Mestrado em Zootecnia (EVZ)

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    Máquina de aprendizado extremo para predição de ganho médio diário à desmama em bovinos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-12-20) Lisboa, Giovanna Rodrigues; Bertazzo, Rodrigo Possa;; Mascioli, Arthur dos Santos;; Arnhold, Emmanuel;; Arnhold, Emmanuel; Leite, Carla Daniela Suguimoto; Hellmeister Filho, Paulo
    Extreme Learning Machines, Extreme Machine Learning (EML/IGASE), unlike other Artificial Neural Network (ANN) training algorithms that adjust network parameters through the iterative presentation of training patterns, include intermediate neuron numbers and perform projection random in the hidden layer, in general of high dimensionality in the complex connections with the other variables of direct inputs, the weights are selected in a random way injected and bijected in the complex composite functions, without need of training. The over- sizing of the EML/IGASE becomes necessary for the smoothing of the response, guarantees the capacity of generalization and transfers of complex functions in the temporal series of phenotypic expressions of the animals. The objective of this work is to predict the average weight gain at weaning (GMPD) phenotype as a function of direct variables measured in animals within and between seasons (SF) and farms (FAZ), using EML/IGASE. 8,812 progeny records were used for 11 harvests, descendants of 272 bulls, from 09 farms located in different states of the federation, Mato Grosso (MT), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Paraná (PR) and São Paulo (SP). ). The phenotypes studied were weight at weaning (PD), average weight gain at weaning (GMPD), conformation at weaning (CPD), musc ulature at weaning (MPD) and early weaning (PPD). Extreme Machine Learning (EML/IGASE) was able to predict the mean weight gain at weaning (GMPD) phenotype, based on the other variables measured in the animals within and between seasons and farms studied, with low Mean Squared Error (MSE) in the robust interactions and transfers of complex functions from multi-input neural architectures and different levels of environmental attributables to the expressed phenotypes. In the univariate analyzes with the input variable weights at weaning (PD) transferring to the average weight gain at weaning (GMPD) the EML/IGASE performed complex numeric al predictions in 08 productive harvests of the 09 farms, where the Mean Squared Errors (EQM) between predicted and actual variables of GMPD ranged from 0.09 to 13.96%. For the multivariate analyzes with the four input variables weight at weaning (PD), conformation at weaning (CPD), musc ulature at weaning (MPD) and precocity at weaning (PPD) in 09 harvests of the 09 productive farms, the Mean Squared Errors (NDE) between predicted and actual GMPD variables ranged from 0.08 to 26.30%. The complex transfer functions were robust to noise tests up to the second decimal place in the numeric al predictions considered in the study.
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    Avaliação da inclusão de aditivo simbiótico em dietas de frangos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-03-05) Faria, Itallo da Silva; Carvalho, Fabyola Barros;; Melo, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho;; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Santos, Bruno Moreira dos; Costa, Miliane Alves da; Stringhini, José Henrique
    This study aimed to assess the symbiotic inclusion (lysine, methionine, calcium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, glucomannans, and mannooligosaccharides) in broilers diet and to evaluate the possible effects on the inclusion on zootechnic indexes, cuts and carcass yields, blood parameters, and broilers intestinal health. 512 animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, in of four treatments (Treatment 1 - Performance enhancer, Treatment. 2 - Symbiotic, Treatment 3 - Growth promoter + symbiotic, Treatment 4 - without addition of enhancer additive), eight replications consisting of 16 birds per experimental unit. During the experiment, zootechnic performances such as weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, and mortality were evaluated in each rearing phase (seven, 21, 35, and 42 days). Withing seven days, poultry fed with growth promoter and growth promoter + symbiotic exhibit higher final weight gain, weight gain, and feed consumption. At 21 days of age, there was higher weight gain and feed consumption with growth promoter and growth promoter + symbiotic. At 35 days of age, it was observed higher feed consumption with growth promoter and growth promoter + symbiotic. At 42 days of age, there were no statistic differences among the treatments for the performance variables. Significant differences were only found to leg quarter yield in poultry fed with symbiotic. On the 21st day, it was observed a higher concentration of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase, and Triglyceride on the animal’s hematological profile that were fed with growth promoter and symbiotic. On the 42nd day, significant differences were observed regarding to uric acid to the poultry fed with growth promoter and symbiotic, which showed lower values to uric acid, broilers that received symbiotic + performance enhancer and or no enhancer additive in the diet had higher serum calcium concentration. There was significative difference to the ileum crypt only on the 21st day of histomorphometry assessment the birds that received the symbiotic
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    Qualidade de farelos de soja para frangos de corte suplementados com enzimas exogenas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-12-07) Paulo, Lorrayne Moraes de; Mello, Heloísa Helena de Carvalho;; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Stringhini, José Henrique; Minafra, Cibele Silva; Leite, Carla Daniela Suguimoto
    This study aimed to evaluate the apparent metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MCDM), nitrogen (MCN), apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) of soybean meals (SM) supplemented with exogenous enzymes. Three metabolism assays were carried out from 14 to 21 days, using the total excreta collection method, with Cobb 500®male broiler chicks. In the first trial, the design used was completely randomized (DIC), with five treatments, five replications containing eight birds per experimental unit, totaling 160 birds. The experimental diets consisted of: Reference diet (DR); DR + 40% of the respective tested soybean meal (A, B, C, D). In the second trial, the design used was completely randomized (DIC), in a 4x2 factorial scheme with eight treatments, five replications containing eight birds per experimental unit, totaling 320 birds. Treatments consisted of: Reference diet (RD); RD + 40% of each bran (A, B, C); with or without protease supplementation. In the third trial, the design used was completely randomized (DIC), with nine treatments, five replications containing eight birds per experimental unit, totaling 360 birds. The treatments consisted of using 40% of a commercial soybean meal in combination with protease, xylanase and amylase, alone or in combination. When evaluating the quality of the different commercial soybean meal used in the region of Goiania, significant differences were observed in the analysis of processing quality assessment, where soybean meal A showed better protein dispersibility (PD) compared to other soybean meal. The results of ureatic activity show that the lowest levels of ureatic activity (UA) were observed in soybean meal B and D. In test 1, a significant effect of the different FS on AMEn was observed, where soybean meal A and B had higher levels. of AMEn. In trial 2, the use of exogenous protease helped to increase the levels of AME, AMEn, MCDM and MCN. In trial 3 a significant effect on AMEn was observed, where the combinations of protease + amylase, xylanase + amylase, protease + xylanase + amylase showed an increase in AMEn. Correlations between AME and AMEn of broiler chickens and bromatological and quality analyzes of soybean meal processing were performed. There were positive correlations between mineral matter (MM) and AME, AMEn, PD and AMEn. Negative correlations were observed between MS and EMA and AMEn. It is concluded that commercialized soybean bran may present differences in the UA or PD contents, and that there may also be differences regarding AMEn depending on the origin. The use of enzymes such as protease can improve both the AME and AMEn contents and the MCDM and MCN. As well as the use of combinations of different enzymes such as protease, xylanase and amylase can improve AMEn levels. It can be observed through correlations that factors such as DM, MM and DP can influence the EMA and AMEn values.
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    Qualidade de ovos de poedeiras marrons provenientes de sistema livre de gaiolas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-12-08) Pereira, Ligia Sarneiro; Carvalho, Fabyola Barros de; Leite, Carla Daniela Suguimoto; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Stringhini, José Henrique; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Leite, Paulo Ricardo de Sá da Costa
    Eggs are extremely perishable and they start losing their intern quality immediately after being laid. It is an inevitable phenomenon and can be worsen by different factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of storage (time and environment) and the hen’s age on the physical properties of eggs from Hy-Line Brown® hens of different ages (36, 53, and 69 weeks old), regarding to two storage conditions: refrigerated (fridge) and shelf (ambient temperature) and three storage periods (10th, 20th, and 30th day). The experiment was carried out for 30 days, at Setor de Avicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brasil. In total, 243 eggs were used. 108 eggs were used to the quality assessment (six repetitions each), 90 eggs were used to the dry-matter analyses (five repetitions each), and 45 eggs were used to the eggshell strength analyses. Using a completely random design, the data were analyzed as a 3x2x3 factorial (age, environment, and storage period). Each egg was broken on a flat glass surface and then analyzed every 10 days regarding to its quality: egg, yolk, albumen, and shell mean weight (g); shell thickness (mm); specific gravity (g/cm3 ); Haugh Unity; albumen and yolk index; albumen, yolk, and shell percentage (%); yolk and albumen pH; albumen and yolk dry matter (%); and shell strength (kgf). The variables were tested in terms of normality to the analysis of variance premises assessment. The parametric analyzes underwent the analysis of variance and Tukey test (p<0,05). SAS® University Edition software was used to analyze the data. Eggs from 69 weeks old hens resulted in higher yolk weight and lower eggshell strength. Eggs storage in room temperature presented a linear decrease in the yolk index. Regardless the hens’ age, albumen pH was lower on the 20th day of storage. Regardless the storage time and hens’ age, the greatest Haugh Unit values were observed in refrigerated eggs, suggesting the importance of lower temperatures to maintain these products’ quality. Keywords: albumen, conservation, age, hen, Haugh Unity.
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    Desempenho produtivo, características de carcaça e qualidade da carne de suínos classificados para alta e baixa força de cisalhamento do lombo
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-02-24) São José, Gabryella Luiza Félix; Carmo, Adriana Santana do;; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello;; Almeida, Vivian Vezzoni de;; Almeida, Vivian Vezzoni de; Nuñez, Amoracyr José Costa; Tse, Marcos Livio Panhoza
    Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor are important drivers of consumer liking for pork, which have been associated with intramuscular fat content. Genetic selection resulted in pigs with improved feed efficiency and greater carcass lean percentage; however, intramuscular fat content has been reduced to levels that do not guarantee sensory benefits to consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in genetically lean immunocastrated pigs grouped for extreme Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) values. The values of WBSF were obtained from previous study evaluating four diets, six replicates per diet, and three animals per experimental unit, totalizing 72 immunocastrated male pigs. Pigs were fed with diets containing either 1.5% soybean oil (CON) or 3% soybean oil (SO), canola oil (CO), or fish oil (FO) during the growing-finishing phases. Therefore, WBSF data were used to separate pigs into groups with high (4.4 a 5.5 kgf) and low (2.8 a 3.8 kgf) WBSF. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks consisting of two treatments (high and low WBSF), three blocks (CON, CO, and FO), and six replicates per treatment, totalizing 12 experimental units. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed for growth performance variables between WBSF groups. Pigs with high WBSF tended to have lower (P = 0.07) backfat thickness and greater (P = 0.09) shrink loss and carcass lean percentage than pigs with low WBSF. There were tendencies towards increased (P = 0.09) cooking loss and decreased (P = 0.07) intramuscular fat content in the loins from pigs with high WBSF compared to those with low WBSF. The concentration of oleic acid was lower (P = 0.05) in the loin intramuscular fat from pigs with high WBSF than those with low WBSF. There were tendencies for decreased (P = 0.06) total monounsaturated fatty acids concentration and increased (P = 0.09) total polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration in the loin intramuscular fat from pigs with high WBSF than those with low WBSF. In conclusion, in addition to tenderness, loins with low WBSF from immunocastrated male pigs had additional benefits in their nutritional attributes, without improvements in the efficiency of production and carcass traits.
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    Marcadores moleculares na identificação de corridas de homozigose e endogamia nas raças curraleiro pé-duro e pantaneiro
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-11-25) Santos, Marcelo Fernandes dos; Magnabosco, Claudio Ulhoa;; Rey, Fernando Sebastián Baldi;; Carmo, Adriana Santana do;; Carmo, Adriana Santana do; Freitas, Thais Miranda Silva; Leite, Carla Daniela Suguimoto
    The runs of homozygosity (ROHs) can be used to estimate more accurate population parameters and genomic regions under selection in different species and breeds. Therefore, this approach can be used in locally adapted breeds to identify genes of economic interest and estimate autozygosity, enabling the optimization of selection and mating strategies and mitigating their extinction risk. The objective of this work is to identify and characterize the ROHs present in locally adapted breeds Curraleiro Pé-Duro (CPD) and Pantaneiro (PANT) in order to identify genes under selection and estimate their inbreeding coefficient (FROH). The ROHs were identified in 126 and 35 animals of the CPD and PANT breeds, respectively, with data from 54,000 SNP markers. For the identification of ROHs, the following criteria were used: a) sliding window of 50 SNPs, b) minimum number of 100 consecutive SNPs in each ROH, c) minimum length of 1 Mb, c) maximum interval between homozygous consecutive SNPs of 0, 5 Mb, d) maximum of five SNPs with absent genotypes, 1083 and 140 ROHs were found in the CPD and PANT breeds, respectively, and that the predominant pattern of ROHs in the studied breeds are those of medium to long size, which demonstrates recent events of autozygosity. Six islands of homozygosity were identified in both breeds on autosomal chromosomes 6, 8, 10, 13, 14 and 17. Genes and QTLs previously related to traits of interest are located in the segments found, highlighting QTLs associated with production and quality traits of milk (57%), as those involved in the content of proteins such as caseins and genes associated with the immune system, such as the genes of the beta defensin family. The estimated inbreeding coefficient showed that both breeds have low autozygosity (2-4%), which differs from what is expected for populations with a reduced genetic base such as those studied. The present work identified six homozygous islands in common in the Curraleiro Pé-Duro and Pantaneiro breeds, located in genomic regions previously reported to be associated with characteristics of economic interest, such as disease resistance and milk protein content, which can be considered candidate regions the selection. The inbreeding coefficient estimated based on the ROHs showed that inbreeding is low (2 to 4%) in the studied populations, diverging from what was expected in small populations.
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    Densidades de estocagem para tilápia do Nilo em sistema aquapônico de Raft
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-12-10) Moraes, Anderson Pires de; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Costa, Adriano Carvalho;; Paula, Fernanda Gomes de;; Paula, Fernanda Gomes de; Arnhols, Emmanuel; Floriano, Luciane Sperandio
    This work was developed with the aim of comparing the productive performance, economic evaluation, yields and body and chemical composition of the fillet, blood biochemistry of Nile tilapia, productive performance of lettuces and chemical composition, in addition to the interaction of water quality parameters between lettuce, fish and water. The experiment was conducted in the Aquaculture Sector at the Veterinary and Zootechnics School - EVZ, from the Federal University of Goiás - UFG, from December 2020 to March 2021 (80 days). A total of 648 fish were used, divided into two periods of 40 days each (period I: 234 fish and period II: 234 fish), randomly distributed in 12 masonry tanks with 6 m², in two densities (3 fish per m² and 6 fish per m²). m²). The experimental design was completely randomized in four treatments with 3 replications each, where T1: 3 fish per m² together with lettuce production, T2: 6 fish per m² with lettuce production, T3: 3 fish per m² without lettuce, T4 : 6 fish per m² without lettuce with 3 repetitions each, totaling 12 experimental units, and the same experiment was repeated in time, in order to better evaluate density and the interaction of vegetables within the same system. The fish were fed with commercial feed containing 32% CP at a frequency of three times a day. The variables of productive performance were analyzed (survival rate, average weight, biomass, individual weight gain, apparent feed consumption, apparent feed conversion, protein efficiency rate and specific growth rate), economic evaluation (partial operating cost, gross, partial net revenue, incidence of costs), body yields (head proportion, carcass yield, viscera proportion and fillet yield), fillet chemical composition (dry matter, crude protein, ethereal extract, mineral matter), analysis bromatology of lettuce (dry matter, crude protein, mineral matter) biometric indices (hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic fat index), hemato-immunological (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, HCM, CHCM, thrombocytes, leukocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes). Data were submitted to double factor statistical analysis. It was observed that the experimental units that in the density of 6 fish per square meter with the presence of lettuce provided better results, zootechnical, hemato-immunological data and also better economic viability.
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    Nitrato encapsulado na suplementação para novilhos de corte em pastejo
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-10-02) Berti, Guilherme Felipe; Silva, Maurícia Brandão da;; Fernandes, Juliano José Resende;; Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira;; Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira; Barbosa, Analívia Martins; Araújo, Rafael Canonenco de
    The present work evaluated the effects of the partial replacement of soybean meal with encapsulated nitrate in suplemented grazing beef cattle diets. The experimental design was a cross-over, conducted in two consecutive periods of 21 days each. Eight crossbred steers (average body of 345 kg), castrated, fitted with ruminal cannula were distributed in two treatments: Control - multiple supplement based on soybean meal, without nitrate; and NE - supplement with encapsulated nitrate (5% on the concentrate dry matter), replacing soybean meal. Each animal were daily supplemented with 1.0% of his body weight. The data were analyzed using mixed models, using the MIXED procedure of the SAS program and comparisons between treatments were made using the F test, at the level of 5% probability. The total dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected (P = 0.459), as well as the forage DMI (P = 0.906). However, a decreae of the concentrate DMI rate (% body weight) was observed (from 0.92% to 0.88%) (P = 0.024). Control and EN animals showed higher concentrate intake during three hours after feed, however EN had lower and slower consumption throughout the day. The use of EN did not change the digestibility of the dry matter (P = 0.090), as well as the digestibility of the crude protein (P = 0.160), neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.122) and non-fibrous carbohydrate (P = 0.872), but decreased the ether extract digestibility from 68.81% to 61.21% (P <0.05). The EN decreased butyrate (P <0.01) and valerate rates (P <0.0095) 9 hours after feeding. There was no effect of EN on propionate (P> 0.1215) and total AGCC rates (P> 0.8620), whereas EN increased the total acetate rates 3, 6 and 12 hours after supplementation (P <0.0018). There was no effect of EN on the ruminal NH3 concentration (P> 0.5845). In summary, EN provides lower palatability to concentrate diets, maybe increasing the time spent in the trough throughout a day, but did not decreases the dry matter intake of suplemented grazing cattles.
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    Ganho de peso compensatório em diferentes fases na criação do frango de corte
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-05-18) Teodoro, Janaina Correia; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca;; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Carvalho, Fabyola Barros de; Peron, Hugo Jayme Mathias Coelho; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez
    This experimental trial was designed with the objective of evaluating a possible compensatory weight gain in broilers at different ages submitted to a quantitative food restriction program. Fully randomized experimental design (DIC), with 5 treatments and 7 repetitions with 32 birds per repetition, totaling 35 experimental plots, totaling 1,120 birds. The treatments consisted of quantitative food restriction of 20% of the expected weekly consumption of the cobb table, separated by week: treatment with food restriction in the second week, treatment with food restriction in the third week, treatment with restriction in the fourth week, treatment with restriction in the fifth week, sixth week with free feeding for all treatments and control treatment without restriction. The collected data were submitted to ANOVA and were evaluated by contrast. In the weekly performance the feed consumption was always low in the treatment of the week restriction when compared to the control treatment, in consequence, the average weight was also lower in the same week, and the conversion was always higher in the week of the restriction. At 42 days, these differences were not observed, suggesting that there was weight recovery, that is, the broiler chicken with a 20% restriction managed to show compensatory weight gain. For organs and tissues, there was a significant difference between treatments in the relative weight for gastrointestinal tract and large intestine, presenting a lower index in the week that the birds went through food restriction. As for intestinal histomorphometry, in general, villus height and crypt depth were higher in treatments that underwent food restriction, since the intestinal epithelium of birds is constantly renewed by mechanisms of intestinal muscosa repair, which can be changed by agent nutrients, which makes them hyperplastic, with deeper crypt depth. For evaluation of woody chest degrees, there was a better result (reduced incidence) for the animals that underwent restriction in the second and fifth week. When examining the means of microscopic lesions of the pectoralis major muscle, a difference is observed only in adipose tissue. It was concluded that birds with a 20% restriction were able to regain weight and present compensatory weight gain. With regard to organs and tissues, there was a decrease in the weight of intestinal organs due to a decrease in peristaltic movements in the face of a period of restriction, requiring less from the intestine and, consequently, decreasing its relative weight. Likewise, the birds' organisms react to food restriction at the cellular level, increasing villus height and crypt depth as a mechanism to improve nutrient absorption and increase tissue repair. With regard to pectoral muscle changes, the restriction applied in this study was able to reduce the incidence of wooden breast.
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    Avaliação do mercado de peixes ornamentais em Goiânia e região metropolitana
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-06-28) Araujo, Rafael Martins de; Oliveira, Kellen de Sousa;; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez;; Mello, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho;; Paula, Fernanda Gomes de; Leite, Paulo Ricardo de Sá da Costa; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez; Mello, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho
    The objective was to study the production chain of ornamental fish, addressing the retail and consumer trade in Goiânia and the metropolitan area. In general, the variables that characterize the production, trade, marketing chain and the rearing of ornamental fish were analyzed. Questionnaires applied online were used for aquarist practitioners, shopkeepers and producers, and responses were obtained from 82 individuals who fall into the category of aquarism practitioners, 25 shopkeepers and 32 producers. The relationships between the variables were analyzed by the chi-square test, considering 0.05 of significance. The results were compared and evaluated through the confidence interval and highlighted those who had interest within the ornamental fish market. Those individuals who responded as producers demonstrated that they started producing only by hobbie (51.4%) and, with demand growing, their production increased. Shopkeepers, mostly representing pet shops, agricultural shops and water shops have little control of water quality (62.5% of the stores), as well as the watercolor practitioners who, although they have knowledge about water quality (62.3% of the individuals), are few who make this type of evaluation (41.9%). Thus, it was found that, for the most part, the ornamental fish market of Goiânia and the metropolitan region do not actually perform the verification and control of water quality in their places of rearing or selling, either due to lack of knowledge or incentive.
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    Uso do probiótico Bacillus amyloliquefaciens na dieta para frangos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-03-05) Brasileiro, Júlio César Lopes; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Mello, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho;; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Leite, Paulo Ricardo de Sá da Costa; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez
    The use of antibiotics in animal feed is increasingly a reason for questioning and discussion with the focus on food safety and the possibility of the emergence of bacterial resistance that may reflect on human therapy. Alternatives have been researched to replace the use of antibiotics in animal production with additives considered more innocuous, especially probiotics. Thus, to evaluate the use of probiotic associated or not with the presence of performance-enhancing antibiotic, 1400 one-day-old male Cobb-500® chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design (DIC) in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme totaling four treatments and ten repetitions including 35 birds in each plot covering the 42-day experimental period. Avilamycin was used as a performance-enhancing antibiotic and the variables studied in the present study included the zootechnical performance index, carcass yield and intestinal histomorphometry. For the variable of zootechnical performance index in the period of one to 21 days, an effect of the use of probiotic for feed conversion was observed, with the birds that received the probiotic presented a better conversion index when compared to the group of birds that did not receive addition. of probiotic and antibiotic in diets. For the intestinal histomorphometry parameter, the interaction between factors was observed, in which the group of birds that consumed the antibiotic-free diet and included with the probiotic presented better villus height concomitant to the villus: crypt in the duodenum ratio and better villus height concomitant to the depth of crypts in the ileum, demonstrating to be a viable alternative of substitution against the antibiotics used in the poultry farming.
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    Facilitando a adaptação de bovinos (Bos taurus indicus) para dietas de confinamento de alta proporção de concentrado utilizando Megasphaera elsdenii
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-05-28) Lopes, Ana Laura Araújo; Fernandes, Juliano José de Resende;; Fernandes, Juliano José de Resende; Meschiatti, Murillo Alves Porto; Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira
    This study evaluated the effects of Megasphaera elsdenii administration at the beginning of the feedlot period on performance of Bos taurus indicus bulls. On d 0, 383 Nellore bulls (initial shrunk body weight 384 ± 29.2 kg; initial age = 24 ± 2 mo) were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments consisted of 1) 14 d adaptation diet and transition to a finishing diet (CONT), 2) CONT plus oral administration of 20 mL of Lactipro-NXT (M. elsdenii) on d 0 of the study (MEG-14), 3) CONT diet, consisting of 6 d of adaptation diet plus oral administration of 20 mL of Lactipro-NXT on d 0 of the study (MEG-6), and 4) No adaptation diet and oral administration of 20 mL of Lactipro-NXT on d 0 of the study (MEG-0). Experimental period lasted 119 d. No treatment effects were observed for any of the performance parameters evaluated herein (P ≥ 0.15). Nonetheless, a treatment × wk interaction was observed for DM, NEm, and NEg intakes (P < 0.0001). For all these parameters, MEG-0 and MEG-6 had a reduced intake vs. MEG- 14 and CONT in the first wk of the study (P ≤ 0.05). For the carcass traits, no effects were observed for HCW (P ≥ 0.24), whereas MEG-6 had a greater REA when compared with MEG-0 and MEG-14 (quadratic effect; P = 0.04) and MEG-administered bulls tended to have a greater BFT vs. CONT (P = 0.08). In summary, M. elsdenii administration at the beginning of the feedlot period did not improve performance, whereas reducing the length of the adaptation period for 6 d improved REA of finishing Bos taurus indicus bulls.
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    Uso de aditivos a base de óleos essenciais no consumo alimentar de bovinos confinados
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-03-02) Carvalho, Rafael Assunção; Eifert, Eduardo da Costa;; Gonzalez, Roberto Daniel Sainz;; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa;; Eifert, Eduardo da Costa; Nuñez, Amoracyr José Costa; Ferreira, Reginaldo Nassar
    Objetivou-se avaliar a adição de um palatabilizante a base de óleos essenciais na alimentação de bovinos confinados. Foram utilizados 72 bovinos (½ taurino x ½ zebuíno), machos não castrados, com idade entre 20 e 24 meses e peso médio de 490 kg. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos (com e sem a inclusão de palatabilizante), em que cada tratamento foi constituído de 36 repetições, considerando cada animal como repetição. A alimentação foi fornecida ad libitum, composta por silagem de milheto, soja triturada, sorgo triturado, ureia e núcleo mineral atendendo uma relação volumoso concentrado de 63:37, contendo 68% de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT) e 14% de PB, de acordo com as exigências estimadas pelo software RLM Corte 3.3, para ganhos de 1,3 kg/dia. O palatabilizante foi fornecido diariamente ao lote tratado, associado à dieta total em uma proporção inicial de 9 gramas/animal/dia. Os animais foram submetidos a um período de adaptação às instalações, ao manejo e dieta de 14 dias, após esse período, se iniciou a coleta efetiva de dados com duração de 56 dias, com pesagem inicial, final e quatro pesagens intermediárias a cada 14 dias, totalizando 70 dias de teste. Os dados de consumo de alimento ingerido, foram mensurados pelo sistema de cochos eletrônicos da marca Intergado®. As variáveis coletadas para esse experimento foram, peso inicial (PI, kg); peso final (PF, kg); ganho médio diário (GMD, kg/dia); consumo de matéria seca (CMS, kg); (EA). O efeito do peso inicial como covariável foi testado para todas as características. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos cada tratamento foi constituído de 36 repetições, considerando cada animal uma repetição. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância e de regressão. Os modelos foram selecionados com base nos coeficientes de determinação e significância dos coeficientes de regressão, adotando-se um nível de significância de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando-se o teste F. Também foi adotado um esquema fatorial 2x7 dois níveis de tratamento e 7 semanas de avaliação. Todas as estimativas e análise estatística foram realizadas com auxílio do Programa R. O uso do aditivo palatabilizante na proporção estudada, não apresentou efeitos significativos para as características de desempenho avaliadas durante o período experimental.
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    Probiótico na terminação de bovinos em pastejo durante o período da seca
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-02-26) Calaça, Alana Maria Menezes Di; Fernandes, Juliano José de Resende;; Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira;; Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira; Santos, Mateus Castilho; Restle, João
    Probiotics have been promised to be an alternative additive to antibiotic use and as a growth promoter. However, the performance results of animals fed probiotics are variable. The objectives were to evaluate the productive performance of Nellore bulls on grazing system for intensive fattening during the dry season, receiving probiotic concentrate composed of Bacillus toyonensis; influence of probiotic on ruminal and intestinal mucosa development and probiotic effect on digestibility and ruminal fermentation. The experiment was carried out between July and November 2017, which corresponds to the dry period in the region. Four animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment so that the initial carcass yield could be estimated. Nellore bulls (n = 80) with initial mean weight of 354.02 ± 3.38 kg were blocked according to body weight and divided into two treatments: concentrate with probiotic and concentrate without probiotic (control). They were allocated in 16 paddocks formed by Urochloa brizantha, supplemented at 2% of the body weight in concentrate. At the end of 133 days of experiment, the animals were slaughtered and data of carcass weight, yield, carcass gain, average daily carcass gain and 12th-rib fat thickness were obtained. The in vivo digestibility assay was performed with eight rumen cannulated steers, in a cross over 2x2 design, with two treatments and two periods. Titanium dioxide was used as an external marker to estimate fecal excretion and iFDN was used as an internal marker to estimate dry matter intake. On the last day of each experimental period, ruminal fluid was collected to evaluate the concentration of short chain fatty acids and ammoniacal nitrogen. The use of probiotic composed of Bacillus toyonensis did not improve final body weight (528.2 ± 3.38 kg – p=0,2360) nor the daily average gain (1,333 kg– p= 0,2531) and feed efficiency (0.165– p=0,2016). The subcutaneous fat thickness was lower in animals receiving the probiotic (4.06 vs. 2.97 mm mm – p=0,0423). There was no influence of probiotic on other carcass traits. No significant effect on the development of the ruminal and intestinal epithelium was observed with the use of probiotic. Bacillus toyonensis did not improve dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility. There was no effect on rumen fermentation. Probiotic based on Bacillus toyonensis altered fat deposition in carcasses.
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    Parâmetros genéticos para características produtivas e de eficiência alimentar em bovinos Guzerá
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-27) Pereira, Letícia Silva; Rey, Fernando Sebastian Baldi;; Carmo, Adriana Santana do;; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhoa;; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhoa; Mascioli, Arthur dos Santos; Faria, Carina Ubirajara de
    The Guzerat breed makes a great contribution to Brazilian livestock due to its rusticity and survival in the tropics, in addition to presenting favorable production rates regarding growth, fertility and feed efficiency. These characteristics are important criteria in determining the zootechnical and bioeconomic indexes within the production system. However, it is essential to understand the behavior of these characteristics, especially the residual food consumption, which has been used as a parameter for identifying animals that are efficient in the use of food, given that there is still little work in the literature on the Guzerat breed regarding the impact of selection for residual food consumption on the performance of characteristics of economic importance. The characteristics evaluated were weight at 120 (W120), 210 (W210), 365 (W365), and 450 (W450) days of age, scrotal circumference at 365 (SC365) and 450 (SC450) days of age, rib eye area (REA), backfat thickness (BF), rump fat thickness (RF), residual feed intake (RFI) and dry matter intake (DMI). The estimation of genetic parameters was performed by the method of maximum restricted likelihood (REML), under animal model in uni, bi and multi trait analyzes, in order to determine the genetic and phenotypic associations between these characteristics, and consequently the genetic planning and the indices selection without causing antagonisms in both characteristics. Heritability for growth characteristics, P120, P210, P365, P450, PE365 showed low to moderate coefficients in the three analyzes, uni (0.17, 0.21, 0.32, 0.39), bi (0.18, 0.22, 0.33, 0.39) and multi (0.34, 0.38, 0.35, 0.39), respectively. The carcass-related characteristics showed low to moderate heritability, AOL (0.24 to 0.27), EG (0.09 to 0.10) and EGP8 (0.29 to 0.31), whereas the characteristics of efficiency showed low coefficient of heritability varying from 0.14 to 0.23. CAR showed low genetic correlations with characteristics of growth (-0.07 to 0.22), reproduction (0.03 to 0.05) and carcass (-0.35 to 0.16), with the exception of CMS (0.42 to 0.46). In general, heritability and genetic correlations expressed considerable genetic variability and significant genetic gains can be obtained through selection for feeding efficiency, growth, reproduction and carcass characteristics in the Guzerat breed, and can be included simultaneously in selection programs, without causing genetic damage. or economic and thus promote greater genetic progress of the herds.
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    Produtividade e valor nutricional de cultivares de milheto sob adubação fosfatada
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-18) Firmino, Anderson Eugênio; Arnhold, Emmanuel;; França, Aldi Fernandes de Souza;; França, Aldi Fernandes de Souza; Okada, Eliane Sayuri Miyagi; Barros, Emanoel Elzo Leal de
    Forage grasses are the main source of food for cattle, as it is the most economically viable source of dry matter. With the introduction of new species / cultivars of forage plants improved and adapted to the most different types of soils and edaphoclimatic conditions in Brazil, which allows a better performance of animals raised in exclusive grazing regime. In the region of Central Brazil, especially in the Cerrado, climatic conditions are defined by two seasons throughout the year: a rainy season, characterized by high forage production and, usually of good nutritional value, while the dry season that occurs between the months from April / May to October / November, with low forage production and low quality. It is believed that the seasonality of forage production is the biggest obstacle to the production of cattle under exclusive grazing regime, due to the great damage caused to the herd, whether in the production of meat or milk. In this way, there is a search for forages more adapted to the weather conditions that affect the forage production in the critical period of the year. In this context, forage millet appears as an alternative capable of contributing to the shortage of forage in the dry period of the year, in view of its physiological characteristics that allow it to adapt to acidic and low fertility soils, in addition to its high resistance to water stress. Two cultivars of forage millet were evaluated - ADR-500 and ADRf-6010, submitted to phosphate fertilization, in order to determine the potential of dry matter production and chemical composition in cut regime. The research was carried out at the Department of Zootechnics of the School of Veterinary and Zootechnics at UFG, from December 2018 to April 2019.
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    Características de estro pós-parto associadas às chances de prenhez de vacas holandesas em lactação
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-03) Frota, Wilson Vagner Vilas Boas; Alves, Benner Geraldo;; Gambarini, Maria Lúcia;; Gambarini, Maria Lúcia; Lopes, Dyomar Toledo; Carmo, Adriana Santana do
    The detection of estrus remains a major problem in dairy cattle, despite the enormous progress in the knowledge of the reproductive physiology of the cow and in the development of auxiliary methods. The success of any estrus detection program will depend, at least in part, on the cows' ability to exhibit estrus, which is affected by a multitude of physiological and management factors that favor or suppress estrus behavior. Parity, number of days postpartum, body condition score, milk production, calving problems, postpartum disease is recognized for influencing estrus expression. In addition, heat stress, building and the size of the herd can also affect estrus behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with estrus behavior, identified by an automated estrus detection system. Data from three experiments carried out between August 2015 and July 2018, in the state of Florida, United States of America, were collected and processed. The number of animals that participated in the experiments A, B and C was 565, 671 and 678, totaling 1914 lactation cows and 3029 estrus events. The animals enrolled in the experiments were monitored by an automated estrus detection device (SCR Inc., Netanya, Israel). Estrus was determined according to changes in activity and rumination patterns within the two-hour interval compared to the average activity and rumination for the same period in the previous five and seven days, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, logistic regression and Cox proportional regression using the SAS statistical software. The duration and intensity of estrus showed a negative correlation with the proportion of time cows were subjected to heat stress. The return to ovarian cyclicity before the end of the voluntary waiting period increased the chances of pregnancy at the first service and the pregnancy for artificial insemination up to 150 DIM. Uterine disease, subclinical ketosis and BCS were associated with delayed return to cyclicity, potentially negatively impacting reproductive performance.
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    Avaliação de coprodutos ensilados da indústria do milho em dietas de vacas em lactação
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-12-16) Cardoso, Rogério Rezende; Lima, Milton Luiz Moreira;; Zacaroni, Ozana de Fátima;; Zacaroni, Ozana de Fátima; Fernandes, Juliano José de Resende; Silva, Thiago Carvalho da
    Fibrous co-products in the feeding of ruminants contribute to the mitigation of environmental impacts and decrease the consumption of animals of digestible products by humans. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the conventional substitution concentrated (constituted in its base of corn and soy bran) by concentrate constituted by co-products of the corn industry in lactating cows ration on the consumption of dry matter (DMI), production of milk, milk components, selectivity behavior, digestibility, blood and ruminal parameters. The statistical design used was a 2x2 cross-over with two effects differentiated by the concentrated resource (conventional concentrate and concentrate consisting of corn by-products) in two 22-day experimental ones, with 14 days of adaptation for use and eight final days of data collection. Ten crossbred lactation cows (Holstein x Jerseys) were used, distributed five in each treatment and balanced in the orders according to the calving order, days in lactation and milk production. The data were analyzed by the PROC MIXED of the SAS, considering the statistical model of random effect by cow and fixed treatment effect and period at the level of significance P <0.05 and trend 0.05≤P≤0.10. The DMI and DMO were statistically higher (P=0.005 and P=0.008) for control group, while the NDF consumption did not differ statistically (P=0.76) and the consumption of physically effective fiber was statistically higher (P<0.0001) for treatment with co-products. The production of milk, protein, casein and lactose in milk in percentage and production per day were statistically higher (P<0.01) in treatment control, while the fat in kg/day did not differ statistically (P=0.35), the production of fat and urea nitrogen in milk was higher (P=0.001 and P=0.007) in the treatment with co-products. As the dry matter digestibilities, organic matter and NDF did not differ statistically (P>0.10) among the treatments and that have the highest (P=0.03) consumption of digestible organic matter in the control treatment. The animals with diet control in the 24h period select more (P=0.004) against 19 mm of treatment with co-products, while no sieve of the state of the 8 mm pen or the rejection index was lower than the 19 mm, however still the treatment control (P<0.0001) selects against 8 mm effects and the treatment with co-products does not show selection in this section, being the bottom of the sieve in both tests with selection in favor of the bottom of the sieve. An acetate: propionate ratio was higher (P=0.005) for treatment with by-products evaluated for the control treatment, with ammoniacal nitrogen in the rumen and urea nitrogen in the blood greater (P=0.003 and P<0.0001) for by-product concentrate. The control treatment animals with greater (P=0.01 and P=0.03) meal size and meal duration with smaller (P=0.05) number of meals compared to treatment with co-products. The results demonstrated are the necessary ruminal degradation studies of the mixture of corn by-products with the method of efficient use in the feeding of dairy cattle.
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    Substituição do cloreto de colina por uma fonte vegetal de colina em dietas de frangos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-03-02) Dias, Allan Gabriel Ferreira; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Santin, Ana Paula Iglesias;; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez; Lucca, Érica Crosara Ladir de
    The aim of this study was to assess a vegetal source of choline as a replacement of choline chloride and its effects in the animal performance, metabolism and yield of broilers’ carcass. 1120 one day old male Cobb were used, distributed in four treatments with eight repetitions of 35 birds per unit. The treatments were: 1 - control (choline in the form of choline chloride 60%), 2 – 75% of choline chloride and 25% of vegetal choline (Choline-H) as a source of choline, 3 – 50% of choline chloride and 50% of vegetal choline (Choline-H) as a source of choline, and 4 – 100% of vegetal choline (Choline-H) as a source of choline. The animals’ performance was evaluated (weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, viability and uniformity), carcass and cuts yield, feathering patterns, serum biochemical profile, liver and locomotor system health, chest muscular anomalies, and zones of growth of the proximal epiphysis of the broilers’ tibias. There were no significant differences in the evaluation of broilers’ performance (weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, and viability) in none of the assessed phases (7, 21, 35 and 42 days). The treatment with 100% of vegetal choline provided greater uniformity of the broilers after 35 days to the carcass yield and the percentage of organs also showed no statistical differences. In the feathering score analysis, no difference was found. However, in the percentage of feathers, the treatment combining the two sources of choline had higher percentage of feathers. For the histopathological analysis and the evaluation of locomotor problems, there were no significant differences between treatments. In the serum biochemical analysis, the treatment using only vegetal choline lowered the levels of LDL and cholesterol in 21 days and of LDL in 42 days, not showing any other significant differences to the other assessed parameters (AF, GGT and AST enzymes, triglycerides, HDL and VLDL). It was concluded that the vegetal source of choline can replace choline chloride as a whole in the diet of broilers, without loss of performance and lowering the levels of circulating LDL.
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    Estudo genético quantitativo de características morfológicas, produtivas, reprodutivas e de carcaça em bovinos nelore
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-23) Soares, Byanka Bueno; Rey, Fernando Sebastian Baldi;; Carmo, Adriana Santana do;; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhoa;; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhoa; Mascioli, Arthur dos Santos; Melo, Leonardo de França e
    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of functional biotype indicator traits through the MERCOS methodology as well as the relationship between these and performance, carcass, and reproductive traits, in Nellore cattle using Bayesian Inference. The data set used contained information on 12,060 Nellore cattle born between 2001 and 2020, provided by HoRa Hofig Ramos. Visual scores data set from 4,175 Nellore cattle were used, such as muscling (M), physical structure (PS), racial (R), conformation (C), navel (N), and sacrum bone (SAC). Besides, body weights at 120 (W120), 210 (W210), 365 (W365), and 450 (W450) days of age, rib eye area (REA), backfat thickness (BF), rump fat thickness (RF), scrotal circumference at 365 (SC365) and 450 (SC450) days of age, stayability (STAY), probability of precocious calving (PPC) and age at first calving (AFC). The genealogy information used to compose the kinship matrix was provided by the National Association of Breeders and Researchers. Bi-trait Bayesian analyzes were performed using a linear-threshold model to combine linear and categorical traits, or threshold-threshold, when both traits analyzed, were categorical. The heritability estimates obtained are very wide, varying from low to high magnitude: 0.21; 0.28; 0.25; 0.25; 0.15; 0.18; 0.27; 0.28; 0.34; 0.44; 0.42; 0.46; 0.46; 0.50; 0.53; 0.38; 0.54 and 0.10 for M, BS, R, C, N, SAC, W120, W210, W365, W450, REA, BF, RF, SC365, SC450, STAY, PPC and AFC, respectively. These results indicate genetic selection feasibility and obtaining genetic gains, mainly for growth, carcass, scrotal circumference, STAY, PPC and visual scores as muscling, physical structure, racial and conformation. Still, genetic selection for visual scores is feasible. The maternal heritability estimates for W120 and W210 were: 0.16 and 0.13, respectively, indicating dam genetic effects on the progenies' performance until the weaning, for growth traits. The genetic correlations between visual scores were positive and from moderate to high, ranging from 0.25 to 0.89, except for the estimates obtained between visual scores N and SAC. The genetic correlations between visual scores and growth traits were, in general, moderate to high, except for R with W365 and W450, C with W210 and W450, O with W120, W210, and W450, and SAC with W210, W365, and W450 that were low. The genetic correlations between visual scores and carcass traits were, in general, low, except for REA with PS and SAC, which were moderate. The genetic correlations between visual scores and reproduction traits were generally low, except for M with PPC, PS with STAY, R with SC450, C with SC365, SC450, STAY and AFC, N with STAY and AFC, and SAC with SC365, STAY, and AFC, which were moderate. Estimates of genetic correlation indicate that direct selection for visual score traits may influence body weight and vice versa, and these responses are favorable. Even so, higher genetic gain for visual scores is expected if the selection is carried out directly for them, than selection for growth, reproduction, or carcass traits. However, selection for W365 and W450 may result in higher genetic gains in M and selection for REA in SAC, than direct selection for these traits. The selection of animals with higher scores, mainly for M, PS, and C scores can be used as selection criteria to get genetic gain for growth, sexual precocity, and fertility in Nellore cattle.