O direito à educação nos planos municipais de educação de capitais de estados brasileiros

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


This study, which is part of the Research Line State, Policies and History of Education of the Postgraduate Program in Education at the Federal University of Goiás (UFG), aimed to understand the conception of the right to education present in the municipal education plans of Brazilian capitals prepared from 2015, in conjunction with the PNE, considering the categoriesof universality, gratuity and obligation. A qualitative research approach was used to construct and understand the object of study, in articulation with bibliographical and documental research, as well as thematic categorical analysis. The study examined the moments of constitutional regulation, drafting of national education guidelines and bases laws and discussion and preparation of national education plans, especially the last of the 2014-2024 decade, in its articulation with state and municipal plans of education. The research had the following specific objectives: a) Reflect on the conception of the right to education that marks Brazilian education from the 1990s onwards; b) Investigate central aspects of the right to education in the PNE (2014-2024), in view of the constitution and materialization in the field of education policy and management; c) Examine the education plans of Brazilian capitals, bearing in mind possible advances and setbacks regarding the right to education under the direct responsibility of the municipalities, notably the mandatory pre-school phase (4 and 5 years) and elementary school (6 to 14 years). The treatment of the collected material occurred from the content analysis of the data (BARDIN, 1977), based on the municipal education plans of 15 Brazilian state capitals. The investigation and the exposition contemplate the following categories: universality, gratuity and obligatoriness, being that, firstly, it was sought to identify these words in the municipal plans of education and later cut through the municipal competence in face of the pre-school and the fundamental education. The construction of the object of study and these categories, in particular, result from the dialogue with: Marx (1998), Gramsci (1999, 2017), Apple (2003), Bobbio (2004), Harvey (2008), Cury (2010), Dourado (2017, 2020), Adrião (2018), among others, in conjunction with the document analysis process and the legal basis. The research revealed the complexity of public policy regarding the right to education based on the prognosis that its development is procedurally directed considering a certain historical period and meets several dimensions, sometimes contradictory, but which, in general, justify the dynamics printed for democratic political and social advances, but also for the reordering of the capitalist and neoliberal system. The municipal education plans (PMEs) actively highlighted the right to education regarding the categories of universality, gratuity and obligation. It was found that the right to education in municipal plans is close to the social conception and the economic conception, showing significant advances, but also setbacks in early childhood education (preschool) and elementary education. Regarding the social conception, the principle confirmation of the 1988 constitutional text was verified, the universalization of free and obligatory education; inclusive education; aspects about financing; conditionalities for the quality of education; continuing education for education professionals; holding a public tender for professors and aspects of the collaboration regime. However, in relation to the economicneoliberal conception, also present in the formulation of PMEs, it was observed orientations more linked to the expansion of the public-private relationship and to the privatist logic.



ROCHA JUNIOR, A. D. O direito à educação nos planos municipais de educação de capitais de estados brasileiros. 2023. 301 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2022.