O solo no ensino de Geografia e sua importância para a formação cidadã na educação básica
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Universidade Federal de Goiás
The soil, one of the main physical-natural components of geographical space, is associated with the physical, chemical and biological factors involved in its formation and degeneration processes, just as much with the ones of use and occupation developed by society. Therefore, this component, having physical-natural, economic, social, political and cultural relevance, has influenced and still influences in the present day the configuration of environments, landscapes, as well the production of geographical space. As the school is not dissociated from society, these discussions, in some way, are also present in the daily life of this institution, especially as one of the contents addressed by Geography teaching. Thus, with the critical perspective of teaching as a reference, we aim, in the present research, to analyze how the soil is taught in Geography Education and, in particular, to highlight the importance of this physical-natural component for the critical formation of students, and also to discuss how has been proposed to work with this subject in the pedagogical-didactic materials of Geography and in scientific events of Geography. Considering the assumptions of the qualitative research, specifically in the case study modality, we established as the spatial template of the research ten schools of the Municipal Education Network of Goiânia - GO, located close to areas vulnerable to flooding and erosion; and, as research subjects, the Geography teachers who work in these educational institutions. With this, it was intended to understand, through semi-structured interviews and observation of classes, what knowledge and, in particular, what concepts these teachers mobilized in order to teach soil in Geography Education. We carried out an analysis of didactic-pedagogical materials of Geography that subsidize the knowledge of the content and a survey on the teaching of soil in significant academic events in the field of Physical Geography and Geography Education, in order to understand the way it has been discussed and proposed the apprehension of this theme, especially in Basic Education. The analysis of the data indicated that the soil is not one of the central themes in Geography Education. There is a tendency in the approaches in conceiving the soil as a resource, considering only its physical-natural characteristics. We also perceive that social issues related to soil are sometimes placed in the background, and, when mentioned, reinforce a common sense and mediatic notion that blames society for the environmental problems that characterize the current degradation set, without associating to this picture the physical-natural factors conditioning these processes. We conclude, also, in regard to the scientific productions, that some works, emphasizing the presence of Physical Geography in the school, reinforce the dichotomy between Physical Geography and Human Geography. We understand that in Basic Education there is only Geography, in a broader sense, as an established curricular component. Evidently, the knowledge from this area resides in Geography Education, however, just as didactical subjects and contents. We have also verified, in some texts, the absence of reflections that value the role of the teacher as mediator of the teaching and learning process. When we reflect on the relevance of the soil as an essential physical-natural component to life, as a theme that is part of the daily life of the subjects involved in the teaching and learning process and as content approached from the perspective of the geographical space, we believe that it is possible to develop a schooling that is significant and based on the relevance of geographical knowledge for the analysis of reality. We also believe that work with soil-related topics should be addressed in Basic Education in the perspective of Didactic Knowledge of Content, one of the specificities that distinguishes the Geography teacher from other professionals.
MENDES, S. de O. O solo no ensino de Geografia e sua importância para a formação cidadã na educação básica. 2017. 160 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Geografia) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 2017.