Do estado plurinacional da Bolívia para o Brasil: um estudo da situação sociolinguística de um grupo de imigrantes bolivianos que vivem na região metropolitana de São Paulo
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
This qualitative ethnographic study investigates the sociolinguistic situation of a group of Bolivian immigrants residing in the Metropolitan Region of the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Based on the reports of these immigrants, I analyze the uses of the Spanish, Portuguese, Aymara and Quechua languages by the members of this community as well as their linguistic attitudes and perceptions about learning Portuguese, about their languages, traditions, ethnocultural manifestations, conflicts and resistances. As a theoretical reference for the development of this work, I turn to sociolinguistics related to studies dealing with questions related to bilingualism (FISHMAN, 1967, 1972; GROSJEAN, 1982, 2010). Besides these, I also turn to the studies of Population Studies in order to understand the contemporary migratory flows and the territoriality constitution of immigrants (FAZITO, 2002; HAESBAERT, 2001, 2007). To address issues of ethnicity, I refer to the anthropological assumptions of Barth (1976) and Berry (1990, 2011), as I also consider Goffman's (2006) assumptions important for understanding the stigmatization processes. Regarding methodology, I chose to follow the theoretical and methodological assumptions of ethnography relying on Blommaert (2006), Rees and Mello (2011) and Spradley (1980). Data collection was achieved through informal interviews, which enabled the expressiveness of the participants. Subsequently, questionnaires were applied for the purpose of surveying the uses of languages. The results obtained in this study suggest the predominance of the use of Spanish, which functions as a kind of lingua franca in the Bolivian territories in São Paulo, followed by the uses of Portuguese, reserved for interactions outside these Bolivian territories; as a follow up, Aymara, a language used by many individuals to interact with their family and friends, as it is frequently used in some sewing workshops; and finally, Quechua, which is used by a more limited number of individuals, usually to communicate with close friends. It was possible to observe that their traditional dances, besides being a form of relaxation, also present themselves as important ethnic elements, which in addition to keeping them linked with liveliness to their cultures and traditions, are used as a form of dialogue with the local population in order to alleviate the stigmatized view bestowed on them by members of the society of São Paulo.
SILVA, S. S. Do estado plurinacional da Bolívia para o Brasil: um estudo da situação sociolinguística de um grupo de imigrantes bolivianos que vivem na região metropolitana de São Paulo. 2017. 322 f. Tese (Doutorado em Letras e Linguística) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2017.