A física apropriada: realismo ingênuo e obstáculos epistemológicos
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
Inter-epistemic trends in the production of knowledge are currently strong and present themselves as an attempt to overcome major problems that affect both scientific production and society in general. These production activities among specific areas of knowledge often result in inter-epistemic appropriation, a process in which elements constructed in a particular field of knowledge are appropriated by other fields. Due to its historical projection as a science and to its revolutionary productions since the beginning of the twentieth century, Physics has become one of the main sources of elements, especially the Quantum and the Relativity theories, under appropriation in these inter-epistemic activities. The elements produced by contemporary Physics were thus appropriated by different fields of knowledge, such as Psychology and Business Administration. These appropriations are used either to confirm knowledge of these fields or to subsidize the creation of theories and knowledge in such fields. The present work analyzes these inter-epistemic appropriations of the elements derived from contemporary Physics through an epistemological point of view, pointing out the foundation of the thought that undertakes the appropriations. The explanation is built through the elucidation of the knowledge construction characteristics of contemporary Physics, such characteristics are referred to as “epistemic scope of production of the elements of Physics”. This study also analyzes, in the background, a questionable tendency of considering Physics as a foundation for the construction of other fields of knowledge, as a guiding and model science for scientific and academic productions. The epistemological investigation reveals a characteristic of inter-epistemic activities: they are based on a naive realism towards the interpretation of the elements of Physics, considering these elements as existent (in the simplest sense of the term), disregarding all the epistemological complexity of the constitution of current Physics. Therefore, the intention here is to formulate epistemological conditions to make an important denunciation: academic and scientific activities are sometimes grounded on an epistemologically erroneous basis as they take elements of contemporary Physics under appropriation, a naively realistic basis. The consequence, or the symptom, of this epistemological flaw in academic and scientific activities is that, frequently, inter-epistemic appropriations, derived from contemporary Physics, revive epistemological obstacles, such as verbalism and tendencies to generalizations, in the fields of knowledge which appropriate the elements of Physics. Consequently, the essential statement of this research is that interepistemic appropriations derived from contemporary Physics cause the revival of epistemological obstacles in scientific and academic fields that are either already consolidated or in the process of consolidation. As a conclusive part of the work, the implications of these inter-epistemic appropriation activities derived from contemporary Physics for the legitimacy of academic and scientific activity, especially in Brazil, are discussed. In addition, the demystification of Physics itself and its removal from the theoretical background that supports the production of other fields of knowledge are proposed. Finally, the importance of awareness of epistemological restrictions of these appropriations and of the epistemic characteristics of scientific productions for the formation of science teachers and for the field of Science Teaching is also discussed, placing the question of their autonomy in the context of appropriations of elements derived from contemporary Physics.
OLIVEIRA, S. G. A física apropriada: realismo ingênuo e obstáculos epistemológicos. 2020. 238 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação em Ciências e Matemática) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2020.