Capacidade de interceptação pelas árvores e suas influências no escoamento superficial urbano

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


Problems related to water, in the urban environment, have drawn attention in the face of the problem caused by its lack and/or excess. Among this backdrop there is the tumultuous occupation of urban space that combined with the suppression of soil coverage and vegetation leads to the urban runoff higher volume, pollution and shorter time to peak discharge. In this context, the benefits of urban afforestation are present, which besides the aesthetic value added to space, set up physical barriers to stormwater, favoring its retention, storage and infiltration into the soil. This study aims to evaluate the capacity of rainfall interception treetops the some species, reduce the volume of urban runoff, slow the flow peaks, as well as to expand the attention span of an urban watershed. The research was field experiments with recurrent arboreal species in the urban afforestation of Uruaçu, Goiás, using pluviographs, trunk collectors and water level sensor. From the use of interception parameters determined in this study, computer simulations using the Storm Water Management Model Model (SWMM) were performed, starting from the proposition of scenarios with different types of territorial installment associated with the Low Impact Development practices (LID) and urban forestry. During the data collection period 2012/2013, the rainfall events had a median of accumulated rainfall of 16.7mm. During this period, the median values of interception were Mangifera indica - 8.0mm; Pachira aquatica - 7.4mm; Licania tomentosa - 7.2mm; and Caesalpinia peltophoroides - 4.8mm. The period of data collection relating to 2013/2014, the median precipitation of rainfall events were 20.7mm, and the median values for interception and stemflow were respectively: 5.7mm and 0.1mm for Mangifera indica; 4.5mm and 0.2mm for Licania tomentosa; and 3.8mm and 0.3mm for Tabebuia ochracea. The delay at the start of average rains caused by tree species was 3min. The presence of individual trees afforded a median delay in the peak time of 3 min, a reduction of the peak flow of 0.8 mm/min and runoff of 4.7mm/min. Through simulations with the scenario where the wooded urban planning aggregated all LID techniques employed in this study, it was possible to achieve a reduction in peak flows in 3.42m³ / s, compared to conventional design; allowing storage of a volume of water in 4470.59m³ local infiltration proposed structures; and delay the peak flows of up to 6 min. This thesis confirms the interference of the individual characteristics of the species in the rain interception capability by their canopies and reducing runoff, highlighting the need for careful definition of the species that make up the urban forestry; testifies the existence of variations in interceptions in relation to rainfall events and during their occurrence; as well as quantitative data points precipitate volume reduction and drained by the tree individual presence in urban areas. Their research shows that, alone, afforestation and LID techniques cause little reduction in volume and flow and little delay in time to peak flow, while combined contribute significantly to drainage. This study differs from the use of recording rain gauges and linígrados for the measurement of precipitation and runoff directly under the canopy of individual trees in an urban environment; and adds to SWMM the insertion of arboreal benefits in hydrological simulation.



ALVES, P. L. Capacidade de interceptação pelas árvores e suas influências no escoamento superficial urbano. 2015. 100 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências Ambientais) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2015.