De Emir do Egito a líder do mundo árabe-islâmico: as representações de Saladino na obra de BahᾹ Al-Dīn Ibn ShaddᾹd (Século XIII)
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
This research aims to reflect on the representations of the Muslim leader el-Melik en-Nasir Salah-ed-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known in the West as Saladin (1137-1193), based on a composite Arab chronicle in the context of the Crusades. He is presented by medieval historiography as a character of the medieval world and a sultan who played an important role in the unification of the Arab-Muslim Empire and in the Islamic-Muslim reconquest of the city of Jerusalem, considered as the stage of its ascension. Saladin, from a Kurdish Seljuk tribe, was born in Tikrit, in the north of Iraq, and worked mainly in the regions that make up the territory of Egypt, Syria and Palestine. The main objective is to analyze Saladin's representations as a Muslim leader, as well as the process of building his image and his political and military actions. The source that supports this work is the chronicle The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin, made between 1198 and 1228 by the Arab chronicler Bahā al-Dῑn Ibn Shaddād (1145-1234) who was in the service of the sultan as his personal confidant. In this sense, this research proposes the development of a more conceptual discussion, working with the conceptions of "sacred space" and "profane space", in order to understand the symbolism of the city of Jerusalem as a spiritual center for Judaism, Christianity, Islam and especially for Saladin. It also points out the disparities and similarities between the concepts of "chronicle" and "history", aimed at the study of their respective historiographic practices and the use of "memory" as a presupposition for recording facts subject to oblivion. The intention is to establish a thorough analysis of the chronicle and to emphasize the figure of Bahā al-Dῑn as a historical agent of the medieval. Methodologically we use the analytical method to scrutinize our source of research, with the realization of external and internal criticism of the document. In addition, we propose a textual analysis of historiography on Saladin, dialoguing with historians about the military and political actions of this Muslim leader and the issues addressed in the construction of the source, such as the Crusades, Holy War and Jihad. This analytical historiographic action is aimed at thinking about ways of accessing the past, establishing a historical experience with the object of research, that is, Sultan Saladin's analysis gains an investigative sense of its continuities and discontinuities in historical time. It also proposes to discuss topics such as political thought under Islam and also to analyze the figure of Saladin from the perspective of Bahā al-Dῑn. Thus, the proposal is to understand, in the source analyzed, the process of building the image of Sultan Saladin as a model warrior, leader, strategist, liberator and unifying of the Arab-Muslim world in the scenario of the Crusades, especially after the siege and the resumption of the city of Jerusalem.
SILVA, S. T. De Emir do Egito a líder do mundo árabe-islâmico: as representações de Saladino na obra de BahᾹ Al-Dīn Ibn ShaddᾹd (Século XIII). 2020. 176 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em História) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2020.