Mestrado em Filosofia (FAFIL)

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    A idade da representação: a relação entre a arqueologia e a genealogia em Foucault
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-08-17) Soares, Matheus Henrique Borges; Ternes, José;; Ternes, José; Silva, Adriano Correia; Sugizaki, Eduardo
    This research aims to demonstrate the mode of the historical conception of the French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) from his modus operandi, that is, I do not pay attention only to his analytical assumptions in comparison with other historical conceptions that he criticizes, but part of the archeology carried out by the French philosopher. At first, I work with the rupture between the 16th century epistemes with that of the 17th and 18th centuries, the focus of the research is to analyze what Foucault calls the Age of Representation that links the sign to the role of representing, such linking conditioned the emergence of general grammar, natural history and richness analysis. In a second moment, I approach the Foucaultian genealogy that works in complementarity with archeology, in order to link the emergence of a new regime of penalties that arises in the break with the torture, so this new regime of penalties is responsible for establishing a new code criminal law that articulates the advantage of the crime with the disadvantage of the penalty, thus demonstrating that there is a transversality in what became known as classical representationism in the work of Michel Foucault.
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    Da cultura afirmativa à dessublimação repressiva: a dialética da sublimação em Herbert Marcuse
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-11-29) Schang, Renata Aparecida Martinussi; Almeida, Fábio Ferreira de;; Damião, Carla Milani;; Almeida, Fabio Ferreira de; Oliveira, Robespierre de; Kangussu, Imaculada Maria Guimarães
    This work is dedicated to the dialectic of sublimation present in the work of Herbert Marcuse. This project is carried out through the so-called Freudo-Marxism, whose trajectory is considered here in three typical steps of dialectical materialism. The first step highlights the separation between art and the material conditions of existence, from Antiquity to the transcendent character of the affirmative culture of the 19th century. The second step introduces Freudo-Marxism and, through it, Marcuse's attempt to improve the Marxist program by locating possibilities for emancipation in the instinctual and sensitive spheres, as well as presenting his project for a self-sublimation of sexuality. The third step shows how the repressive desublimation of culture and sexuality has weakened the sensitive functions of the human being and compromised the political objective of happiness under the laws of the performance principle.
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    Tocqueville e os caminhos da igualdade: da democracia na América aos porões de Manchester, os liberalismos em conflito
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-09-28) Palma Junior, Carlos Stuart Coronel; Reis, Helena Esser dos;; Reis, Helena Esser dos; Limongi, Maria Isabel de Magalhães Papaterra; Silva, Adriano Correia
    This dissertation seeks to understand the influences of liberalism in political and economic philosophy on the work of Alexis de Tocqueville. In order to contextualize and evaluate the author's adherence to the liberal canon, we sought, through references and bibliographies that study his thought, to survey those authors from the liberal current who influenced his work. Furthermore, due to Tocqueville's particular method for analyzing social phenomena – the object of his study –, which is not restricted only to his theoretical framework, but rather through the direct study of the reality of social facts, we also evaluate the liberal influences on societies and institutions in the countries that served as the subject of their studies; nominally: the United States of America, England and Ireland. Finally, we also collected observations about the author's parliamentary performance, to assess whether Alexis de Tocqueville's political action, as a statesman, reflected or was in line with orthodox ideas related to current liberal thought. Thus, after scrutinizing these three elements, we were able to bring together arguments to answer the question proposed in the theme that guided the research.
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    Autointegração jurídica: uma reconstrução formal do problema das lacunas no direito
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-08-28) Barbosa, Matheus Gabriel; Schang, Fabien Georges Jacques;; Schang, Fabien Georges Jacques; Serbena, César Antônio; Leite, Alexandre Fernandes Batista Costa
    The concept of a legal gap is studied from various semantic methods and both formal and informal perspectives. Observing that heterointegrable legal gaps are the ones that effectively generate problems of incompleteness in law, the study investigates the use of closure rules as a tool to ensure the completeness of legal systems, starting with Bobbio’s idea of exclusive general norms. Considering that jurists envision two classical closure rules, the principle of permission and the principle of prohibition, Woleński’s work is used to evaluate these principles in light of SDL, concluding that this logic is unable to formally differentiate these two principles. From there, research is conducted on how various renowned authors (Raz, Alchourrón, Bulygin...) have formalized legal gaps, observed the completeness problem, and applied closure rules. Finally, a proposal to use the logic AR4L , along the lines of truth-logic of Von Wright and Fabien Schang’s epistemic justification criteria, is presented. This consists of a four-valued system, where normative sentences Sp are read as promulgations, and the deontic interpretation depends on which legal system the legal proposition was promulgated. In summary, a multivalued formal treatment of closure rules will be proposed after reviewing the available literature in the logic of legal systems.
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    O conceito do mal: uma investigação a partir de Hannah Arendt
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-07-31) Oliveira Filho, Valério Luiz de; Silva, Adriano Correia;; Silva, Adriano Correia; Moscateli, Renato; Giacoia Júnior, Oswaldo
    This dissertation focuses on Nazi totalitarianism, and on the events that took place in the Third Reich's concentration and extermination camps, in order to establish, inductively, an order of phenomena that can epitomize what is assigned the value evil. For this investigation, the work of Hannah Arendt is used as a theoretical reference, as it relates precisely Nazism and its death camps to the problem of evil in philosophy. In the first chapter, the dissertation defends the hypothesis of “good” as any being in the sensible world, with its respective foundations, and of “evil” as the violation of beings and their conditions of possibility. It is shown that Arendt's “radical evil”, in the sense of extreme evil, is an assessment of the intensity of these violations. The second chapter analyzes some of the thinkers with whom Hannah Arendt engaged in dialogue and, in the course of her work, she identified as representatives of the “tradition of our thought”. We will work with the hypothesis that this tradition, namely, the one that starts from Ancient Greece, passes through Augustine and arrives at the Kantian “radical evil”, has always been anchored in the presupposition of a moral order originally present in the world and in human beings, from which the phenomenon of evil can be interpreted as deviation. In the third chapter, it is argued, based on the metaphor of the “web of relationships” present in the work The Human Condition, that evil is not a mere deviation in relation to some rationally and cosmologically pre-established harmony, but, on the contrary, it is the state towards which human experience and spirit tend when beings do not recognize each other, the different “goods”, in the space of plurality. It demonstrates how the “good” of each being is fragile in the face of a potential confrontation with those of all others, and that, therefore, the plural balance and mutual recognition between these “goods” constitute what makes humanity, as humanity, possible. Such a balance, argues the dissertation, is not natural, as it weakens with the lack of political care; or, in Arendt's words, of “care for the world”. And to the extent that the very formation of the human as a person capable of moral judgment, and also the formation of the conscience of evil as the violation of the other, depend on a worldly arrangement balanced and plural enough to make possible the presence of this other in the self, the “banality of evil” would be the other side of the fragility of good.
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    Genealogia e dispositivo de guerra: uma interpretação da produção foucaultiana no período entre 1970 e 1976
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-03-06) Silva Neto, Ildo Corrêa da; Pereira, Rafael Rodrigues;; Pereira, Rafael Rodrigues; Sugizaki, Eduardo; Silva, Adriano Correia
    La publication intégrale des cours de la petite enfance de Foucault au Collège de France permet d’explorer la thèse de Daniel Defert selon laquelle la période entre les cours Leçons sur la volonté de savoir (1970) et l’écrit Histoire de la sexualité : La volonté de savoir (1976) présente des informations susceptibles de modifier le Regard que l’on a sur la production intellectuelle de Foucault. A cette époque, la généalogie s’annonce et s’adapta comme méthodologie d'analyse du pouvoir ; le dispositif de guerre apparaît comme une technologie qui traite de forces qui fonctionnent sous l’ordre de l’affrontement, de la lutte des une avec des autres. Defert affirme que l’écrit Surveiller e punir (1975) est une synthèse de tous les travaux qui ont été développés dans la période em question (1970-1976) quelle est le période de guerre ; ce qui permet de penser que l’analyse était consacrée à la présentation du prototype du dispositif de guerre qui imprègne les institutions disciplinaires. Il cherche à identifier le degré de similarité entre le prototype et les dispositifs dérivés ; discuter de l’objet cible des dispositifs disciplinaires que sont les forces du corps ; déduire la dynamique qui opèrent um appareil et le corps d’um individu ; rechercher dans quelle mesure généalogique, les dispositifs de guerre et les forces belliqueuses du cops son liés, et comment l’individu peut participer activement à ce conflit et inverser ses pertes d’autonomie. Os suppose que la discipline des corps passe historiquement par une déclaration de guerre aux dégénérés sociaux et des forces organisées et dirigées contre les forces du corps pour le soumettre et progressivement aliéner la liberté des individus. Ainsi, Surveiller e punir est centré sur la présentation des dispositifs nés de la guerre, fabriques em temps de guerre et orientes vers la guerre. Les institutions disciplinaires, avec l’intention d’utiliser le moins de violence possible, ont migré au niveau micropolitique du traitement de la subjectivité des individus.
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    Um estudo introdutório sobre a relação entre esquemas conceituais e a(s) realidade(s)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-08-21) Tinoco, Sérgio Neves Mateus; Vieira, Filipe Lazzeri;; Vieira, Filipe Lazzeri; Leclerc, André; Silva, Guilherme Ghisoni da
    This dissertation aims to discuss the relationship between reality and conceptual schemes from two different perspectives: 1st) one that considers reality as being unique, absolute and equal for all human beings, playing science and philosophy the role of discovering how it works and of expressing it through an adequate linguistic system; 2nd) another that considers we do not have direct access to a single reality, but rather need previously constituted conceptual schemes, schemes that determine certain cuts in the multiplicity of sensitive data and conform, from this, different realities. Therefore, according to the second perspective, language does not mirror reality, but rather is one of the instruments that build it. We will study the first view in Chapter 1 and the second in Chapter 2. In this study we will see that the most important theses on the subject are: i) ontological relativity; and ii) incommensurability of conceptual schemes. In Chapter 3, we study Donald Davidson’s article “On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme,” and we present his criticisms of the notion of conceptual schemes conditioning different realities. We will see that his theoretical attacks are not directly directed at the thesis of ontological relativity, but rather at the thesis of the incommensurability of conceptual schemes, a prerequisite for establishing ontological relativism. Although Davidson establishes the category “conceptual schemes” and unifies Quine’s and Kuhn’s proposals, we will demonstrate that his criticisms are directed more specifically at Kuhn’s. We then restructuct Kuhn’s proposal, and how the author of the Structure of Scientific Revolutions re-signified his theses, in his final writings, in the light of philosophy of language, in particular using reflections that have the aim of focusing on the translation process. Thus, as the subject under study is quite broad, we will place our introductory study of the relations between conceptual schemes and reality(ies) in the discussions established between three great American philosophers of the 20th century: Quine, Kuhn and Davidson
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    O conceito de somação e os termos nomeadores de indivíduos, no artigo identidade, ostensão e hipóstase, de Quine
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-08-22) Xavier, Caio Bismarck Silva; Velloso, Araceli Rosich Soares;; Velloso, Araceli Rosich Soares; Imaguire, Guido; Porto, André da Silva
    The general goal of this dissertation is to explain the influence of the concept of “summation”, that came from the nominalist work developed by Quine together with Goodman, in the way in which Quine proposes to discuss the identity and the role of general and singular terms in the article Identity, ostension and hypostasis (1950). Our dissertation aims to show that in this article, Quine suggests a critique of the distinction between singular terms and general terms based on the concept of “summation”. Our hypothesis is that the philosopher would consider that this distinction could be set aside, if the conception of language as a theory of reference were replaced by another conception that used, in place of the concept of “reference”, the concept of “summation”. In the course of our argument, we will try to show what Quine can and what he cannot recover concerning the conception of language as a theory of reference using only the concept of “summation” and an act of ostension, linguistically represented by the demonstrative pronoun.
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    Limites entre indivíduo e governo na teoria política de Locke
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-04-20) Dores, João Alberto Araújo das; Moscateli, Renato;; Moscateli, Renato; Almeida, Maria Cecília Pedreira de; Reis, Helena Esser dos
    What is the “individual”? On the other hand, what is its natural role in its life in a political context? How does the individual relate to the property that appeals to him or her as the basis of its existence? These are questions that have been asked by philosophy since its inception and have been framed throughout its history. Several philosophers have addressed this question in various interesting ways. Locke was no exception. Like others, he was seized by the complexity of the issue and approached it through the analysis of what causes the emergence of civil society, the origin of its power and its ideal extension. The purpose of this research is to understand and clarify John Locke's efforts and, with him, to describe what the individual is. Also, define its role in relation to itself and others, before and after the establishment of its civil society pact. In this respect, the government's role has also been defined. How should its powers be exercised? If the political pact should be beneficial to everyone, should it ignore the possibility of abuse? The response can hardly be anything but negative. But how to avoid them? Does the legislature have to regulate everything? If such an option is unreasonable and thus dangerous, what constraints should individuals pay special attention to when delimiting civil government? Such questions are imperative and if not genuinely understood, may cause the individual to see his autonomy subdued and used potentially against himself, establishing an unlimited and absolute authority. In light of this, Locke began an investigation, offering a few answers. Therefore, if we can speak of an actual state of nature and a subsequent transition to a political state in which many individuals choose to participate, what can we effectively infer from this? For Locke, this does not imply that the former is necessarily better than the latter, nor does it imply that the latter, because of its benefits, is intrinsically better than the former, paving a way that could be considered more “righteous”. The key is to understand these conditions and extract from them the different forms of human existence.
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    Sobre a moralidade do costume em Nietzsche: procedência, tradição, loucura
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-02-24) Barbosa, Lucas Romanowski; Vecchia, Ricardo Bazilio Dalla;; Vecchia, Ricardo Bazilio Dalla; Paschoal, Antonio Edmilson; Lopes, Adriana Delbó
    This research aims to investigate the details of the philosophical conception about the morality of custom process, an expression used by Nietzsche (1844-1900) for the first time in Daybreak (1881). This process brings considerations about morality, custom and tradition that are central elements in the articulation for the understanding of the theme. However, our starting point is given by aphorism 9 of the work of 1881, entitled concept of the morality of custom. What is first noticed, and this is what we defend, is the relevance of historical perception, at least not to allow oneself to be ensnared by the metaphysical webs of considerations on morality. In such a way that, by contrasting two moments at the beginning of §9, Nietzsche breaks with a very specific way of reflecting morality, which was seen as something intrinsic, natural and essential of the human being. Before announcing in his Genealogy of Morals (1887) that morality should be placed as a problem, already in Aurora this happens. The tension between community and individual, which permeates our entire text, exalts the mechanisms that one had to use to deal with the other, such as punishment: the individual is restrained in favor of the community. With the analysis of the morality of custom, or the origin of morality as obedience to customs, Nietzsche announces points that form the structure of our work: historical aspect, notions about morality, custom and tradition, the role of punishment in the tension between individual and community and, finally, the case of madness. This, as the possibility, but not the only one, of changing values, a crucial point that closes the argumentative movement, as we propose. Thus, offering a hypothesis about the origin of morality, Nietzsche reallocates a human, all too human conception back on the ways of history, deflating a metaphysical perspective that has been accepted since Plato.
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    Religião e política no contrato social Rousseau: do ser humano ao cidadão
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-02-27) Burgarelli, Gabriel Telles dos Santos; Reis, Helena Esser dos; Reis, Helena Esser Dos; Moscateli, Renato; Silva, Genildo Ferreira da
    Cette dissertation vise à examiner, à travers les éléments présents dans la théorie politique de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, la présence du recours à la religion dans l’œuvre Du contrat social, observable principalement dans ses chapitres Du législateur et De la religion civile (respectivement chapitre VII, livre II et chapitre VIII, livre IV). À cette fin, nous divisons ces éléments par leurs contextes propres, entre ceux qui constituent l'aspect anthropologique de la pensée de Rousseau et ceux qui concernent la structure politique construite par l'œuvre du Contrat. Notre dissertation s'organise donc en trois moments. Dans un premier temps, nous aborderons les principales idées de l'auteur sur la constitution humaine, en utilisant comme sources majoritaires le texte du Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes et l'ouvrage Émile, ou de l'éducation, dont les élaborations fournissent un cadre anthropologique qui doit être pris en compte dans l'approche du Contrat. Dans un deuxième temps, nous abordons la question du Contrat Social lui-même, en discutant les concepts élémentaires qui façonnent le pacte proposé par le genevois comme échelle pour établir les principes du droit politique. Le troisième est consacrée à la présence directe du thème de la religion dans le Contrat, en essayant de rechercher, par les éléments disposés précédemment, quel est le caractère du recours à la religiosité dans le contexte politique de l'œuvre. Même imprégnées des dilemmes qui entourent un tel recours – surtout s’il est observé du point de vue contemporain des agendas politiques du 21ème siècle – nos conclusions soulignent l'importance structurelle d'une tolérance civile et religieuse (inséparable dans la pensée rousseauiste) à garantir par l'institut politique de la religion civile, ainsi que la nécessité de la sécurité du pacte social légitime, c'est-à-dire fondé sur l'égalité et la liberté humain.
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    Foucault e o acontecimento sexo
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-11-03) Martins, Igor Freitas; Ternes, José;; Ternes, José; Almeida, Fábio Ferreira de; Amitrano, Georgia Cristina
    The core objective of this research is to explain the analysis of Foucaultian sexuality in terms of an eventalization of sex. It is about verifying in which historical, discursive and non-discursive conditions, it was possible the emergence of sex as an object of knowledge, support point and instrument of power relations in the perspective of Michel Foucault's thought. In this sense, this research proceeds transversally, taking into account certain conceptions of commentators on the works of the philosopher Michel Foucault who believe that, in the style of this author's research, there are three distinct phases: the archeology of knowledge, dating from the 1960s; the genealogy of power, implemented in the 1970s; and a genealogy of ethics carried out from the 1980s onwards. Differently from this conception, it appears that in the Foucaultian studies on the emergence of sex, dating from the 1970s, both an archeology of the knowledge of sexuality is present, at least in an embryonic form, as a genealogy of the science of sex.
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    O apelo ético do rosto em Emmanuel Levinas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-09-05) Nascimento, Carlos Eduardo Santos; Korelc, Martina;; Korelc, Martina; Fabri, Marcelo; Reis, Helena Esser dos
    This study was done to investigate the question of alterity through the concept of Face into the original Totality and Infinity written by Emmanuel Levinas. The Face is the reading key to understand Levinas' ethical proposal, since in that Face, the Other is presented in its most absolute otherness. Emphasizing the human Face´s ethical appeal, our research explores how, from a scathing critique to the totality which permeates the entire philosophy history and Western culture, Levinas understands alterity in its infinite condition. With approximations and distances from the phenomenological method in his analysis of the Face, especially in sections 1st and 3rd in the work Totality and Infinity, this dissertation tries to understand and describe how subjectivity becomes responsibility to the Other, as a response to the ethical appeal of the Face, this founding principle of sociality, true human sense in Levinas.
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    Dos princípios do direito político às comunidades políticas concretas: uma análise a partir da obra de Rousseau
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-11-09) Silva, Eduarda Santos; Moscateli, Renato;; Moscateli, Renato; Reis, Helena Esser dos; Monteagudo, Ricardo
    In the Social Contract, Jean-Jacques Rousseau exposes his political theory on the possibilities of establishing a legitimate social order, as well as the means necessary for its conservation. In this sense, based on the principles of political right prescribed in this work, which confront the reality of concrete political bodies, our objective was precisely to use them to analyze the legitimacy of the cases of real societies examined by Rousseau throughout his work. Our investigation, therefore, had as its initial focus the analysis of the cases of Rome, Corsica and Poland. Subsequently, we deal in detail with the case of the Republic of Geneva from the study of Letters written from the mountain, which made it possible to understand the influence of Geneva on Rousseau's political thought, as well as the context of political turmoil in that republic and the controversies arising from the publication of the Emilio and of the Social Contract, a scenario that contributed to the emergence of the Letters. Furthermore, when analyzing in detail the case of Geneva present in this writing, it was possible to understand how the figures of the sovereign and the government in that republic were related, and also the process by which the first was weakened by the abuses of the second, which contradicts the legitimacy prescribed in the Contract. In this way, the constant abuses of the government in relation to the sovereign allowed us to realize that in Geneva sovereignty and the general will were not properly respected. We consider, therefore, that the Contract and other texts by Rousseau that deal with concrete political communities offered us the necessary subsidies to think about the relationship between theory and practice in the author's thinking. In this way, we do not distance ourselves from Rousseau's objectives in the Contract concerning the correct understanding of its principles, taking them only as a reference scale to assess the situation of concrete societies, and not as a project that will necessarily be followed in all circumstances. With this, we highlight the problems involved in the transition from the theoretical to the practical level, which was demonstrated by the Genevan not only in the examination of historical cases present in his texts, but also in the Contract itself, when he alerts us to the importance of first considering the specificities of each society so that only then can we think about the measures to be taken with a view to its proper functioning.
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    Sócrates através da Pítia: indicações sobre a ignorância humana
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-09-09) Esteves, Bruna Morais; Borges, Anderson de Paula;; Borges, Anderson de Paula; Holanda, Luisa Severo Buarque de; Cornelli, Gabriele
    The questions of this research are derived from the intersection between the notion of Socratic ignorance and a specific declaration by the oracle of Delphi. In his defense speech, Socrates reports to the jury that he received many years before an oracular message. The speech of the Pythia, the priestess at Delphi, attributes to Socrates the position of someone whose wisdom nobody surpasses. In light of this, Socrates undertakes an investigation into the meaning of the message, given the inherent ambiguity present in oracular declarations and his distrust towards corresponding to the sage alias. In the end, Socratic wisdom consolidates itself through narrow contours, bestowing very little and nothing upon the human aspect. And only to the god, in contrast, does the sage adjective apply. In general, it is possible to affirm that the ignorance declarations made by Socrates and his attachment to the existing or non-existing legitimacy of others’ wisdom arise from this. We attempt, then, to observe the process through which Socrates decides to investigate the divine message and the implications of his final interpretation on that which he describes as a compromise with the god Apollo. His service or activity is equated, in the Apology, to philosophical practice itself. Even though Socratic wisdom occupies the center of this question, the details in Plato’s text seem to indicate that human wisdom itself hardly sounds as wisdom, being first and foremost a recognition of an inherently human ignorance. There are, however, moments in which Socratic practice seems to reside on the threshold of these wisdom interests, since it would be extremely valuable to achieve answers to the investigated themes. As the texts point to a notion of permanent human ignorance, Socrates restructures this condition so that reflecting on our lives or on human excellence remain useful. As the most extensive characterization of Socrates’ philosophy, the Apology brings obstacles related to Socrates’ position in face of knowledge and in face of his involvement with Greek religion. This research, therefore, attempts to deal with these themes.
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    Falsidade, erro e loucura: os limites da racionalidade no sobre a certeza de L. Wittgenstein
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-07-04) Cesário, Igor de Souza; Silva, Guilherme Ghisoni da;; Silva, Guilherme Ghisoni da; Ferraz Neto, Bento Prado de Almeida; Vieira, Filipe Lazzeri
    This dissertation aims to investigate the role of the concepts of falsehood, error and madness in Wittgenstein's On Certainty, even though these concepts are not explicitly addressed by the author. To do so, it is necessary to go through no less important steps; first, we seek to understand the way in which Moore's texts were important for Wittgenstein‘s ideas, then, we will connect those ideas to the discussion about truth theories, in order to understand what would be his position in relation to those theories. Finally, we will examine the concepts of falsehood, error and madness, in dialogue with commentators, aiming to understand Wittgenstein‘s final texts.
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    O método de investigação da acrasia no livro VII da ética nicomaqueia de Aristóteles
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-02-17) Silva, Cristiane Martins da; Almeida, Wellington Damasceno de;; Almeida, Wellington Damasceno de; Mendonça, Fernando Martins; Borges, Anderson de Paula
    This thesis presents a study of the methodology used by Aristotle in the investigation on akrasia in Book VII of the Nicomachean Ethics. First, I present some readings about the methodological model used by Aristotle in his ethical treatises in order to show the state of affairs of the discussions on this subject. The exposition of these readings shows that there is some controversy among scholars about the nature of the methodology employed by Aristotle in his ethical investigations. They mainly disagree about three points: i) whether the strategies employed by Aristotle in these investigations constitute a dialectical model of investigation, composed of the techniques he exposes in the Topics, or a scientific model of investigation, similar to what he outlines in book II of the Posterior Analytics; ii) whether the starting points of these investigations are endoxa (opinions shared by the majority of people) or phainómena (a set of data similar to those he uses in scientific investigations, which include only the endoxa Aristotle takes to be true, in addition to other evident data collected in the ordinary life experience and how we speak); iii) whether the objective of these investigations is to make an inventory of shared opinions on certain topics, and correct the inconsistencies identified in this set of beliefs, or to formulate the principles of a political science, constituted largely by definitions of ethical types. While reading the investigation on akrasia, we observe that Aristotle is compromised to explain what this disposition is and formulate its definition, which could be evidence of a scientific study and the application of the general proposal he outlines in Book II of the Posterior Analytics. However, it is also evident, either analyzing how he initiates the discussion, or observing the strategies he employs throughout the investigation, that the use of dialectical techniques is relevant in this process. I understand that the presence of elements of a theoretical investigation, accompanied by the use of dialectical techniques relates to the very nature of ethical studies. In the investigation of akrasia, Aristotle tries to establish that this moral disposition exists and it’s distinct from others by constructing its definition, a principle that can be used in political science. Along with that he also builds puzzles using the commonly shared opinions about this topic, applying dialectical techniques for this, and seeking to explain the inconsistencies and inaccuracies present in the set of beliefs about its object of investigation. I understand that the coexistence of these research strategies - on the one hand, a theoretical study that seeks to formulate definitions, and on the other, the scrutiny of shared opinions on the subject - can be understood as an attempt to deal with the needs of political science itself (of which ethics is a part, according to Aristotle), in which theoretical knowledge is not sufficient: this discipline aims not only to know what each of the moral dispositions are, but also how to produce or avoid these dispositions in the citizens.
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    Liberdade individual na teoria política de Rousseau
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-09-24) Silva, Marcelo Henrique Lisbôa da; Moscateli, Renato;; Moscateli, Renato; Corôa, Pedro Paulo da Costa; Reis, Helena Esser dos
    Les œuvres politiques de Rousseau nous font penser que la liberté occupe une place prépondérante parmi les thèmes qu'il aborde. Le penseur de Genève la défend avec tant de force lorsqu'il affirme que « renoncer à la liberté, c'est renoncer à la qualité de l'homme et aux droits de l'humanité », montrant qu'il est incompatible avec la nature humaine de le faire. Les références à la liberté comme fondement d'un État bien ordonné ne sont pas rares, car seule la volonté générale peut diriger les forces de l'État et légitimer les lois. Bien qu'il nous présente soutout une réflexion orientée vers la construction d'une république et, par conséquent, un souci de garantir la liberté politique, il est possible d'affirmer que dans cette société civile il y aurait aussi un espace pour la liberté individuelle. Cependant, quelques interprètes libéraux voient sa théorie politique comme un véritable despotisme et l'accusent d'être l'ennemi de la liberté. L'objet de la présent dissertation se concentre donc fondamentalement sur la compréhension du concept de liberté dans la pensée de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, afin de savoir si les critiques que Benjamin Constant et Isaiah Berlin adressent de la pensée politique du philosophe se maintiennent. Pour cela, il est nécessaire d'analyser les divers sens dans lesquels le terme liberté est employé par le philosophe, surtout dans Du Contrat Social, ainsi que la pensée des libéraux sur le concept de liberté et leurs arguments contre Rousseau.
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    Cave canem ou Antístenes de Atenas e as origens do cinismo antigo
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-08-30) Silveira, Brenner Brunetto Oliveira; Pereira, Rafael Rodrigues;; Pereira, Rafael Rodrigues; Dinucci , Doutor Aldo Lopes; Flores Júnior, Olimar
    This dissertation aims to analyze the life and work of Antisthenes of Athens. Based on the most recent research about this author, we will investigate the interpretive divergences that exist between the most diverse specialists in the field, among which the main impasse is to know if Antisthenes was a Rhetoric / Sophist or a philosopher and, if he was - if be considered a philosopher - a Socratic or a Cynic. Later we will try to demonstrate, based on the ancient sources, that he was both a sophist, as well as Socratic and cynical. We will try to demonstrate that the whole “theory” of ancient cynicism is based on the logic and the theory of language by Antisthenes.
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    As relações entre soberania e governo em Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-09-09) Correia, André Rezende Soares; Moscateli, Renato;; Moscateli, Renato; Kawauche, Thomaz Massadi; Vento, Marisa Alves
    This work deals with the relations between sovereignty and government as from the political thought of the philosopher Jean Jacques-Rousseau. The theme emerges from the concern demonstrated by the author in ensuring that the expression of the general will be the source of the laws to be applied by rulers in their role of ministers subordinated to such will. Thus, by taking as a reference the principles of political right elaborated by Rousseau, essentially in the Social Contract, without forgetting his other writings, his ideas are analyzed concerning the social contract as the association's act that establishes a legitimate and secure civil order, for the purpose of guarantee freedom and equality for citizens as members of the State. With this basis, the relations between sovereignty and government are focused in order to understand how they can be useful, stable, balanced and institutional, respecting the respective competences of these entities. Thus, the work develops in three chapters. The first encompasses the theory of the social contract: the institution of the civil order, the legitimacy of the general will and of popular sovereignty, which ensure the freedom and plurality of interests. Thereafter, the second chapter reflects more directly on the government, its function in the republic and its different forms, with the intention of discussing how he must act for the benefit of political community, and also what are the problems inherent in their relations with the sovereign. Finally, the third chapter contemplates some of the republican mechanisms indicated by Rousseau to promote state's conservation, mainly taking into account the dangerous tendency of the government to try and overlap popular sovereignty, confusing its public power, given to it to enforce laws, with the sovereign acts of the general will.