Análise tridimensional do espaço aéreo faríngeo e posição do osso hioide em crianças com e sem indicação para adenotonsilectomia

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


The pharynx is an organ that participates in the respiratory and digestive systems. Its peculiar tubular anatomy may be mechanically obstructed, especially due to adenotonsillar hyperplasia. This hyperplasia, when chronic, results in changes in craniofacial growth and development. The present study aimed to perform the threedimensional evaluation, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), of 4- to 9- year-old children, with and without indication for adenotonsillectomy (AT) and with maxillary atresia, comparing the measurements and the location of the minimum area of the pharynx, as well as the total pharyngeal volume and the volume of the subregions of the palatine tonsils and adenoids and, additionally, locating the position of the hyoid bone (H) and correlating it with the total pharynx volume and the volume of the subregions of the palatine tonsils and adenoids. For the selection of the nonprobabilistic consecutive sampling, 487 children were screened at the Otorhinolaryngology Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine of the Universidade Federal de Goiás, from March to December 2017. Inclusion criteria were: age group between 4 and 9 years, presence of maxillary atresia, and balanced face (evaluated by the S line) using facial analysis. Exclusion criteria were: obesity, extensive caries, previous AT, presence of craniofacial syndromes or congenital anomalies, history of traumas or surgeries in the region of head, neck, or face, previous orthopedic/orthodontic treatment, early tooth loss, and dental Class II or III. The diagnosis of maxillary atresia and the other oral conditions were performed by two orthodontists. After selection, the patients were evaluated by an otorhinolaryngologist, who conducted anamnesis, physical examination and flexible nasal endoscopy to diagnose the obstruction due to adenotonsillar hyperplasia. The sample size calculation, considering the minimum area of the pharynx as the primary variable, defined 30 patients in each of the two study groups, the surgical and the non-surgical groups, who underwent the Prick test. Posteriorly, they underwent CBCT exams to evaluate the airflow and position of H. CBCTs were analyzed using the Invivo Dental software to obtain the three-dimensional and two-dimensional measurements of the pharyngeal airway space and the position of H. The age did not show statistical difference between groups (p = 0.111). The surgical group had a higher frequency of male participants. The measurements of total pharyngeal volume (p = 0.038), volume of the adenoid region (p = 0.001), and minimum area of the pharynx (p = 0.011) showed significant statistical differences between the grupos. In the surgical group, the highest frequency of the minimum area of the pharynx was in the adenoid region (60.0%), while in the non-surgical group the highest frequency was in the palatine tonsil region (73.3%). The correlation coefficient between H-Tweed mandibular plane (MP) and the volume of the palatine tonsil region was moderate in the surgical group (r = 0.408; p = 0.025). In conclusion, in this study: the pharyngeal volumes and the volume in the adenoid region were signifcantly reduced in the patients of the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group; the volume corresponding to the palatine tonsil region was similar in both groups; the narrowest pharynx area was located at a higher frequency in the region near the adenoid hyperplasia in the surgical group, whereas in the non-surgical group it was located at a higher frequency in the palatine tonsil region; no significant statistical difference was found for the position of H between the groups, and the correlation between its position and the sagital and vertical cephalometric patterns was weak.



SANTOS, C. B. Análise tridimensional do espaço aéreo faríngeo e posição do osso hioide em crianças com e sem indicação para adenotonsilectomia. 2018. 80 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Odontologia) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2018.