O ensino de geografia e o novo ensino médio: o mapa mental como possibilidade na construção do pensamento geográfico

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


This research was carried out at a time of great uncertainty and anguish for all teachers of basic education in Brazil: the implementation of the new secondary education system. In order to better understand the issues that permeate such implementation, specifically with regard to the teaching of Geography, the general objective that guided the entire investigation was to analyze the role of cartographic language, through the elaboration of mental maps by 2nd grade high school students, for the construction of geographic thinking in relation to the teaching of cities. To this end, the investigation was methodologically based on a qualitative approach and, as it required the researcher to be inserted into the school environment, specifically in a public school located in the city of Palmeiras de Goiás/GO, it was necessary to adopt participant research as a research technique. From this perspective, three methodological procedures were adopted: 1) Bibliographic review - with the aim of delving deeper into discussions related to geographical thinking and cartographic language and how both, if related, can contribute to meaningful geographical learning; 2) Analysis of the National Common Curriculum Base (BNCC) - with the aim of investigating how the new High School is structured and how the contents related to Geography and, more specifically, cartographic language are presented; 3) Pedagogical workshop - in order to provide the students taking part in the research with the conditions to draw up mental maps of the routes they take between their homes and school, specifically the training itinerary called MatematiCidades. The intention to contribute to the construction of the students' geographical thinking, using cartographic language to do so, became extremely important, since it is through the act of thinking geographically about the relationships established in space, be they between the subjects themselves and/or between the subjects and the spatial elements, that the subjects can reflect their own realities and, from there, transform them. As cartography is an important tool for representing space - and its spatialities - it becomes essential in this process of building geographical thinking, because it gives subjects the power to reflect on their perceptions, in other words, to map space. Based on the results obtained, it is possible to state that, despite the fact that the new secondary education system has "inconsistencies", be they pedagogical or structural, which in turn cause difficulties not only for students but also for educators, it is possible, with a certain amount of effort on the part of the teacher, to lead students to grasp the geographical content and, based on interdisciplinarity - which is a proposal of the BNCC - they can build geographical thinking, based on cartographic language, capable of conceptualizing reality, in other words, representing and reflecting on it, in order to transform it according to the needs that arise, becoming conscious and committed citizens.



ALMEIDA, R. M. O ensino de geografia e o novo ensino médio: o mapa mental como possibilidade na construção do pensamento geográfico. 2023. 116 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Geografia) - Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2023.