel. These characteristics are compatible with the hydrological, the physical and physicochemical parameters of water, which indicated that the Catolé river has a more regular flow and water with less turbidity, that is, less sediment transport in the basin. The results showed that the geomorphological evolution is at a more advanced stage in the BHRB, which indicates a natural tendency towards a decrease in wetlands area, predominance of dissected reliefs and greater transport of sediments by the river network.
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    Sistemas imageadores acoplados em veículo aéreo remotamente pilotado no monitoramento de estresse hídrico em cultivos de algodão em Sorriso - MT
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-10-03) Souto, Roberto Nunes Vianconi; Zeilhofer, Peter;; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo;; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Alves Júnior, Leomar Rufino; Nascimento, Abadia dos Reis; Luiz, Gislaine Cristina; Jesuz, Cleberson Ribeiro de
    With global climate change, extreme events are happening more frequently in the legal Amazon region. This affects both ecological and socioeconomic aspects, altering the landscape over vast areas. Increased fires and deforestation in the region, together with irregular hydrological events, exacerbate climate change, especially in the Amazon Basin and in Mato Grosso, the state that has been for many years a leader in deforestation and climate variation in the country. Crops such as cotton are particularly sensitive to these changes and the resulting water stress. Therefore, monitoring this indicator to understand its effects on Mato Grosso territory and environmental dynamics is essential. The use of remote sensing through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offers promising prospects for agricultural and environmental monitoring. In this context, the present research aimed to evaluate the applicability of sensors attached to a multirotor UAV to detect and monitor water stress in cotton planting. More specifically, we sought to analyze the performance of thermal and multispectral sensor imaging in the detection of water stress in a cotton planting experiment. In addition, the possible interference of crop varieties and covariates such as meteorological, climatic, and edaphic conditions on crop productivity, water stress detection, and productivity itself were evaluated. The methodology adopted was based on intensive field activities to parametrize the state of cotton plantations, considering water stress conditions in an experimental area at the Training and Technological Dissemination Center of the Northern Regional Nucleus of Mato Grosso Cotton Institute, located in the county of Sorriso - MT. The methodological procedures included three main blocks: field surveys, analysis of the spectral behavior of targets in multispectral and thermal images, and statistical analysis. As a result, it was found that thermal and multispectral sensors have the potential to identify areas of water stress. In general, the performance of thermal imaging. However, the multispectral sensor showed a relatively higher discrimination capacity in identifying stress in the early stages of the crop. Compared to the thermal sensor, another positive aspect of multispectral imaging is its strength against momentary weather variations. It is worth mentioning that the model combining monitoring with both types of sensors, thermal and multispectral, showed significantly better results.
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    A procura do eco na atividade turística em Terra Ronca (GO)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-07-27) Aguiar Júnior, Paulo Roberto Ferreira de; Oliveira, Ivanilton José de;; Oliveira, Ivanilton José de; Moreira, Jorgeanny de Fátima Rodrigues; Chaveiro, Eguimar Felício; Castilho, Denis; Carvalho, Giselia Lima
    The thesis aimed to investigate the lack of ecotourism activity in the Terra Ronca Integral Protection Conservation Unit (GO), which has the largest cave system in South America, and to understand why the activity does not meet the elements that would qualify the tourism activity carried out in its space as ecotourism. The methodology used included a case study in the conservation unit, literature review, data collection on websites such as the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), technical visits, and questionnaires applied to people directly involved in the tourist activity in the Park. Geography is essential for the study of ecotourism in conservation units, especially when using systemic thinking to understand the relationships between the environment and society. The systemic approach considers the interdependence of the elements and processes that constitute a system, allowing for a broader and more integrated analysis of the ecosystem in question. The results indicated that the low participation of the local population, especially those directly involved in tourist activity, along with the advancement of degradation of the cerrado biome and the inefficiency of the state, are the main reasons for the lack of ecotourism activity in Terra Ronca. Based on these conclusions, the thesis contributed to expanding the discussion on ecotourism development in Brazil and to raising awareness about the importance of environmental preservation and the involvement of the local population in sustainable tourism activities.
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    Dinâmica da perda de solos no estado de Goiás entre 1985 - 2018
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-12-06) Rosa, Lucas Espíndola; Siame, Lionel;; Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares;; Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares; Nunes, Elizon Dias Nunes; Bueno, Guilherme Taitson; Zancopé, Márcio Henrique de Campos; Santos, Leonardo José Cordeiro
    Estimating soil loss on a regional scale has been performed using quantitative methods and has been consolidated with the expanded use of Geographic Information Systems. The method with greater acceptance and better results to estimate soil losses is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), a deterministic mathematical model with a systemic approach which is based on analyzing the interaction between the parts; it comprises a complex entity, which in this specific case is the loss of soil. RUSLE is constituted by the formula: A=R.K.LS.CP; a synthesis of the consideration of erosivity, erodibility, the topographic factor and soil use and cover, and presents representative accuracy in measuring soil losses, mainly with respect to its topographical factor. The Cerrado constitutes one of the most relevant Brazilian biomes and has about 52% of its remaining vegetation, of which only 33% belong to the state of Goiás (a central state in the composition of the biome), while there is only 15% remaining vegetation in its southern portion. Therefore, the following question arises based on this deforestation data, namely: Would deforestation be a conditioning factor for the increase in soil losses/degradation, or do its intrinsic factors, such as the topography, condition them? This work is a thesis due to the novelty of the multiscale verification of RUSLE from different locations in slope scales, hydrographic basins to regions. This work presents results that the topographic factor (LS-factor) is one of the most relevant in the model, where the greatest loss areas in the state of Goiás are located by their topographic elevations, including: the Serra Dourada de Goiás, the Serra dos Pirineus and the front of the Caiapó cuesta, whose reversals are caused by agriculture and present lower losses, followed by cumulative losses towards river gutters when the slope breaks due to replacement of soil use and cover. Pastures were the areas with the highest losses in the state, but they are necessarily associated with high LS factors, which thus indicate conditioning of potential energy based on what was observed in a region called the Weak or Late Zone.
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    Redes de transporte aéreo e escalas de (des)integração territorial em Goiás, Distrito Federal e Tocantins (1930 – 2020)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-03-30) Oliveira, Bruno Carneiro de; Castilho, Denis;; Castilho, Denis; Araújo Sobrinho, Fernando Luiz; Deus, João Batista de; Arrais, Tadeu Alencar; Druciaki, Vinicius Polzin
    As most transportation networks in Brazil, the air modal has an unequal configuration by the continental size that the territory has. Regionally, Goiás, The Federal District and Tocantins are part of this totality in a process of incomplete air integration due to factors related to state policies and actions of economic agents. However, the development that occurred in this region we have named as Mid-North of Brazil for this sector has as main vectors the actions of the Brazilian State. This paper proposes to describe and analyze the trajectory of air transport in these federative units between the years 1930 to 2020, considering the context of the evolution of air transport in the world, the institutional organization and the actions of the State that enabled the new possibilities of connection and reduction of time to multiple locations. The work is organized into four sections: the first, discusses technical networks and circulation in articulation with air transport; the secondhighlights the conceptions about what it means to "fly" to humanity and the historicization of air transport worldwide and Brazil; the third discusses the Middle-North of Goiás and the relationship with the air modal and policies concerning; and the fourth, discusses the restructuring of the sector and analyzes the flow of passengers and goods in the federative units under study. The methodological procedures were based on: research and bibliographic review on technical networks, circulation, territorial formation of Goiás, Federal District, Tocantins and respective capitals, air transport and various legislation on the subject; collection and treatment of secondary data in databases such as IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and ANAC (National Civil Aviation Agency); realization of thematic maps from the previous stage; and analysis that sought to evidence the existing relationships between air transport and the spatial and time clippings studied. By the division of the Territory of Brazil and consequent construction of novel places of power (Goiânia, Brasília and Palmas) there are infrastructure incentives to increase the flow of goods and people. New aviation-related landlines emerge alongside spaces hierarchized by industrial and agricultural production, new business command centers and service concentration and, recently, tourist regions. The technical aviation networks promote the movement of goods and people in localities of Goiás, The Federal District and Tocantins, which previously prioritized the Brazilian southeast and currently allows a global integration. Thus, we noticed the different integration scales over these 80 years of period. Therefore, the State was and continues to be the main actor of this process through (dis)nationalizations, concessions and legislations that serve certain private actors, which impact the project of management of the national territory and economic and infrastructure integration.
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    Terra, água, subsolo: os efeitos territoriais da mineração ilegal e do agrohidronegócio no quilombo Cafundó/Brasil e no Palenque Pílamo/Colômbia
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-09-15) Silva, Lucas Bento da; Mendonça, Marcelo Rodrigues;; Mendonça, Marcelo Rodrigues; Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues de; Silva, Silvio Simione da; Alves, José; Garcia, Maria Franco
    Este estudio tiene como objetivo comprender las dimensiones ancestrales, culturales, simbólicas, económicas, políticas y étnico-raciales, a través de los efectos territoriales del agronegocio hidroeléctrico y la minería ilegal en los territorios de las comunidades negras rurales de América Latina. Para ello se considera la especulación, las prácticas espaciales, la expansión del modelo de acumulación por despojo y el control de los territorios por parte del capital, para diversos fines, como el monocultivo de eucalipto, palma africana, caña de azúcar, soja y exploración minera. Aún así, existen otras formas de violencia vinculadas a las relaciones de poder, tomando como referencia la dinámica de los conflictos asociados a la construcción de la identidad territorial y territorialidades del Quilombo Cafundó/Brasil, ubicado en el sudoeste del estado de São Paulo, en el municipio del Salto de Pirapora y; en Palenque Pílamo/Colombia, ubicado en el municipio de Guachené, en la región norte del Departamento del Cauca. Por tanto, el agua, la tierra y el subsuelo constituyen territorios en disputa en el siglo XXI, así como sectores estratégicos para el aumento de la desigualdad y la legalidad de la injusticia estructural del Estado. Este, fundamental en el proceso de acumulación por despojo, tiene su base económica sustentada en la creciente producción de commodities agrominerales y agrohidronegocios. Aún así, se observó sobre prácticas culturales, como la economía, los diferentes usos de los territorios y las disputas territoriales. A ordem/desordem, sucessiva e alarmante toma forma espacial para o Estado brasileiro e colombiano e para as vítimas, por exemplo, com o deslocamento forçado na Colômbia, algo crescente no Caribe e Pacífico, além do cercamento e expulsão de seus territórios das populações tradicionais en Brasil. Así, son cuestiones que la Geografía debe problematizar, a partir de la praxis y de un compromiso ético y crítico con los sujetos reales, considerando las estrategias de (Re)Existencias construidas en disputas territoriales por el agua, la tierra, el subsuelo. Ciertamente, los conflictos son realidades instauradas en el movimiento de la dimensión histórica y social latinoamericana, que en la construcción -tanto de la relación empírica como de la relación teórica- se comprenden en el conjunto estructurante de esta Tesis.
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    Terra, água, subsolo: os efeitos territoriais da mineração ilegal e do agrohidronegócio no Quilombo Cafundó/Brasil e no Palenque Pílamo/Colômbia
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-07-15) Silva, Lucas Bento da; Mendonça, Marcelo Rodrigues;; Mendonça, Marcelo Rodrigues; Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues De; Silva, Silvio Simione da; Alves, José; Garcia, Maria Franco
    Este estudio tiene como objetivo comprender las dimensiones ancestrales, culturales, simbólicas, económicas, políticas y étnico-raciales, a través de los efectos territoriales del agronegocio hidroeléctrico y la minería ilegal en los territorios de las comunidades negras rurales de América Latina. Para ello se considera la especulación, las prácticas espaciales, la expansión del modelo de acumulación por despojo y el control de los territorios por parte del capital, para diversos fines, como el monocultivo de eucalipto, palma africana, caña de azúcar, soja y exploración minera. Aún así, existen otras formas de violencia vinculadas a las relaciones de poder, tomando como referencia la dinámica de los conflictos asociados a la construcción de la identidad territorial y territorialidades del Quilombo Cafundó/Brasil, ubicado en el sudoeste del estado de São Paulo, en el municipio del Salto de Pirapora y; en Palenque Pílamo/Colombia, ubicado en el municipio de Guachené, en la región norte del Departamento del Cauca. Por tanto, el agua, la tierra y el subsuelo constituyen territorios en disputa en el siglo XXI, así como sectores estratégicos para el aumento de la desigualdad y la legalidad de la injusticia estructural del Estado. Este, fundamental en el proceso de acumulación por despojo, tiene su base económica sustentada en la creciente producción de commodities agrominerales y agrohidronegocios. Aún así, se observó sobre prácticas culturales, como la economía, los diferentes usos de los territorios y las disputas territoriales. A ordem/desordem, sucessiva e alarmante toma forma espacial para o Estado brasileiro e colombiano e para as vítimas, por exemplo, com o deslocamento forçado na Colômbia, algo crescente no Caribe e Pacífico, além do cercamento e expulsão de seus territórios das populações tradicionais en Brasil. Así, son cuestiones que la Geografía debe problematizar, a partir de la praxis y de un compromiso ético y crítico con los sujetos reales, considerando las estrategias de (Re)Existencias construidas en disputas territoriales por el agua, la tierra, el subsuelo. Ciertamente, los conflictos son realidades instauradas en el movimiento de la dimensión histórica y social latinoamericana, que en la construcción -tanto de la relación empírica como de la relación teórica- se comprenden en el conjunto estructurante de esta Tesis.
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    A Geografia e a questão racial: a produção de geógrafos/as negros/as brasileiros/as (1987-2018)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-04-15) Santos, Mariza Fernandes dos; Ratts, Alecsandro José Prudêncio;; Ratts, Alecsandro José Prudêncio; Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues de; Silva, Cátia Antonia da; Silva, José Borzacchiello da; Silva, Josué da Costa
    Our goal is to analyze researches in Geography that focus on the black population, produced in postgraduate programs in Brazil. The hypothesis is that black geographers may present their own points of view for geographic thinking, especially with regard to addressing the racial issue in space and geography; and such points of view are related to their socio-spatial trajectories. Our specific objectives are: (1) Conduct a systematic analysis of literature on theses and dissertations in Geography in Brazil that address the racial theme with a focus on the black population, and (2) Conduct a content analysis on the set of theses in Geography produced in Brazil by black geographers, who address the racial issue. The results indicate that the number of theses and dissertations dedicated to the topic increased since 2003, with the period with the largest number of productions being the year 2016. The points of view appear as important elements in the research of black geographers / on the racial issue, mainly in three moments: the choice of the theme, the choice of the theoretical framework and the choice of the methodology.
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    Ser e arquitetar com a geografia: possibilidades experimentadas na formação do arquiteto e urbanista
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-01-25) Ramos, Raquel de Albuquerque Franco; Cavalcanti, Lana de Souza;; Cavalcanti, Lana de Souza; Barreira, Celene Cunha Monteiro Antunes; Richter, Denis; Oliveira, Karla Annyelly Teixeira de; Souza, Maria Ester de
    Developing projects with geographic theoretical-methodological contribution allows architects and urban planners to expand their way of conceiving spaces with autonomy/authorship using fairer, more democratic and equitable solutions socially, culturally and environmentally. The initial training of these professionals is marked by didactic-pedagogical weaknesses constituted by adversities linked to teaching practices most often based on teacher’s own convictions acquired during the performance in society; lack of theoretical-methodological problems capable of effectively assisting a projective authorship/autonomy with more justice and social relevance; as well as the lack of use of didactic tools that support a formative path that is able to broaden the analysis of the various spatial dimensions. In view of this fragility, this thesis deals with possibilities of initial training based on didactic theories capable of articulating thought and action in the construction of knowledge through Geography. For that end, the research was directed by questions such as: How is the practical process of architectural project conception affected in the face of adversities arising from its teaching? Does the curricular structure envisaged for the training of Architects and Urban Planners allow an understanding of Geography that leads to a broader spatial analysis? How could the theoretical-methodological bases of Geography be applied during the architectural project conception in order to allow critical reflection by its academic peers? In what way is geographic thinking able to assist in the formation of architects and urban planners to achieve authoral/autonomous project solutions and with spatial justice? Would geographic science articulated with architectural science be able to change the ways of seeing and being of these subjects in the urban space? From these questions, the analysis of methodologies for the development of geographic thinking to be applied to the process of elaborating projects by architects and urbanists in formation, in the 8th period at Instituição de Ensino Superior (IES) Uni-GOIÁS, was carried out through the elaboration of a didactic path and critical analysis of the school's urban spaces and a park. The methodology used was based on the contributions of Cavalcanti (2014, 2019) with contributions from Vygotsky (2001) and other authors, through a qualitative action-research that made use of research instruments such as class observations, questionnaires, rounds of conversation and interviews. The results of the research exceeded what was expected since the didactic approach adopted was able to help the conduction of the process of architectural project elaboration by the students in a critical way, with well-defined and well-connected phases in order to solve a common problem. The experiences that were provided during the process of architectural project elaboration were effective in demonstrating that the path to a professional performance with autonomy and authorship requires a dimensional understanding of space: the lived, the perceived and the conceived. This approach can be better conducted by including a critical analysis framework of spaces leading to a project synthesis with greater meaning for the various subjects who use urban spaces. Self-discovery during the process was for the students the safe way to achieve fair, democratic and equitable propositions. It was observed the adoption of a critical posture of the teaching practice better committed with citizen education to young architects and urban planners. Therefore, indeed the application of geographic thinking during the process of elaboration of projects by architects and urban planners in formation is capable of leading to an autonomous/authorial posture in the formulation of spatially fair solutions, influencing both the critical posture of the student and the teacher's performance.
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    As (re)existências camponesas nos territórios hegemonizados pelo agrohidronegócio em Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-07-21) Carneiro, Janãine Daniela Pimentel Lino; Mendonça, Marcelo Rodrigues;; Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues de; Inocêncio, Maria Erlan; Matos, Patricia Francisca de; Avelar, Gilmar Alves de; Mendonça, Marcelo Rodrigues
    In this research, we seek to build an analysis of the territory of Goiás from its spatial heterogeneity and, not only, from the perspective that the territorialization of capital in the Cerrado areas constitutes a hegemonic and homogenizing agent of space. Economic indexes, technification, verticalization of production, as well as the modernization of the territory are not the only face of the landscape in Goiás. It is necessary to consider the contradictions, the peasant territorialities and the different prac-tices of (Re)Existences, so as not to make the existing conflicts invisible, above all, in the political actions of workers, constructed daily for their social reproduction. It is necessary to pay attention to the historical processes of the formation of the Goiás territory, the effects of uneven and combined geographic development and the political and sociocultural practices of rural workers – and in cities -, as well as other subjects who work in these spaces. It is understood that in the field, there are elements that change and those that remain, that is, a scenario of territories in dispute, with conflicts and power relations (FERNANDES, 2012). In addition, the different territories are hybridized, with distinct hegemonized relationships, built from the warp of capital and labor, which generates a mo-saic of territories in dispute (MENDONÇA, 2004). Locksmith; Calaça (2012) emphasize that it is necessary to develop a totalizing approach to the Cerrado, which recognizes the different conflicts of its insertion in the world economy, the reorganization of social classes, regions and places, which uses different perspectives in the political and economic field. , social and cultural. For Mendonça (2012), the permanence of close sociocultural practices driven by transformative political action (fight for land, agrarian reform, water, etc.) allows us to point out the concept of (Re)Existence as a process of permanence, modified by a political action that is based on sociocultural elements, for-matting spatialities as a condition to continue (Re)Existing. n short, the centrality of the research is to understand the different experiences of (Re)Existence built by the subjects of the field in the Mesoregion of South Goiano, with an emphasis on Southeast Goiás, considering the different forms of work, organizations, associations, social movements and cooperatives , as well as the education of the countryside, which has allowed its social reproduction on land, in the hegemonic territories of agro-hydrobusiness, recognizing the different experiences of peasant (Re)Existence in Goiás.
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    Questão ambiental e justiça: da crítica ao planejamento a uma ecologia do bem comum
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-05-22) Mendonça Neto, Wilson Lopes; Chaveiro, Eguimar Felício;; Chaveiro, Eguimar Felício; Silva, Edson Batista da; Souza, Lucas Barbosa e; Castilho, Denis; Morais, Eliana Marta Barbosa de
    The current ecological crisis or even “the environmental issue” in contemporary times unfolds from concrete conditions and effects resulting from the historical process of appropriation and transformation of nature, mainly from the mid-twentieth century onwards. This process results from a certain rationality that emerges in Modernity and finds its roots in the Enlightenment. Empirically, the environmental issue is increasingly perceived on a global scale and scientific evidence points to the triggering of effects such as climate change, disruption in the dynamics of biogeochemical flows, degradation and depletion of natural resources, diverse threats to biodiversity and mass extinction of species of fauna and flora and, still, for the planetary ecological limits of the current process in course. The objective of the research was to identify the ways in which the environmental issue has been addressed. The empirical and operational dimension of the research methodology was organized based on bibliographic reviews and the author's own personal and professional experiences in the field of environmental planning, as well as immersive experiences in ecovillages and institutes that are guided by permaculture. By transforming one's own experiences into an object of analysis and reflection, the path of autoethnography was adopted. Three main ways of solving the environmental issue were identified, based on three distinct postures: the first develops from protectionist approaches that believe in “untouched nature” and in the creation of areas of conservation/preservation of wildlife; the second develops from supported technical-scientific approaches that believe that management and planning policies for the use of natural resources would be sufficient to solve the environmental problem without, however, shedding light on structural issues related to the capitalist mode of production and its logic. of spoliation of nature and of men; the third unfolds from a radical stance that understands that the environmental issue can only be resolved from a critical and revolutionary stance that places at the center of the debate on the environmental issue the need to overcome the rationality and logic that guides the mode of production. capitalist. The critique of environmental planning carried out from the experiences in the field of environmental licensing and the experiences in ecovillages allowed us to refute the first and second positions and to corroborate with the third.
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    Realidade imaginária da paisagem: para além de uma representação do concreto
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-11-11) Freitas, Jéssica Soares de; Almeida, Maria Geralda de;; Castilho, Dênis; Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues de; Campos, Lais Rodrigues; Brito, Eliseu Pereira de; Silva, Luciana Helena Alves da
    As a concept of geographical analysis, the landscape is very well grounded in several studies both within the perspective of cultural geography and in other aspects. However, in general, most studies, both in Brazil and internationally, focus on either their history, or on the application according to the chosen line of thought. Understanding the landscape as being pure and in its philosophical roots proves to be a challenge, but an insight that art can corroborate in its understanding. Starting the journey through the supposedly non-existent landscape of Cubism, passing through surrealism, and entering the (non)realities of non-sense, from fantasies to the landscapes that connect us, but dare not to see, this study tries to understand the landscape as a landscape itself and it facets in contemporary society. Thus, divided into 5 chapters each with 3 subchapters, the thesis reveals the landscape involved beyond the human senses, but in an always internal-external construction, or even the other way around, promoted by the relationship of time and space. In this relationship, it is understood that it is necessary to go beyond representation, to understand the actions arranged in the landscape, in the experiences. In the landscape, imaginary and reality is not opposed, unlike the dream and concrete, which are the duality that can be lived in the landscape, even in an incomplete way, to understand that the landscape overcomes the barriers of human ideas, to experiencing the purest longings of humanity. Thus, while memory is more related to reality than the imaginary, the activity of this is alive mainly when it is arranged through art. In this sense, the landscape is an essential category for understanding the environment and, especially of the tensions experienced, either in a material aspect or in imaginary-mental composition.
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    Comparação de sistemas imageadores aerotransportados ópticos e LiDAR para quantificação da biomassa em áreas de Cerrado nativo
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-11-14) Alves Júnior, Leomar Rufino; Côrtes, João Batista Ramos;; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo;; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Miranda, Sabrina do Couto de; Oliveira, Ivanilton José de; Rosolen, Vania Silvia; Vieira, Pedro Alves
    Currently, remotely manned aerial platforms (RPAS) embedded with imaging sensors form one of the most desirable and efficient technological sets in the science of remote sensing. Among all possible applications, land use mapping is the flagship, with emphasis on the analysis of native vegetation cover and its relationship with the environment. This research aimed to analyze the woody aerial biomass contained in parcels of native vegetation of the Cerrado biome, located in the Red River basin, state of Goiás, based on advanced instruments (LiDAR and optical sensors) aboard manned aerial vehicles (airplane) and unmanned (RPAS fixedwing, eBee Plus RTK/PPK model). The research also included estimates of native vegetation cover obtained in the field, such as canopy height, number of individuals, percentage of cover and woody aerial biomass, in order to evaluate the efficiency of imaging systems and sensors. The resulting digital surface (MDS) and orthomosaic models were analyzed as a function of accuracy and precision, combining support points and the PPK (Post Processed Kinematic) system. Comparing the orthorosaics generated with support points and without the PPK system, with the orthorosaics generated only with the PPK system, both presented the same planimetric precision, but with improved altimetric precision when the support points were used. For the Cerradão, the model that best estimated the biomass was the one generated with airborne LiDAR data with manned flight, statistically significant with [(F(9.50) = 33.17; p < 0.001; R² = 0.856; SE of the estimate = 0.17 Mg/ha]. For the Dense Cerrado and Cerradão/Dense Forest, the models were statistically significant with [(F(12.27) = 121.264; p < 0.001; R² = 0.982; SE estimate = 0.049 Mg/ha] and [(F(7.42) = 23.360; p < 0.001; R² = 0.796; SE estimate = 0.329 Mg/ha], respectively, both using data obtained with LiDAR Airborne with unmanned flight It is concluded that the use of data obtained with LiDAR and by aerophotogrammetry, from manned and remotely manned aircraft, cannot replace but complement the conventional method of field survey, in the case of native vegetation of Cerrado Denso and Cerradão. As the efficiency in predicting biomass, going from the best to the worst nt, the point cloud obtained with airborne LiDAR with unmanned flight, airborne LiDAR with manned flight, and with aerophotogrammetric survey in unmanned flight. For Cerrado Denso and Cerradão, it can be concluded that all technologies used in this research showed effective results and can therefore be applied according to the availability of equipment and financial resources.
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    Geografia histórica, geografia da religião e cartografia de fluxos da matriz pentecostal brasileira (1911 a 1932)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-09-02) Rios, Eunice de Oliveira; Nunes, Fabrizia Gioppo;; Nunes, Fabrizia Gioppo; Chaveiro, Eguimar Felício; Oliveira, Ivanilton José de; Rodrigues, Donizete Aparecido; Vilaça, Helena Carlota Ribeiro
    In this thesis, we will approach the Pentecostal movement related to the context in Brazil from 1910 to 1932, a period marked by social, economic, and political changes which results greatly influenced the implantation and expansion of Pentecostalism in the country. The Brazilian Pentecostal Matrix emerged and expanded actively and comprehensively. Its birthplace was the city Belém of Pará. From where the Pentecostal “fire” spred through the North and Northeast, up rivers and reaching forests and hinterland, the city, and countryside. In the 1920s, it reached the Southeast, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, as the radiating center. New realities, the urban strength. The expansion accelerated and reached the south of the country. The supporters multiply as leadership diversifies, and new ways of thinking emerge, clashes multiply, which lead to significant changes within the movement, characterizing the slow end of an era, that of the Swedish Pentecostal missionaries, in particular a couple that left a legacy to the denomination Gunnar Vingren and Frida Vingren. In this scenario, the objective of this thesis focused on the theoretical framework of Historical Geography, Geography of Religion, and Dynamic Cartography. It was sought to create maps that could represent the origin and expansion of the Brazilian Pentecostal Matrix, inserted in the process of urbanization and migration in the first decades of the 20th century. Thus, a vast bibliographic review was carried out on the Pentecostalism theme, society, and religion through the concepts of Geography, as well as research derived from documents, diaries and newspapers. As a final product, a historical rescue was obtained, about the Assemblies of God, in its beginnings, considering the social and economic characteristics of Brazil, in the analyzed period, as well as the representation of transnational and national flows, implementation and expansion of Brazilian Assembly Pentecostal Matrix.
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    Parque Estadual de Paraúna em Goiás/Brasil: valoração dos geossítios e potencial para a geoeducação
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-07-05) Ferreira, Bruno Martins; Candeiro, Carlos Roberto dos Anjos;; Lima, Cláudia Valéria de;; Lima, Cláudia Valéria De; Souza, José Carlos de; Tibiriçá, Luciana Gonçalves; Pinto Filho, Ricardo de Faria; Sarges, Roseane Ribeiro
    The Paraúna State Park (PEPa), located in the municipality of Paraúna, state of Goiás, was created by Decree-Law number 5,568, of march 18, 2002. The Serra das Galés and Serra da Portaria are located, at altitudes that vary from 690 to 890 meters. The present thesis aims to analyze the PEPa geosites, in the municipality of Paraúna, in Goiás, in order to understand the Geodiversity of the area and carry out investigations within the scope of Geoeducation. To carry out the research, the following were quantified through the CPRM Geossit Digital Platform: (1) the scientific value; (2) risk of degradation; (3) potential educational and tourist use of geosites. In the Serra da Portaria geosite, rocks of the Aquidauana Formation (Permian-Carboniferous) outcrop, as well as patches of the Adamantina Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in the upper part of the relief. The structure of the saw is considered a tabular relief. In the Serra das Galés geosite, it also occurs in rocks of the Aquidauana Formation, and this one stands out for the geoforms of objects and animals. These geoforms are made up of sandstones and carved by progressive erosion along their length to the point where a block is isolated from the surrounding massif. From the scientific value, it was characterized that these geosites can be considered of national relevance. The potential educational use contributed to the understanding that geosites have an important role in the process of formation and construction of knowledge. Thus, for future generations to have access to this knowledge, it is necessary to make the population aware of the importance of Geodiversity. In this sense, the region has potential for the development of Geoeducation activities in formal education, and this is the link between Geoconservation and Education. Geoeducation can be emphasized in the school curriculum, through content of physical-natural themes, exposed in the National Common Curricular Base. Thus, Geoeducation is a tool that will contribute to the Geoconservation of the geosites of the Paraúna State Park.