Efeitos tóxicos e genotóxicos do herbicida Roundup Transorb® em Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) submetido a tratamento agudo
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
The effects of toxic, mutagenic and genotoxic on target organs and the fish genome has been the subject of many studies, especially those that seek to establish these bodies and responses of genes to environmental stimuli. Histopathological studies, mutagenic, genotoxic and Poecilia reticulata (Guppy) were motivated by the scarcity of data in the literature concerning the effects of the formulation of the herbicide Roundup Transorb®. With everything, we sought to ascertain the effects produced by this formulation that is widely used in the Midwest of the country. This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity and mutagenic and genotoxic herbicide R. Transorb® in liver, gill and erythrocytes of the guppy, calculating and applying the LC50 test micronucleus (MN) and Comet assay (AC). The toxicity bioassays were performed to calculate the LC50;12-96h, to evaluate the effects of sublethal concentrations of herbicide subjected to acute treatment. We used 36 adult fish, weighing on average 0.496 g ± 0.28 g to calculate the LC50 and 75 adult fish also carry the MN and AC. During exposure to the herbicide was observed fish behavior at all concentrations and controlled chemical and physical changes of water. The erythrocytes were obtained by centrifugation of the gills being added to precipitate fetal calf serum, and then dripped on the slides to make the smear and electrophoresis. For the analysis of plates, 75.000 cells were counted and stipulate the frequency of occurrence of Nuclear Morphological Changes (AMNs) and AC were analyzed for 100 cells per specimen. The LC50; 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96h of R. Transorb® were 11:24, 8:55, 6.5, 6.10 and 5.65μl/L, respectively, indicating that this species is very sensitive to the herbicide studied in relation to other tropical species analyzed. These factors may be related to different formulations of herbicides and their respective surfactants. It was found that the mortality rate of fish poisoned by the herbicide increased as exposure concentrations increased. The values of LC50,12-96h show a downward trend over time, suggesting that during periods of reduced exposure will require greater amounts of herbicide to cause mortality of 50% of the population of animals. Animals exposed to the herbicide showed behavioral changes varied, such as aggressiveness, irritability, loss of the escape reflex, darkening of the body surface and banging against the wall of the aquarium. In addition, R. Transorb® hitológicas induced liver changes appreciably impairing the normal functioning of this organ. In MN and EC was possible to detect significant genotoxic and mutagenic effects in erythrocytes and gill cells, occurring gradual increase in the number of cells with AMNs and ADN damage under higher concentrations,indicating concentration-dependent effect. This herbicide has acute toxicity to guppy, promoting behavioral changes, possibly acting in a manner damaging to the liver but also in the nervous system and gill. These results also suggest that the formulation of this herbicide has genotoxic and mutagenic in erythrocytes and gill cells detected by the MN and AC. Therefore, it confirms the high risk of herbicide to the environment, its contamination may present a strong threat to populations of fish and other organisms both vertebrates and invertebrates and human health.
SOUZA FILHO, José de. Toxic effects and genotoxicity of Roundup Transorb® in Guppy(Poecilia reticulata) submitted to acute treatment. 2011. 159 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Biolóicas) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2011.