Avaliação da área queimadas no bioma cerrado: proposições para o monitoramento e conversação

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


Fire is an important ecological and environmental disturbance phenomenon in the Cerrado biome, which is influenced by climatic, ecological, cultural and economic factors. Burning biomass promotes change in the structure and composition of the soil, accelerates the erosion and sedimentation processes, promotes seed germination, renewal of grasses and releases large amounts of trace gases and aerosols into the atmosphere. This research seeks to understand the location patterns and the recurrence of burned areas to the Cerrado biome according to their different geographical regions from the land cover and land use class, and climatic variables. In particular, we evaluated quantitatively the performance of the MODIS MCD45A1 product for the Cerrado biome, in accordance with the different land use and land cover classes depending on the landscape, using as reference 130 randomly selected burned area polygons, and four randomly selected medium resolution orbital images, both from the month of September. In addition, we analyzed the burned areas spatial and temporal patterns in Brazil, considering both the territorial limits of the six biomes (i.e. Amazônia, Caatinga, Cerado, Mata Atlântica, Pampa and Pantanal) and their main land cover and land use classes (PROBIO MMA). At last, for burned areas greater than 2 km², we evaluated their patterns (spatial and temporal) and frequency of recurrence (burned areas that intersect more than 50%), as well as their interanual and seasonal climatic variations from vegetation index (EVI), precipitation (TRMM) and evapotranspiration (MOD16) images. These images were analyzed in association with the four groups of recurrence (burned areas with recurrence every four years) to determine the different burning regimes and the pre and post burning vegetation responses. The MCD45A1 polygons (September) had good relationship with the reference mapping (Landsat base) (r² = 0.92) and also with the hotspots (MOD14 and MYD14 - monthly data) (r² = 0.89). The omission error found is high, but this is associated with landscape structure patterns, as found for the four reference images. The Product MCD45A1 even with spatial and temporal limitations promotes temporal mapping consistency and provides understanding the behavior and impacts of the burned on the Cerrado landscape. Among the Brazilian biomes, Cerrado is the one with the highest record of fires between 2002 and 2010 (73%), followed by Amazon (14%), while 81% of the records of the burned areas occur on the remnant vegetation cover class. The records of the burning recurrences in the Cerrado focus on the remnant class, 59% whereas the frequency of recurrence presented a higher proportion up to 3 times for the period 2000-2013. For the four groups of recurrences analyzed after the first fire record, 2002, the vegetative vigor records declines, especially after 2010, on average 4% for the remnant classes and 3.5% for the anthropogenic. The minimum distance between the fragments presents that 42% of recurrences analyzed are between 1-2 kilometers, providing greatest spatial concentration.



ARAÚJO, F. M. Avaliação da área queimadas no bioma cerrado: proposições para o monitoramento e conversação. 2015. 143 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências Ambientais) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2015.