“Foi uma luta grande que nós tivemos aqui”: etnogênese e territorialidade do Quilombo do Rosa, Macapá/AP

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


Quilombola communities in Amapá are undergoing a process of strengthening their identities and their political mobilization in the beginning of the 21st century. This research thematizes the identity and territorial processes that the Quilombo do Rosa lives. The theoretical reference is based on the Critical-Cultural Geography developed by Rogério Haesbaert and Alex Ratts, with the contribution of anthropological reflections on ethnicity, as Manuela Carneiro da Cunha. The methodology is based on ethnography, and the ethnographic method chosen is Marshall Sahlins' Historical Ethnography. The main demand in the process of recent territorialization lived by Quilombo do Rosa is the titling of its territory and conquest of public policies of housing and education. Ethnogenesis, the emergence of the quilombola identity, occurred in the first decade of the 21st century, when the quilombola communities of Amapá live a new scenario, especially with the arrival of public policies such as the Brasil Quilombola Program in the identification and recognition of communities remaining quilombolas. The main objective is to analyze the recent processes of identity recognition and territorialization of the Rosa community, at the beginning of the 21st century; therefore, the analysis of the process of self-identification as remaining quilombola and of the specific territorialization engendered as a result of this identification. Regarding the first aspect, its cultural identity, the Rosa community manifests itself as a remnant quilombola of Catholic religiosity. As regards the second aspect, its social and political mobilization, its origin was eminently territorial in nature: the first association was created in the community in the year 2002, after a great mobilization against ICOMI - Indústria e Comércio de Minérios S.A. As an expression of the contradictions present in the process of recognition, Rosa had to face internal resistance to self-identification as a quilombola by members of the community itself; resistance in part defeated by the group's own consensus production processes, still present today, in the consciousness of community residents still opposed to self-identification and titling of the territory as a quilombola. Both the lack of knowledge of law and law by the popular classes and the intentional production of false information by the detractors of the quilombola movement and the black movement, fueled not only by interests opposed to quilombola titling but also by racism, recognition of the Rosa, and still are in Amapá, obstacles to be faced in the direction of the full exercise of the citizenship of the communities remaining local quilombolas. Despite the dialectic of the process, the Rose has been established as a quilombo. The results of the research indicate that once the community has access to the identity and juridical category of quilombola, and once it has reappropriated its ancestry of remaining quilombola, the community, in a proper deliberative process, in an autonomous political process, engages in a process of self-recognition of identity and in a proper territorialization, on the basis of which it has mobilized and mobilized to guarantee the proper titling of its traditional territory and full access to quilombola citizenship, which for example involves access to affirmative action and education differentiated. The decisive driving force for the intentionality of the Rosa community towards self-recognition as a quilombola and the respective protection of the law were the real threats to the territory of the community experienced in the period. With regard to the relationship between ethnic recognition and territorial rights, self-recognition as a quilombola and the public positioning as such was decisive in securing the territory of the community in the face of these external threats of the period. In the dynamics of territorial disputes between the forces of capital and traditional communities, ethnic identification appears as a symbolic element that enhances political capital and legitimizes the socio-political movement of the quilombo; the ethnic identification, in a world context of politicization of the ethnicity and valorization of the ethnic citizenship, therefore, appears like decisive territorial strategy.



Silva, David Junior de Souza. “Foi uma luta grande que nós tivemos aqui”: etnogênese e territorialidade do Quilombo do Rosa, Macapá/AP. 2019. 273 f. Tese (Doutorado em Geografia) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2019.