Mestrado em Biodiversidade Vegetal (ICB)

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    Filogenia, biogeografia e revisão taxonômica de Chamaecrista Sect. Absus subsect. Absus Ser. Rigidulae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-04-25) Souza, Alessandro Oliveira de; Silva, Marcos José da;; Silva, Marcos José da; Perez, Ana Paula Fortuna; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni
    Leguminosae is the third largest family of plants, encompassing about 751 genera and 19,500 species distributed in the subfamilies Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae. In its current circumscription, Caesalpinioideae comprises about 171 genera and 2,250 species Chamaecrista, the largest genus, has about 340 species (257 in Brazil, from which 208 are endemic) with Pantropical distribution and is subdivided into six sections, among which Absus is the richest, with about 180 species distributed in the subsections Absus, Adenophyllum, Baseophyllum, and Otophyllum. The subsection Absus comprises 31 series, among which Rigidulae, with 24 Brazilian species, stands out due to the conserved floral morphology and diverse aspects of growth, and also because it is paraphyletic and has not been revised since 1982. In this dissertation we aimed to reconstruct the historical evolution of Chamaecrista ser. Rigidulae and review the taxonomy of its species applying usual techniques in taxonomy and molecular phylogeny. The results are presented as seven articles standardized according to the journals where they have already been or will be published. The first article presents the phylogeny and biogeography of Chamaecrista ser. Rigidulae based on the regions trnL-F and trnE-T (cpDNA) and ITS (nrDNA), the polyphyletism of the group, and its redefinition to a monophyletic group herein called Clade Rigidulae after the exclusion of C. brachyblepharis and C. ciliolata and the inclusion of C. botryoides and C. sincorana. This clade originated 5My in the Highlands of Central Brazil, diversified into two main lineages, one on the Espinhaço Range (4.27 My) and the other on the Highlands of Goiás (4.17 My), and has flowers with the posterior petal similar to a banner and leaves with divaricate leaflets as synapomorphies. The second article is about a taxonomic revision of the series Rigidulae, for which 30 species have been recognized, five of them new to science (C. floribunda, C. irwiniana, C. sparsifolia, C. tenuicaulis, and C. elata sp. nov. unpublished), one new status (C. obolaria ≡ C. chaetostegia var. obolaria), four lectotypifications, three new records (one in Bahia and two in Minas Gerais), illustrations and photographs of some species, maps showing the geographic distribution, and comments about taxonomy their conservation status. Regarding the five other articles, four have already been published and present descriptions of new species or taxonomic adjustments in the genus, whereas the last one, not published yet, has the same scope. The results of this research revealed the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the series Rigidulae, as well as its richness and corroborate the diversity and endemism of Chamaecrista in the Cerrado Biome.
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    Estudos taxonômicos sobre Croton sect. Geiseleria (A. Gray) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) no Brasil, com ênfase nas espécies ocorrentes na região Centro-Oeste
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-04-25) Sodré, Rodolfo Carneiro; Silva, Marcos José da;; Silva, Marcos José da; Perez, Ana Paula Fortuna; Sales, Margareth Ferreira de
    Euphorbiaceae Juss. comprises one of the most diverse lineages of phanerogams with 6300 species and 246 genera distributed mainly in the tropics, of which 949 and 64 occur in Brazil, where the family is represented in all biomes. Among its genera, Croton L. stands out by having a Pantropical distribution, have more than 1200 species, 300 of which are present in Brazil, and subdivided into 4 subgenera and 31 sections. Among the sections of the genus, C. sect. Geiseleria stands out as one of the three largest with 80 species distributed from the United States to Argentina, of which 50 are present in Brazil. Although Croton is the most studied genus of Euphorbiaceae in Brazil, species of Geiseleria are usually known only from their original descriptions or by scarce collections, many of them with mistaken identifications, besides having problems of typification and lack of illustrations. The objective of this study was to study the taxonomy of Croton sect. Geiseleria occurring in Brazil, with emphasis on those present in the Midwest region. The results are presented in seven chapters, drafted according to the norms of the journal where they were or will be published. The first relates to a taxonomic synopsis of the section Geiseleria for Brazil, in which 50 species are accepted, among which five are new to science (C. macrosepalus, C. ramosissimus, C. rhodotrichus, C. uliginosus and Croton sp. nov.) and four are transferred to the section (C. carinatus, C. catariae, C. spica and C. suavis) based on morphological characteristics and molecular data. In this manuscript are proposed 27 synonimizations, 75 lectotypes and a neotipification, as well as the reestablishment of C. aberrans and C. gracilescens, previously considered under C. hirtus and C. antisyphiliticus, respectively. The species of this article are contrasted in a key, commented on the geographical distribution, ecology, conservation status, morphological characterization, illustrated in their diagnostic characters and photographed. The second manuscript corresponds to the taxonomic treatment of the group for the Midwest region, where 32 species are recognized, of which five are new occurrences for the studied area (C. adenodontus, C. asperrimus, C. hadrianii, C. parodianus and C. sipaliwinensis). This manuscript has descriptions, comments about geographic distribution, ecology and morphological relationships, as well as illustrations, photographs and geographic distribution maps of the species. The chapters three to six deal with the descriptions of the new species, three of them already published and the last one submitted. The seventh manuscript is about the rediscovery of C. hadrianii, a species not recognized since 1873, but has here his complemented description, besides being first shown, photographed in nature, and commented about its distribution, flowering and fruiting, conservation status and morphological characterization.
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    A influência dos polinizadores na reprodução de Phaseolus vulgaris
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-03-28) Ribeiro, Paula Louredo Moraes; Franceschinelli, Edivani Villaron;; Franceschinelli, Edivani Villaron; Moraes, Moemy Gomes de; Carvalheiro, Luisa Mafalda Gigante Rodrigues
    The present work evaluated whether pollinators interfere in the production of fruits and seeds of Creole cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in organic cultivation. Eight cultivars were observed in the years 2017 and 2018. The study was carried out at Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida, municipality of Hidrolândia - Goiás, where only organic foods are produced. In the year 2017, in five cultivars were randomly marked 15 individuals, while all other cultivars had 30 individuals randomly selected. In each plant chosen, an inflorescence had flower buds counted and isolated with an organza bag, while another inflorescence of the same plant also had flower buds counted, marked with plastic seals and left free for the visit of the pollinators. The parameters evaluated were the number of pods and seeds produced and the total weight of these seeds per plant. In order to verify the effect of the treatments on the production of pods and seeds, for each bean cultivar, Mixed General Linearized Models (GLMM) were used assuming the negative binomial distribution. To evaluate whether treatments affect seed weight, Mixed General Linearized Models (GLMM) like those described above were used, but assuming gamma distribution. All the statistical analyzes were carried out on the R platform. The quantity and viability of the pollen grains was observed in 30 flower buds of each cultivar studied in the year 2018. The amount of pollen and pollen viability was high in all studied cultivars, indicating the importance of pollination to produce bean seeds. According to the GLMM analyzes, in the year 2017, three cultivars presented higher pod and / or seed production in the treatment of the non-bagged inflorescences. In the year 2018, another four cultivars also presented the same result, suggesting that these cultivars have greater reproductive success with the visit of the pollinators.
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    Filogenia e revisão taxonômica de Chamaecrista sect. Absus subsect. Absus ser. Paniculatae (Benth) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (leguminosae, caesalpinioideae)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-04-25) Mendes, Thainara Policarpo; Silva, Marcos José da;; Silva, Marcos José da; Perez, Ana Paula Fortuna; Mansano, Vidal de Freitas
    Filogenia e Revisão Taxonômica de Chamaecrista sect. Absus subsect. Absus ser. Paniculatae (Benth) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae). Leguminosae com cerca de 751 gêneros e 19.500 espécies, principalmente tropicais, é a terceira maior família de Angiospermas e a mais numerosa da flora brasileira com 770 gêneros e 2756 espécies. Caesalpinioideae, uma de suas seis subfamílias, compreende 4.400 espécies e 148 gêneros, entre os quais se destaca Chamaecrista Moench como o segundo maior deles, depois de Mimosa L., com 330 espécies, 266 e 260 delas presentes nas Américas e no Brasil, respectivamente. Este gênero compreende seis seções, sendo Absus a mais diversa, com cerca de 180 espécies alocadas nas subseções Absus, Adenophyllum, Baseophyllum e Otophyllum. A subseção Absus engloba 31 séries, entre as quais, Paniculatae, que é reconhecida principalmente pelas folhas com 2–11 pares de folíolos, grandes (1,5–9,3 × 1,2–9,5 cm compr.), divaricados e coriáceos com nervuras secundárias e terciárias proeminentes em ambas as faces, por seus ramos jovens, eixos da inflorescência, face externa do cálice e, ou frutos viscosos, além de flores assimétricas com distintos padrões de assimetria e arranjadas usualmente em panículas. Esta série possui seis espécies (12 táxons), algumas das quais polimórficas, com variedades, problemas de tipificação e escassamente ilustradas, além de pouco conhecidas quanto a distribuição geográfica e status de conservação. São apresentados um estudo filogenético e a revisão taxonômica de Chamaecrista ser. Paniculatae. Como resultados desses estudos essa dissertação segue estruturada em quatro capítulos. O primeiro trata da reconstrução filogenética da série baseada nas regiões trnL-F (cpDNA) e ITS (nrDNA) por meio dos métodos de Máxima Parcimônia e Inferência Bayesiana. Recuperamos Paniculatae como parafilética, mas a sugerimos como um táxon monofilético “Clado Paniculatae”, que compreende 14 espécies, com a exclusão de C. lundii e a inclusão de C. crenulata em seu conceito. Este artigo apresenta também: a) datação molecular da série que aponta para a mesma uma origem por volta de 4,1, milhões de anos e três subclados (1,2 e 3) geografica e geneticamente estruturados e com morfologias peculiares, b) a posição filogenética dela em Chamaecrista, e c) suas relações morfológicas e biogeográficas com congêneres, além de suas prováveis sinapomorfias, que são, as folhas com folíolos divaricados, a inflorescência do tipo panícula e as flores com a pétala posterior semelhante a um estandarte. O segundo artigo trata da revisão taxonômica de Paniculatae que com a sua nova circunscrição, passa a compreender 14 espécies, as quais seguem descritas, contrastadas por meio de uma chave, comentadas e mapeadas quanto as suas distribuições geográficas, ambientes preferenciais, status de conservação, relações morfológicas, períodos de floração e frutificação, além de ilustradas e fotografadas em seus principais caracteres diagnósticos. Neste manuscrito, apresentamos ainda sete lectotipificações e duas espécies novas, C. tocantinensis Mendes & M.J. Silva e Chamaecrista sp., a primeira já publicada. O terceiro e quarto capítulos tratam da descrição de duas novas espécies, uma das quais (C. tocantinensis Mendes & M.J. Silva) já publicada, e a outra a ser enviada a publicação. Ambos os artigos seguem escritos nos moldes formais para artigos de sua natureza, porém o quarto consta ainda de fotografias e de uma chave de identificação das espécies do gênero até então citadas para o estado de Tocantins, incluindo, 10 novos registros.
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    A andromonoicia de Solanum lycocarpum A. St. Hil. (Solanaceae): variação na manifestação do sistema sexual ao longo do tempo e espaço
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-04-26) Marcelo, Vanessa Gonzaga; Consolaro, Hélder Nagai;; Consolaro, Hélder Nagai; Oliveira, Paulo Eugênio Alves Macedo de; Brito, Vinícius Lourenço Garcia de; Silva, Francismeire Jane Telles da; Caetano, Ana Paula
    Andromonoecy is a sexual system in which the same individual produces hermaphrodict and male flowers. In this sense, the objective of this dissertation was to analyze functional, population and temporal variations in the expression of this sexual system in Solanum lycocarpum A. St. Hil. The flowers of the floral types had their measurements taken, analyzed as to the production and viability of the pollen, ovules count and the formation of the fruits and seeds. The phenology was analyzed through the index of intensity and activity. Mating system experiments were carried out on the two floral types and focal observations to verify the behavior of the visitors. In S. lycocarpum, the sexual expression of individuals varied over time and between populations, so that the distribution of flower types may indicate that individuals may respond to differences in environmental conditions. There were still individuals who were only male, making such a system found does not correspond to the andromonoecious system. In addition, it was observed that the hermaphrodict flowers, besides having the larger stylet than the male ones, are larger in length and width. In relation to the quantity and pollen viability, this differentiated between the floral types, being that the hermaphrodicts have a greater quantity of pollen grains and, whereas the male flowers have a greater viability than the hermaphrodicts. In hermaphrodicts flowers, 85% of the ovules form seeds, while in the male, the "ovules" are not fertile. Thus, the lower energy expenditure in the production of smaller male flowers, with reduced pistils and with unviable ovules, could make them more abundant and produce more viable pollen. The reduction in the number of flowers was accompanied by the production of the fruits, which could indicate an economy of the resources that would already be used in the production of the fruits, since these are large and with many seeds. The species is self-incompatible, and only the hermaphrodite flowers produce fruit. S. lycocarpum fits into the buzz pollination syndrome, being pollinators bees with vibration capacity. Bees of smaller body size vibrated the anthers individually, having no or little contact with the stigma, unlike the larger ones that vibrated the cone, having contact between the stigma and the abdomen of the bee. In S. lycocarpum, the lower percentage of pollen viability in the hermaphrodite flowers, besides the presence of exclusively male individuals, could indicate a system in evolutionary path for other sexual systems, such as androdioecy.
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    Sistema sexual e polinização por mariposas em Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-08-31) Cavalcante, Raysa Kristine Oliveira; Franceschinelli, Edivani Villaron;; Klein, Vera Lúcia Gomes; Pereira, Marlei; Silva Neto, Carlos de Melo e; Teles, Aristônio Magalhães
    The genus Simarouba Aubl. is composed of six species with distribution restricted to the Neotropical region and with two species (S. amara Aubl. and S. versicolor A. St.-Hil) occurring in Brazil. Simarouba amara is a dioecious species, pollinated mainly by nocturnal moths, presenting sexual and asexual reproduction. Simarouba versicolor is a species that occurs frequently in sympatry with S. amara in Cerrado environments; but nothing is known about its reproductive biology. In this way, aspects of its phenology, sexual system, reproductive success, floral biology and interaction with pollinators were studied. The study was carried out in an area of transition forest to cerrado in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás. The results show that S. versicolor presents annual flowering, with floral peak in August. The species is dioecious and the male individuals flower first, produce ten times more flowers than the females, showing a larger floral display. The flowers are small, pale, without nectar guides, have nocturnal anthesis, being visited by small moths at night and small bees during the day. These characteristics were also verified in S. amara and are commonly found in dioecious species. The flowering period of both species overlaps and the pollinators sharing can occur. Simarouba versicolor presented sexual and asexual reproduction (agamospermy), with fruit formation resulted of manual cross pollination of 21%, 7% of control and 0.73% apomythic; showing lower rates than its congeneric. Future experiments that verify the occurrence of pollinator sharing and hybridization between these two species are suggested.
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    A tribo Microlicieae Triana (Melastomataceae) no Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brasil
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-12-20) Neres, Danielle de Oliveira Diniz; Silva, Marcos José da;; Silva, Marcos José da; Alonso, Alexandre Antônio; Ferreira, Heleno Dias; Ribeiro, Dalva Graciano; Rezende, Maria Helena
    Melastomataceae has pantropical distribution and is one of the largest families of Myrtales, with 5105 species, 170 genera, ten tribes and two subfamilies (Olisbeoideae Burnett and Melastomatoideae Seringe). It includes plants with leaves opposite, usually exstipulate and with acrodromous venation, flowers epigynous or perigynous, 4–6-meras, with androecium diplostemonous, anthers poricidal and expressive connectives, appendaged or not, and capsular fruits or berries. In Brazil, it emerges as the ninth richest taxon, with 67 genera and 1373 species. Microlicieae, one of the tribes of this family, encompasses 250 species, 203 present in Brazil, and seven genera (Chaetostoma DC., Lavoisiera DC., Microlicia D. Don, Poteranthera Bongard, Rhynchanthera DC., Stenodon Naudin, and Trembleya DC.), easily recognized by flower and fruit characters. The taxonomy of Microlicieae lacks studies, especially in the Midwest Region of Brazil, where its representatives are generally cited in floristic listings. The mountainous areas in this region display high endemism and species richness such as in Chapada dos Veadeiros, in the north of the state of Goiás. In turn, it includes the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park (CVNP), one of the largest Units of Conservation in Brazil, with 67,000 hectares, covered predominantly by the Cerrado biome, but the flora still little known there. This dissertation aimed to perform the taxonomic treatment of the tribe Microlicieae in the CVNP using the current methodology of plant taxonomy. As our results, we present four articles. The first one corresponds to the taxonomic treatment of Microlicieae and includes commented descriptions and illustrations of 30 species distributed in the genera Microlicia D. Don. (18), Trembleya DC. (4), Chaetostoma DC. (3), Lavoisiera DC. (1), Stenodon Naudin (1), and Rhynchanthera DC. (1). Among the species found, four are new to science, one is a new record in the state of Goiás and belong to the genus Microlicia, three (M. crebropunctata Pilg., M. melanostagma Pilg, and T. debilis Glaz.) can be considered rare, and the other ones are commonly found in the state of Goiás. The other three articles, written following the traditional model, deal with the description of new species. The studied taxa grow in cerrado sensu stricto or rupestre, near water bodies or not, or in open humid fields (grasslands). The present results corroborate the floristic richness of the CVNP and highlight the importance of its conservation, since the taxa of Microlicieae found there correspond to 70% of the total ones cited for the state of Goiás.
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    Distilia em Faramea multiflora em um fragmento de floresta no bioma cerrado
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-03-28) Lopes, Danilo Luiz; Consolaro, Hélder Nagai;; Coelho, Christiano Perez; Franceschinelli, Edivani Villaron; Consolaro, Hélder Nagai
    Distillic species have both types of hercogamy, but in separate individuals, called pin (long-styled) and thrum (short-styled) morphs, characterizing reciprocal herkogamy. This type of floral polymorphism is usually accompanied by a system of heteromorphic self-incompatibility and dysthilic populations tend to have an equal proportion of morphs. The present work aimed to study reproductive biology and verify the pollen flow between the morphs of Faramea multiflora (L). Rich The work was carried out at Santa Cruz Municipal Natural Park in Catalão, southwest of Goiás, Brazil. Information was obtained on phenology, floral biology, floral morphometry, reciprocal hercogamy, isopletia, reproductive system, day and night floral visitors, floral morphometry of both morphs, pollen dimorphism, pollen production and pollen transfer. The population showed mass flowering in the rainy season. Both morphs showed daytime anthesis, but remain long-lived at night attracting night pollinators. The morphs showed reciprocal hercogamy only among the lower sexual whorls and only the height of the thrum morph stigma is not influenced by the size of the corolla. Both morphs showed self-compatibility, especially the thrum morph. F. multiflora flowers were visited by two main groups of pollinators, butterflies during the day and moths at night. Some characteristics appear to be associated with a generalist pollination system, such as the mass flowering pattern and floral longevity that attracts daytime and nighttime pollinators. In addition to the loss of reciprocity between the upper verticils, the study population also presented relaxation in the self-incompatibility system, which may have contributed to the deviation observed in isoplety. Both daytime and nighttime pollinators visited more flowers of the thrum morph, but apart from flower production, which was higher for the thrum morph, no other characteristic seems to explain this difference in the rate of visits. Dimorphism in pollen grain size was observed, with the thrum morph showing larger grains, however, there was no difference in pollen production between the morphs. Stigmas of the thrum morph received more pollen grains and when analyzed for grain quality, the thrum morph also received more legitimate grains while for illegitimate grains there was difference only when analyzing the separate treatments, again with the thrum morph receiving more grains. The pin morph showed a higher male function, while the thrum morph showed a higher female function. Even with pollen dimorphism, pollen production was the same for both morphs. What may be happening in the study population is a deviation in the reproductive fitness of the morphs, which may lead to the total loss of the self-incompatible morph, in this case the pin, and the population to become monomorphic thrum.
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    Estudo ecotoxicológico em machos e fêmeas de Poecilia reticulata expostos a um efluente pesqueiro do município de Goiânia (GO)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2015-08-18) Machado, Rafael Cosme; Nogueira, Ina de Souza;; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira de;; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira de; Rodriguez, Armando Garcia; Pires Júnior, Osmindo Rodrigues; Lee, Chen Chen
    The toxicity of environmental contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals and cyanotoxins has frequently been investigated for its biochemical, cellular and pathological aspects on animals and humans. Among heavy metals, copper is a chemical element that in trace concentrations is commonly found in natural and artificial lakes. The increase in the concentration of this metal in fishing ponds due to the use of algicides, such as CuSO4, or by leaching of the soil, is responsible for the intoxication of aquatic organisms, particularly fish, therefore representing a potential risk to human health. The aim of this study was to determine the phytoplanktonic composition, physicochemical characteristics and the main organic and inorganic contaminants of the water bodies, as well as to evaluate the acute toxicity of the crude effluent from the Jaó fishing pond using histological, ethological, genotoxic and enzymatic endpoints in Poecilia reticulata. Concentrations of Cu2+, phosphorus and nitrogen were higher than allowed by CONAMA resolutions 357 and 430, which, in synergy with other chemical contaminants in the mixture, caused acute toxicity to P. reticulata exposed during the dry season (EC50-96h of 60.48% for males and 85.08% for females) and for rainy (EC50-96h of 32.29% for males and of 49.50% for females). This study demonstrated that copper has a pronounced deposition on the hepatic parenchyma of males and females of P. reticulata. In the analysis of the medial portion of the small intestine, it was observed that the increase in mucin production is a physiological response to stress induced by copper, quantified in the fishing effluent, so that the same results were observed when the specimens were exposed to the average lethal concentration of 96 hours (CL50-96h) to Cu2+ (0.82 ± 0.17 mg.L-1 of CuSO4). It was also observed the genotoxic effect of the effluent from the dry and rainy season on the P. reticulata erythrocytes, so that the females had a higher sensitivity (p <0.05) to the copper contamination. In enzymatic assays, the activity of carboxylesterase (CarbE) was reduced (p <0.05) in females exposed to the rainy season effluent and no changes in the activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were observed. Mitigating measures should be taken to reduce contamination by copper and macronutrients in the fishing pond studied, thus avoiding potential risks to the aquatic and human communities.
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    Variação fenológica dos frutanos e caracterização parcial de sacarose: sacarose frutosiltransferase (1-SST), frutano exohidrolase (1-FEH) e invertase (INV) em órgãos subterrâneos de Chresta exsucca DC. (Asteraceae)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2017-06-29) Santos, Camila Silva dos; Moraes, Moemy Gomes de;; Moraes , Moemy Gomes de; Ulhôa , Cirano José; Carvalho , Maria Angela Machado de
    Climatic seasonality is a factor of great influence in Cerrado plants. In phases of high energetic demand, carbohydrate accumulation becomes an important resource for the maintenance of plants in adverse environmental conditions, such as drought, cold and fire. Thus, the study of enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism is important in understanding metabolic strategies used by these plants. Chresta exsucca has inulin-type fructans and a distinct phenological profile compared to other Asteraceae species from Cerrado. This species flowers in the dry season and resprouting occurs throughout the year. The objective of this work was to verify the carbohydrate variations in the underground organs of C. exsucca in different phenological phases; to verify the optimal conditions for enzymatic activity of sucrose: sucrose fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) and invertase (INV) and to analyze 1-FEH activity in different phenological phases of this species. Total soluble carbohydrate extraction and quantification were performed and the ratio of oligosaccharide: polysaccharide was <1 in senescence. Enzymatic characterization was carried out in different conditions of time, temperature, pH and substrate concentration. The enzymatic conditions for fructan metabolism in C. exsucca resemble other Asteraceae species. The central rotational compound design for 1-FEH showed that reaction time and pH factors influenced 1-FEH activity in C. exsucca. Resprouting had higher 1-FEH activity compared to other phenological phases. Therefore, fructans stored in the underground organs of C. exsucca, as well as the characteristics of fructan enzymes are essential for maintenance of this plant, resulting in constant resprouting and intense reproductive phase, even in the dry season.
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    Cianobactérias planctônicas do reservatório do ribeirão João Leite (Goiás) durante a fase de enchimento: florística e floração
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2014-03-21) Carmo, Elaine Jacob da Silva Carmo; Nogueira, Ina de Souza;; Nogueira, Ina de Souza; Gomes, Lenora Nunes Ludolf; Jardim, Fernando Antônio
    Ribeirão Leite is considered as one of the main sources of public water supply for the city of Goiânia and its metropolitan region. The soil in the watershed is principally used for agro-pastoral activities that may favor the supply of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen for the water reservoir and consequently for the formation of blooms of microalgae and cyanobacteria. No floristic studies of cyanobacteria have been carried out for this reservoir, which is recently formed, however there has been pre-dominance of potentially toxic planktonic cyanobacteria during the filling of this reservoir, which reflects the limnological conditions of the Ribeirão Leite basin. The present study aims to identify and characterize the morphospecies of cyanobacteria and evaluate structure and dynamics of populations. The sample period comprised the date from January 2010 to January 2011, which was filling stage, with the collection of phytoplankton and limnologicals carried out twice a week until the first half of May 2010, and from this date, it was repeated weekly. Physicochemical and also qualitative and quantitative analyzes of phytoplankton were performed in water analysis laboratory of Saneago. Specimens of cyanobacteria were analyzed with microscopy “Zeiss Axiostar plus”, and micro-photographed with image capture system “Axiocam ERc5s” and also with imaging system “Axiovision”. The initial phase of filling of the reservoir demonstrated the greatest efficiency on rainy period of the year, nevertheless, the intermediate phase, which was on dry period, showed lower efficiency. The blooms were observed as characteristics of rainy periods of the year. In the first period, there was the dominance of Geitlerinema amphibium and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and in the second period, Aphanocapsa delicatissima was observed as dominant. It was monitored that during the filling phase, there was predominance of filamentous cyanobacteria and in the final phase, dominance was of the colonial organisms. The PCA indicated that the explanatory variables of the system were turbidity, total phosphorus and Secchi disk depth extinction coefficient (axis 1 to 31.7%). In Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), sampling units were influenced on the 1º axis by the dominance of G. amphibium at the stage of filling, when the turbidity was high and Secchi depth (axis 1 to 14.8%, p <0.05; environment correlation of species 0.806) was lower. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis confirmed the distribution of taxa among different climatic periods. For the state of Goiás, 28 taxa were mentioned for the first time
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    Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil. na serra dos Pireneus, Goiás: diversidade e similaridade florística em áreas de cerrado no Brasil
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2017-06-26) Teixeira, Rayna Chaves; Almeida Neto, Mário;; Teles, Aristônio Magalhães;; Teles, Aristônio Magalhães; Souza, Luzia Francisca de; Hiroaki, Gustavo Shimizu
    The Vochysiaceae family comprises about 240 species distributed in eight genera, six of which occur in the neotropical region (Callisthene Mart., Erisma Rudge, Qualea Aubl., Ruizterania Marc.-Berti, Salvertia A. St.-Hil., and Vochysia Aubl.) and two occur exclusively in Africa (Erismadelphus Mildbr. and Korupodendron Litt & Cheek). The family is known for presenting simple, opposing or verticillate leaves, zygomorphic flowers, isolated or arranged in thyrse, usually calcareous chalice, corolla with reduced number of petals (1, 3 or 5) and only a fertile stamen. This work was organized in two manuscripts with the objective of performing the taxonomic treatment of the Vochysiaceae occurring in the Serra dos Pireneus and also to evaluate the determinants of the diversity and floristic similarity of Vochysiaceae in areas of the Cerrado biome in Brazil. For the first manuscript, botanical material was collected fortnightly for one year in the Serra dos Pireneus. Materials deposited in the herbaria (CEN, ESA, GUA, HEPH, HRB, HUEFS, HUEG, HUFU, IBGE, K, MBM, MO, NY, RB, UB, UEC, UFG, US) were also examined by means of loans. The material collected was incorporated into the collection of the UFG herbarium and all the material examined was identified or had its identification revised. For the taxonomic treatment of the Vochysiaceae of the Serra dos Pireneus, morphological descriptions, taxonomic comments and geographic distribution of all taxa were produced. An identification key was also made for the taxa as well as illustrations. For the second manuscript, 14 surveys of Vochysiaceae were selected in different locations in the Cerrado. With the compilation of the data, the relative and independent importance of the geographic distance and altitude in the determination of the floristic similarity of Vochysiaceae between localities in the biome was evaluated. The Jaccard index was used to calculate the floristic similarity between the pairs of areas and the Mantel Partial Test to evaluate the correlation between the variables and the floristic similarity of Vochysiaceae independently. The study showed that altitude is more important than distance in predicting the extent to which the composition of Vochysiaceae varies between areas in the Cerrado.
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    Fluxo de pólen heteroespecífico entre espécies sincronopátricasde Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2017-03-30) Borges, João Paulo Raimundo; Consolaro, Hélder Nagai;; Franceschinelli, Edivani Villaron; Franceschinelli, Edivani Villaron; Araújo , Walter Santos de; Silva , Daniel Paiva
    Several species of Psychotria L. are common in the understore of semideciduous forests of the Center-West region of Brazil. Often these species occur in sympatry and present overlap in their flowering periods. Recent studies have revealed the occurrence of pollinators sharing among synchronopatric species within the genus Psychotria, with a variation in this sharing according to the interacting species. In the present study, it was investigated whether the exchange of heterospecific pollen occurs between sympatric species and what the intensity of this flow is in comparison with the intraspecific flow. The floral synchrony and nectar production among these sympatric species of Psychotria were also verified to confirm the possibility of interspecific pollen exchange in this system. The data collection took place during the months of November and December of 2015, in a semidecidual forest in the Municipal Park Setor Santa Cruz, municipality of Catalão, GO. The collected data were: floral phenology, nectar production, reciprocity between anthers and stigma, and rate of fluorescent powder flow between species and their floral morphotypes. Our data showed that the flowering peaks were synchronous among Psychotria species, with a significant difference in the nectar production between the species, being larger and renewable after the first removal for P. nitidula, but with higher sugar concentration in P. prunifolia. In relation to reciprocity intraspecific and interspecific, there was no deviation from that expected for distal species, with the reciprocity being greater between the reproductive organs of the same species than between the reproductive organs of different species. Comparing the fluorescent powder flow, it was observed that P. prunifolia presented a higher rate of exclusive visits, while P. nitidula presented more illegitimate visits, mainly for its thrum morph, which promoted greater donation of heterospecific fluorescent powder. P. hoffmannseggiana presented low intensity of donation and reception of fluorescent powder, being all of them interspecific. Therefore, there was a greater illegitimate fluorescent powder flow among the study species than legitimate.
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    Estudos taxonômicos do gênero Calea L. (Asteraceae: Neurolaeneae) na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-03-28) Silva, Gustavo Henrique Lima da; Teles, Aristônio Magalhães;; Teles, Aristônio Magalhães;
    Asteraceae (Compositae) comprises approximately 1.650 genus and about 24.000 species, grouped in 43 tribes. Among these tribes, Neurolaeneae contains 154 species and six genera (Calea, Enydra, Greenmaniella, Heptanthus, Neurolaena e Staurochlamys) with neotropical distribution, and Calea is the largest genus with about 118 species. In Brazil Calea is represented by 82 species of which 45 is endemic of the country. The regions of Brazil with greater richness of species of the genera are Southeast (52 spp.) and Central-West (40 spp.). The Central-West region comprises the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Federal District, and occupies an area of 1.606.415,201 Km2. The main biomes of the region are Cerrado (Brazilian savanna), Pantanal and Amazon rainforest. To carry out the work botanical collections were performed in the three states and the Federal District, covering mainly areas of the Cerrado biome. Materials of several Brazilian herbaria and our collections were examined. Here we present the following results: we reported 35 species of Calea for Central-West region of Brazil, one described as new for Goiás state; Calea anomala, C. purpurea, and C. kirkibridei were previously registered for the region by other authors, but from the present study had their distribution restricted to Bahia and Tocantins states (C. purpurea), and Minas Gerais state (C. anomala and C. kirkbridei); we reported the occurrence of C. lantanoides for Bolivia, and C. asclepiifolia as a new record for Brazil, in Mato Grosso do Sul state. We propose here seven synonymizations, three new combinations, and designate 26 lectotypes. These results are presented in the form of four manuscripts: Synopsis of the genus Calea L. (Asteraceae: Neurolaeneae) in the Central-West region of Brazil (with a brief history of the genre, key to the taxa, taxonomic comments, distribution and habitat, phenology, list of specimens and illustrations); Calea L. (Asteraceae, Neurolaeneae) in Goiás state, Brazil (Key to the species found in the state of Goiás, descriptions for each species, taxonomic comments, distribution and habitat, phenology, images and material examined); The genus Calea (Asteraceae, Neurolaeneae) in the Federal District, Brazil (key to the species occurring in the Federal District, descriptions for each species, taxonomic comments, distribution and habitat, phenology, illustrations and specimens examined); and A new species of Calea (Asteraceae – Neurolaeneae) from Goiás state, Brazil;
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    Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil. nos Parques Estaduais da Serra de Caldas Novas e da Serra Dourada e sua sinopse para o estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2017-03-30) Sampaio, Thiago Henrique Silva; Teles, Aristônio Magalhães;; Teles, Aristônio Magalhães; Shimizu, Gustavo Hiroaki; Klein, Vera Lúcia Gomes; Ferreira, Heleno Dias; Gonçalves, Letícia de Almeida
    The family Vochysiaceae has about of 240 species grouped in eight genera: Erismadelphus Mildbr. e Korupodendron Litt & Cheek what are natural of Western Africa; Callisthene Mart., Erisma Rudge, Qualea Aubl., Salvertia A. St.-Hil, Ruizterania Marc-Berti and Vochysia Aubl. with neotropical distribution. Vochysiaceae is reconigzed its leaves oposite or in polymerous whorls, zigomorfic flowers, spurred calyx, corolla with one, three or five petals and one fertille stame. The Goiás state is inserted in the region of the Cerrado, the second largest biome in area in Brazil, in it’s found several conservation units, for example the State Park of Serra Dourada (PESD) and State Park of Serra de Caldas Novas (PESCAN). The PESD is located between the municipalities of Mossâmede and Goiás and the PESCAN located between the municipalities of “Caldas Novas” and “Rio Quente”. To perform this work we examined material of several herbaria at Brazil and we collected botanical material in several points of Goiás, included the PESD and PESCAN. Here we present the following results: we reported 27 species of Vochysiaceae for Goiás state in five genera: Callisthene (5 spp.); Qualea (6 spp.); Salvertia (1 sp.); Ruizterania (1 sp.); and Vochysia (14 spp.). Qualea selloi, Ruizterania wittrockii and Vochysia sessilifolia are new record for Goiás state; we propose here the new combination of Qualea dichotoma var. elongada to Qualea cordata var. elongata. In the PESCAN and in the PESD, Vochysiaceae is represented for 17 species, distribuited in four genera: Callisthene (3spp.); Qualea (6 spp.); Salvertia (1 sp.); e Vochysia (9 spp.). Callisthene fasciculata, C. major, C. mollissima, Vochysia cinnamomea and V. pumila have found only in the PESCAN, and Vochysia pruinosa and Vochysia pyramidalis have been found only in the PESD. The others species are common to both areas. In this work is presented a key of identification of the species occurring in the Goiás state, and in the PESD and PESCAN, as well as descriptions, illustrations taxonomic comments, phenology, distribuition and examined material.
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    Estudos taxonômicos e morfopolínicos das Cucurbitáceas do Estado de Goiás, Brasil
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2017-03-29) Moura, Beryl Eirene Lutz de; Klein, Vera Lúcia Gomes;; Klein, Vera Lúcia Gomes;; Ferreira, Helenos Dias; Franceschinelli, Edivani Villaron
    The family Cucurbitaceae Juss. is include in Cucurbitales order in the clade Eurosids I, 2295 spp., included in 129 tropical and temperate genera distributed in seven families of different morphological and ecological characteristics. The family has 98 genera and 975 species. In Brazil is represented by about 30 genera and 157 species. This work deals with the taxonomic study of plants of the Cucurbitaceae family Juss. found in the State of Goias, Brazil to contribute information to update the Flora of Brazil. Exsiccatae analyzes were performed deposited in national and international herbaria and conducting expeditions in the study area. 19 genera and 40 species in the area were located, so 09 genera and 28 species of native plants. Relative to native plants, Cayaponia Silva Manso gender had a greater number of species (8 spp.), followed by Melothria L. (6 spp.), Gurania (Schltdl.) Cogn. (4 spp.), Ceratosanthes Adans. (3 spp.) Psiguria Neck ex. Arn.and Sicyos L. (2 spp.), and the genres Melothrianthus Mart. Crov., Siolmatra Baill, Wilbrandia Silva Manso, are represented by only one species each. Pollen morphology of six native and two sub-spontaneous species of Cucurbitaceae occurring in the state of Goias, Midwest Region of Brazil, were analyzed with the goal of understanding the palynology and taxonomy of selected species. Pollen grains were acetolyzed, measured, described, photographed and electromicrographed. Analysis under the SEM was used to elucidate questions about the ornamentation of the exine. Pollen grains are in monads in Cayaponia podantha Cogn., Ceratosanthes tomentosa Cogn., Luffa operculata (L.) Cogn., Melothria campestris (Naudin) H. Schaefer & S. S. Renner, Momordica charantia L., Wilbrandia hibiscoides Silva Manso or tetrads in Gurania lobata (L.) Pruski and Psiguria umbrosa (Kunth) C. Jeffrey; average size, large or very large in monads and very large in tetrads. The openings ranged from pores in Cayaponia podantha, colpores in other monads and pores in tetrads. Regarding ornamentation, spiny sexine were registered in Cayaponia podantha, perforated sexine in Melothria campestris, micro-reticulated sexine in Gurania lobata and Psiguria umbrosa and reticulated sexine in other taxa. Results allowed the distinction between genera, indicating that the pollen morphology contributes to the taxonomic studies and the family is considered eurypalynous. These data emphasize the importance of pollen morphology for the diagnosis of genera into Cucurbitaceae.
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    Morfofisiologia de tomateiros mutantes fotomorfogenéticos fri tri, phyB2 cultivados em condições de sol e sombra
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2017-03-31) Mereb, Emiliana Licio; Rezende, Maria Helena;; Melo, Hyrandir Cabral;; Melo, Hyrandir Cabral; Falheiros, Rogério; Carneiro, Renê; Rezende, Maria Helena
    Phytochromes are protein pigments related to the qualitative and quantitative absorption of light by plants, translating it into biochemical signals that influence plant growth and development. In tomato, fri mutant shows deficiency in the phytochrome A, the mutant tri, deficiency phytochrome B1 and phyB2 mutant is deficient in phytochrome B2. In this paper we analyzed the effects of these changes when the cultivation of plants in the sun and shade treatments by analysis the growth and assimilates partition, photosynthetic rates (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll and carotenoid content in tomato mutants photomorphogenic fri, tri, phyB2 and wild genotype Moneymaker. The plants were grown in a greenhouse and featured throughout its development. The fri and tri mutant exhibited lower total leaf area than the other genotypes in both treatments. All genotypes were taller in shade treatment, and in these conditions the mutant tri presented greater height than the other genotypes. The photosynthetic rate was higher in sun condition, and phyB2 mutant subjected to shading exhibited higher A than the other genotypes. Under sunny conditions were observed lower amounts of chlorophyll a and carotenoid in the tri mutant compared to other genotypes. Fri and tri mutants showed lower potential quantum yield (Fv / Fm) and effective (Fq '/ Fm') of photosystem II in shade conditions. Lower values of Fq '/ Fm' were observed in tri mutant under shady when compared to other genotypes. In both treatments mutants showed higher dry biomass values of roots / total dry weight in relation to control genotype, and 130 DAE fri mutant exhibited reduction of this parameter. Assimilates allocation to 130 DAE in leaves was higher in fri mutants, tri, and phyB2 compared to the wild genotype, which showed the highest dry mass ratio of fruit / total dry mass compared to the mutants.. The area of the vessel element was for the fri mutant in comparison to the other genotypes. The stomatal density of the abaxial face was higher for the fri and phyB2 mutants in sun condition. The thickness of the adaxial epidermal cells, the paliquadic and spongy parenchyma, and the xylem thickness were greater in the sun condition in relation to the shade, greater in the sun condition in relation to the shade. It is concluded that the analyzed characteristics are influenced by specific phytochrome in the studied species and the action of phytochrome differs in sun and shade conditions.
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    Cayaponia silva manso (cucurbitaceae juss.), no estado de Goiás: uma abordagem morfológica e anatômica
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2017-03-31) Cardoso Junior, Ilvan Martins; Rezende, Maria Helena;; Klein, Vera Lúcia Gomes;; Klein, Vera Lúcia Gomes; Fraceschinelli, Edivani Villaron; Lima, Luís Fernando Paiva
    Cayaponia Silva Manso (Cucurbitaceae Juss.), In the State of Goiás: a morphological and anatomical approach - Cayaponia Silva Manso comprises about 60 species of which 47 occur in Brazil. Several studies have been carried out with species of this genus in view of the proven pharmacological potential for some taxa, mainly C. tayuya (Vell) Cogn., C. martiana (Cogn.) Cogn. In Goiás it was reported the existence of seven species that constitute two groups that are differentiated respectively by the habits and habitats where they are found, one formed by the species C. espelina (Silva Manso) Cogn., C. rugosa Gomes-Klein et Pirani and C. weddellii (Naudin) Cogn. And the other group comprising the species C. tayuya (Vell.) Cogn., C. citrullifolia (Griseb.) Cogn., C. diversifolia (Cogn.) Cogn. and C. podantha Cogn. Some studies have been carried out to solve complexes in other botanical families. Studies on the anatomy of vegetative and reproductive organs have presented results that contribute to a better circumscription for the species under study. In this work, morphological, taxonomic and anatomical studies were carried out with the objective of adding new information that allows a better delimitation and recognition of the studied species. A preliminary survey of information on Cayaponia species occurred in the State of Goiás. 41 expeditions were carried out in 42 municipalities. Specimens of 7 species were collected in the State of Goiás. For the morphological and taxonomic studies, the collected material was processed, herborized and identified according to the usual methodology. For the anatomical analysis part of the material was preserved fresh in a freezer at 10 ° C, another part fixed in alcohol70, in FAA70 or FPA70. In Chapter 1 the taxonomic treatment for the species occurring in Goiás was carried out. A key of identification, morphological and taxonomic description was presented, as well as illustrations of the species studied. In Chapter 2 the description of foliar architecture of the species under study was presented. Also in this chapter an identification key was developed for the species under study based on foliar architecture and venation patterns. Chapter 3 presents anatomical analyzes of petiole and leaf blade, scanning electron microscopy and histochemical tests that were used in the separation of taxa. Statistical tests, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were applied with the objective of performing a prospection of morpho-anatomic characters that support the groups delimited in previous chapters.
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    Delimitação de táxons do complexo Manihot pentaphylla Pohl (Euphorbiacae Juss.) com base em dados morfológicos e anatômicos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2017-03-14) Azevedo, Elifalete Serafim; Silva, Marcos José da;; Ribeiro, Dalva Graciano;; Ribeiro, Dalva Graciano; Meira, Renata Maria Strozi Alves; Ferreira, Heleno Dias
    Manihot Mill belongs to Euphorbiaceae Juss. With more than 100 neotropical species, of which 65 were reported for the Brazilian Cerrado. The genus presents a complex taxonomy, still little studied, with taxa differentiated by subtle characters, constituting, therefore, complexes of difficult delimitation. One of these complexes is represented by Manihot pentaphylla Pohl, a species that currently circumscribes four subspecies: M. pentaphylla subsp. pentaphylla; M. pentaphylla subsp. tenuifolia; M. pentaphylla subsp. rigidula and M. pentaphylla subsp. graminifolia. These taxa were previously described as distinct species and later inserted at the subspecies level, however, these taxa, besides growing in a biome that has little known flora and that suffers constant devastation, present differences in morphological characters preserved and useful in the delimitation of taxa in the genus, such as: habit and growth orientation, conformation of bracts and bractolas and inflorescence, which means that knowledge of these species becomes necessary. Since anatomical studies have provided useful information on the taxonomic delimitation of species , the objective of this study was to provide anatomical data of the M. pentaphylla complex to support the delimitation of its infraspecific categories, and present a morphological approach, where the taxa are described and related. For this, botanical collections and morphological descriptions of the taxa were carried out, anatomical analysis under optical microscope and scanning electron microscope and histochemical tests. Transverse sections of the stem and leaf of the longitudinal taxa and taxa were obtained only from the stem and the petiole. The taxa showed significant anatomical differences of taxonomic value such as: contour and number of vascular bundles on the petiole, contour and number of vascular bundles of the central vein, type of mesophyll, epidermis formed by papillary cells, distribution and type of stomata and epicuticular wax pattern. The shape of the leaf blade (whether arched or straight) and the edge (revolute or non-revolute), presence of gelatinous fibers, presence/absence of cuticular streaks among others also provided valuable information to differentiate species. Morphologically, the taxa showed differences in habit and appearance, type of inflorescence, shape and integrity of bracts and bractoles, among others. Finally, based on the morphological and anatomical characters described and compared here, we believe that the studied taxa have satisfactory differences to raise them at the species level.
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    Biologia reprodutiva do maracujá brs pérola do cerrado: um estudo de caso com Passiflora setacea DC. Passifloraceae
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2017-03-23) Teixeira, Tamara Poliana de Oliveira; Silingardi, Helena Maura Torezan;; Franceschinelli, Edivani Villaron;; Franceschinelli, Edivani Villaron; Consolaro, Hélder; Mello, Carlos de
    The genus Passiflora includes several wild species that present the potential to be inserted in the market, Passiflora setacea is one of these. Therefore, the study of the reproductive biology of the same was carried out in the Cerrado area of Fazenda Vale do Tamanduá, in the municipality of Aragoiânia in the state of Goiás. In order to analyze the phenology, floral biology, determine the reproductive system, verify visitors And ensure that the flowers undergo predation and whether this fact interferes with the fruiting process. The cultivar blooms year-round, producing fruits with greater intensity in August. Its flowers have characteristics that include it in the chiropteraphilia syndrome, such as white flowers, high nectar production and nocturnal anthesis (18h). The nectar is available only one hour after the anthesis and its production ranged from 135 to 485 microlitres, with a concentration of 18 to 28%. Passiflora setacea is self incompatible, although its self-incompatibility index (0.26) shows compatibility, this value is very close to the autocompatible species (0.25), so the Kruskal-wallis test showed self-incompatibility for the species. The analysis of the fruits of the self-pollination and cross-treatments revealed that there are significant differences in relation to total weight, pulp yield, seed number, transverse and longitudinal length. In relation to the nocturnal floral visitors, Glossophaga soricina was considered the pollinator due to the presence of pollen grains in its coat and among the daytime floral visitors are bees, wasps, flies and birds. Apis melífera and Trigona spinipes were the most frequent species, presenting pillage behavior, these make illegitimate visits, stealing pollen from the flowers, including pre-anthesis buttons. The birds Eupetonema macroura, Coereba flaviola and the bee Xylocopa grisescens, despite not having frequent visits, were considered to be potential diurnal pollinators due to the fact of making legitimate visits, that is, they contact the reproductive structures during the collection of nectar. The flowers of Passiflora setacea were herbivory mainly by T. spinipes that degrade the hipant of the flower and consequently the nectariferous disk and Icterus jamacaii, that destroys every flower, including the reproductive structures. The results show that although these flowers are damaged, their fruits do not have statistical differences when compared to undamaged flowers