Pluralismo democrático e liberdade religiosa: a resistência umbandista no estado democrático de direito brasileiro

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


The aim of this dissertation is to reframe the views on Umbanda in order to project the framing of its practices as forms of political-democratic resistance, claims that oppose the majority interests, observing it as a social and political movement that is part of the logics of sociabilities inherent in the construction processes of democratic collective action. What has been called religious intolerance is at the heart of the country's colonization process, which was based on the illusory idea of religious democracy. Colonialism as a discourse (not so) implicit in modern society created a new paradigm of racialized experiences. The difficulty of meeting Umbanda's demands and its marginalization is related to the long and gradual process of silencing the original beliefs of African origin. To better understand its performance within the established order, it is considered, therefore, how the government regime is established in Brazil, investigating the principles of the Democratic State of Law: this (rule of law), represents a material conception of the it must be and has as its purpose the containment of absolute power; the former is essentially based on popular sovereignty. This theoretical framework also presupposes the promotion of freedom, civic virtue and education of individuals as a whole, based on dialogue between holders of various democratic demands. It so happens that democracy, by itself, does not invariably legitimize the correctness of majority opinion. In the same way, there is no response in the legal and normative order to the longings for a less unequal society. Therefore, it investigates the relations of domination and exclusion perpetrated by groups understood as the majority, within a conflictual dynamic. I say the majority because the IBGE census data, collected from 1980 to 2010, indicate that the number of adherents of Afro- Brazilian religions is, respectively, 0.57%, 0.44%, 0.34% and 0, 30%. It is clearly a numerical minority. It is also said that Afro-Brazilian religions are a social minority because they are at a disadvantage compared to other religions. This is because the practitioners of the faith are disqualified as primitive and barbarian, as the cult of Orixás, ancestry and everything that refers to the “sacred savage” was accompanied by a racist process of real and symbolic repression. But if, on the one hand, this religious group is under-represented and socially marginalized, on the other hand, it appears that Umbanda proliferates on the basis of rupture, resisting Christian religious homogenization. The terreiro is a quilombola space that maintains ancestral knowledge that is part of the national identity. It represents, at the same time, the therapeutic and socio-historical-cultural search. A space of existence, resistance and re-existence. A political-democratic space.



GONÇALVES, C. L. Pluralismo democrático e liberdade religiosa: a resistência umbandista no estado democrático de direito brasileiro. 2021. 191 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Direitos Humanos) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2021.