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    Associação e seleção genômica para eficiência alimentar em bovinos Nelore
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-22) Brunes, Ludmilla Costa; Rey, Fernando Sebastian Baldi;; Lopes, Fernando Brito;; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhoa;; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhoa; Mascioli, Arthur dos Santos; Carmo, Adriana Santana do; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Quedes; Costa, Marcos Fernando Oliveira e
    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for feed efficiency, growth, reproductive and carcass traits in commercial Nelore cattle herds, and the correlated response between them. It was also aimed perform a study of genomic selection evaluating prediction methods, validation approaches and pseudo-phenotypes, and conduct a weighted single-step genome-wide association study and an enrichment analysis for feed efficiency of feed efficiency related traits. Residual feed intake (RFI), dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed efficiency (FE), residual live weight gain (RG), residual intake and live weight gain (RIG), birth weight (BW), weight at 120 (W120), 240 (W240), 365 (W365), and 450 (W450) days of age, scrotal circumference at 365 (SC365) and 450 (SC450) days of age, rib eye area (REA), backfat thickness (BF) and rump fat thickness (RF) were evaluated. The growth, reproductive and carcass traits records from 15,639 Nelore cattle were used. Data from feed efficiency tests carried out between 2011 and 2018, with phenotypic and genotypic information of 4,329 and 3,594 animals, respectively, were considered. The genetic parameters were estimated in a single step approach (ssGBLUP). Six prediction methods of genomic breeding values (GEBVs) were used: ssGBLUP, Bayes A, Bayes B, Bayes Cπ, BLASSO, and Bayes R. Three validation approaches were used: 1) random: the data set was randomly divided into ten subsets and the validation was done in each subset at a time; 2) age: the population was divided into training and validation set based on the year of birth, with the first group consisting of animals born between 2010 and 2016 and the second group born in 2017; 3) genetic breeding value (EBV) accuracy: were divided into two groups, with animals with accuracy above 0.45 considered as the training population, and below 0.45 the validation set. We checked the accuracy and bias of GEBV. The percentage of variance explained by windows of 10 adjacent SNPs was used to identify regions that explained more than 0.5% of the additive genetic variance on each trait. The feed efficiency related traits showed low to moderate heritabilities, ranging from 0.07 to 0.20. Feed efficiency related traits showed low genetic correlations with growth (-0.19 to 0.24), reproductive (-0.24 to 0.27) and carcass (-0.17 to 0.27) traits, except for growth with DMI (0.32 to 0.56) and FE (-0.40). The results showed that the prediction ability were similar between the prediction methods. The low heritability obtained, mainly for FE (0.07±0.03) and FCR (0.09±0.03), limited the GEBVs accuracy, which ranged from low to moderate. The regression coefficient estimates were close to 1, and similar between the prediction methods, validation approaches, and pseudophenotypes. On average and despite low variation (0.0331), the random cross-validation presented the most accurate predictions, ranging from 0.07 to 0.037, than EBV accuracy and age. The prediction ability was higher for phenotype adjusted for fixed effects than for EBV and EBV deregressed (30.0 and 34.3%, respectively). Enrichment analysis by The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) revealed several functional vias such as neuropeptide signaling pathway (GO:0007218), negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway (GO:0090090), detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste (GO:0001580), bitter taste receptor activity (GO:0033038), neuropeptide hormone activity (GO:0005184), bile secretion (bta04976), taste transduction (bta0742), and glucagon signaling pathway (bta04922). The selection to improve growth, reproductive and carcass traits would not change RFI, RG, and RIG. On the other hand, DMI, FE and FCR may lead to an increase in body weight, in addition to the selection for FCR may lead to a reduction in carcass yield. The genetic background of feed efficiency related traits are different, which would lead to different genetic responses. The choice of the most adequate selection criterion depends on the production system and goals. Genomic prediction methods can provide a reliable estimate of genomic breeding values for RFI, DMI, RG and RGI, traits that may have higher genetic gain and selection viability than FE and FCR. Enrichment analyzes showed genes associated with in insulin, leptin, glucose, protein and lipid metabolism, energy balance, heat and oxidative stress, zinc finger system, bile secretion, satiety, feed behavior, salivation, digestion and absorption of nutrients. The identification of these genomic regions and their respective genes provide information about genetic basis and biologic regulation for Nelore feed efficiency related traits.
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    Índices microclimáticos e indicativos de estresse térmico em bovinos de corte
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-08-13) Karvatte Junior, Nivaldo; Alves, Fabiana Villa;; Miyagi, Eliane Sayuri;; Miyagi, Eliane Sayuri; Almeida, Roberto Giolo de; Santos, Darliane de Castro; Ferro, Diogo Alves da Costa; Ferro, Rafael Alves da Costa
    The objective was to use microclimatic indexes and to propose indicators of thermal stress in beef cattle to evaluate animal production systems. For that, two experiments were carried out: (i) using infrared thermography to evaluate microclimate and thermal comfort in silvopastoral systems; and (ii) evaluating the physiological adaptability of beef cattle in feedlot and pasture submitted to thermal stress. The first experiment was conducted at the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, from June 2015 to February 2016. The evaluations were carried out in two silvopastoral systems with different densities and spatial arrangements of cultivated and native trees, from 08h to 16h, with intervals of one hour between evaluations. Infrared radiation emissions of temperature (°C) and humidity (%) of the canopy and pasture surface were recorded, in the shadow projection and in the full sun. At the same time, the microclimatic parameters were evaluated and the main thermal comfort indeces were subsequently calculated. Variations of canopy and pasture temperature and humidity were observed, with direct influences on microclimate and animal thermal comfort. The greatest fluctuations occurred during the summer and at noon with substantial improvements in the environment under the canopy. The Principal Components Analysis extracted two components in order of their importance to explain 70.6% of the total variance observed between the variables. Moderate and strong correlations (r ≥ 0.63; or, r ≤ 0.80) showed positive linear effects (R²adj ≥ 0.40, or, ≤ 0.63) between thermography, microclimate and thermal comfort indeces. The results show that temperatures and humidities of canopy and pasture surfaces can be continuously monitored using infrared thermal imagers, making it a potential tool (r ≥ 0.53; or, r ≤ 0.78) for microclimate prediction and thermal comfort in silvopastoral systems. The second experiment was conducted on farms located in Civitella Paganico, Grosseto province, Italy, in partnership with Università di Pisa (Italy), from May to September 2017, using 60 animals (20 Aubrac, 20 Maremmano and 20 ½ Maremmano x ½ Piemontês) divided into two production systems (confinement and pasture). Cortisol in the hair, physiological variables (rectal, hair and skin temperatures, cardiac and respiratory frequency) and hematological variables (complete blood count) were evaluated. No effects of production system were observed (P> 0.05). However, the effects of genetic groups, the evaluation period and the interaction between genetic groups and production systems significantly affected (P <0.05) all evaluated parameters. The crossbreed genetic group had the highest concentrations of cortisol during the whole experimental period, favoring the greater variations in the physiological parameters and being more susceptible to chronic stress. Non-invasive methods, such as the sampling of hairs on animals and the application of infrared thermography for the evaluation of production systems, contribute to the advancement of scientific research in several areas of knowledge.
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    O nitrato encapsulado aumenta a eficiência de utilização do suplemento para bovinos de corte em pastejo
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-12-14) Figueiredo, Cibelle Borges; Fernandes, Juliano José de Resende;; Silva, Maurícia Brandão da;; Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira;; Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira; Cunha, Paulo Henrique Jorge da; Cabral Filho, Sergio Lucio Salomon; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Araújo, Rafael Canonenco de
    Encapsulated nitrate has been pointed out as a promising tool for reducing methane production by ruminant animals. The objective was to evaluate, in Chapter 2, the effects of the use of encapsulated nitrate on the performance of beef cattle on pasture in the dry season, dry transition of water and water, and in Chapter 3 the fermentative parameters in in vitro assays using substrates in proportions and similar compositions of the performance experiment. The evaluated treatments were: Control – protein-energy supplement without inclusion of encapsulated nitrate, and EN – protein-energy supplement with inclusion of 50 g of encapsulated nitrate per kg of dry matter. In the performance experiment (Chapter 2), the supplement was given daily at 1.0% of body weight. The leftover concentrate was weighed daily to estimate supplement intake. The animals were weighed every 28 days, and the rate of supplement consumption was also evaluated. There was a reduction in supplement dry matter intake with the inclusion of EN in the supplement in the dry period (P < 0.01) (2.404 to 2.283 kg/day), dry-water transition (P < 0.01) (2.922 kg to 2.496 kg/day), water (P < 0.01) (3.631 to 3.143 kg/day) and total period (P < 0.01) (2.943 to 2.605 kg/day). The average daily gain was not influenced by the inclusion of NE in any of the evaluated periods (P > 0.13). The inclusion of EN resulted in an increase in the feed efficiency of the animals in the dry-water transition period from 0.362 to 0.411 (P < 0.01). In Chapter 3, three experiments were carried out, corresponding to the dry season, dry-water transition and water, in order to evaluate the Control and EN treatments. The evaluation times were zero, three, six, nine, 12, 24 and 48 hours after incubation. Each time was composed of its respective triplicates. In these times, the in vitro degradability of dry matter (IVDDM) and neutral detergent fiber (IVDNDF), ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3), methane and gas production were evaluated. At 24 hours, the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) was evaluated. There was a reduction in methane production from 22.2 to 19.3 mg (P < 0.01) in the dry season. The total incubation time (48 hours) was marked with a 5% reduction in IVDDM with inclusion in EN (741.4 vs 703.9 g/kg) (P < 0.02) in the dry transition season substrate. waters. An increase in the molar proportion of acetate from 14.36 to 20.33 mM/L (P < 0.04) was observed with the inclusion of encapsulated nitrate in the wet season substrate. There was no significant effect of including nitrate in the wet season substrate on IVDDM and IVDNFD (P > 0.06). The inclusion of encapsulated nitrate in the proportion of 50 g/kg of supplement DM increases the feed efficiency of grazing animals, and reduces the methane production with the use of dry season forage.
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    Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais em frangos de corte de crescimento lento desafiados com Salmonella Heidelberg
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-03-08) Mota, Lorena Cunha; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mojyca;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Melo, Francislete Rodrigues; Nunes, Romão da Cunha; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Mello, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho
    Two experiments were carried out with the objective of evaluating the antimicrobial activity of native extracts of native species of Brazilian Cerrado. The first experiment was carried out in vitro using seven ethanolic plant extracts native to the Brazilian cerrado (Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens), Jacaranda (Machaerium villosum), Jenipapo (Genipa americana), Pau-terra (Qualea parviflora), Pau- (Brosimum gaudichaudii), to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Heidelberg. The phenolic compounds of the plant extracts were determined by spectroscopy in the visible region, using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The determination of the antioxidant capacity of the plant extracts was carried out using the ABTS solution free radical sequestration method. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the seven ethanolic extracts against Salmonella Heidelberg was performed using the disc diffusion method. In the second experiment were performed performance tests, intestinal development, bacteriology and blood biochemistry of slow-growing chickens challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and treated with woodland plant extract. A total of 432 broiler chickens were used. The roasted red roasted roasted roasted red roasted roe were distributed in six treatments, six replicates and 12 birds per experimental unit. The experimental design was randomized blocks distributed in six treatments: SH + control (birds with challenge + basal ration); SH + EVT (challenged birds + antimicrobial ration), SH + EVPT (control + challenged birds), control (birds without challenge + basal ration), ANT (unchallenged birds + antimicrobial ration) and EVPT challenge + plant extract). Performance, intestinal histomorphometry, specific bacteriology and blood biochemistry were evaluated. The results of the antimicrobial analysis of Salmonella Heidelgerb extracts were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data of phenolic compounds and antioxidants were submitted to descriptive analysis. The performance data, histomorphometry and blood biochemistry were submitted to the test of variance. Data from the specific bacteriology were analyzed by descriptive method. The data of phenolic compounds and antioxidants were submitted to descriptive analysis. The ethanolic vegetal extracts varied from 6.48 to 59.81 g EAG / mL of total phenolic compounds and 595 to 1098.33 μmol / L of antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract of Pau-terra presented moderate antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Heidelberg (halo diameter 9.5%). In the results of the performance evaluation the ANT treatment promoted greater weight gain and higher final weight of the birds and the SH + EVPT treatment influenced in lower weight gain and lower final weight. In the evaluation of the histomorphometry of the segments of the gastrointestinal tract histoformetrium of the chick embryo of slow growth slow crypt depth in the mucosa was higher in the birds submitted to the SH + EVPT treatment and, the lower in the birds submitted to SH + crypt for SH + control birds and reduction in the ratio for SH + EVPT treated birds. The treatments did not influence the studied parameters of the duodenum and jejunum of seven - day - old birds. The SH + EVPT treatment promoted crypt depth increase, and the SH + control treatment reduced crypt depth. In the birds of 42 days of age the treatment promoted EVPT promoted jejunal villus height and SH + control reduced jejunal villus height. In the ilium SH + EVPT treatment promoted villus enlargement and ANT treatment reduced villus height. The SH + control treatment reduced the crypt depth of the ilium and the SH + EVPT treatment increased the crypt depth of the ilium. In bacteriology, 75% of the gastrointestinal tract presented Salmonella Heidelberg at 7 days of age, 58% at 28 days of age and 16.66% at 42 days of age. The concentration of albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid was influenced by the treatments. The ethanolic extracts of Barbatimão Jacarandá, Mama-bitch, Jenipapo, Pau-ferro and Murici did not present antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Heidelberg (diameter of halo 5mm). The ethanolic extract of Pau-terra, offered in drinking water, using a concentration of 1: 1000 and supplied once a day to slow-growing chickens does not promote the performance improvement of chickens up to 28 days of age and has no activity antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Heldelberg.
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    Análise multifatorial e preditores para características de importância econômica de matrizes suínas em granja multiplicadora
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-09-30) Leal, Guilherme Brunno de Medeiros; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Antunes, Robson Carlos;; Carmo, Adriana Santana do;; Carmo, Adriana Santana do; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez; Cadavid, Verónica González; Leite, Carla Daniela Suguimoto; Masciol, Arthur dos Santos
    The present work aimed to investigate the relationship between the productive characteristics and to identify the factors that affect the number of weaned piglets (NLD) per sow/year, the accumulated productivity in kilograms (kg) of weaned piglets (LD) per sow/year and the productive longevity of swine breeders in order to support the selection process of a breeding farm. In chapter 2, factor analyzes were performed in order to understand the relationship between the characteristics and multiple linear regression to identify the main predictor variables for the variables NLD per matrix/year and accumulated productivity in kg of LD per matrix/year. In chapter 3, the females were evaluated as to their longevity, according to two distinct stayability criteria, STAY1 and STAY2, which consider as longevity, respectively, the females that presented the number of live born piglets (NLNV) and kilogram of piglets weaned to the fourth parturition above the herd average. It was identified by the main latent factors that 55% variance between breeders on the farm is explained by the characteristics of maternal ability, piglet viability, fertility and perinatal mortality. The best regression models for prediction explained approximately 66% of the variation both for the NLD traits and for the total weight of weaned piglets adjusted for 21 days (PTD21), evidencing the characteristics number of stillborn piglets (NLNAT), number of dead piglets at birth (NLMN), mean piglet birth weight (PMN) and number of piglets weaned (NLD) with common explanatory factors. It was not possible to obtain a good predictive model for the characteristic mean weight of weaned piglets adjusted to 21 days (PD21) in the present study. The analysis of females by NLNV and PD21 categories indicated that sows that present NLNV below the herd average do not have the potential to exhibit an adequate accumulated production under the evaluated conditions of the farm. The best predictive models for female longevity by STAY1 criteria include age at first mating (IPC) and NLNV and for STAY2 it included only IPC. The prediction model proposed for STAY1 was more efficient (78%) than for STAY2 (55%). Selection for STAY1 can be performed with the NLNV of the first calving, while for STAY2 should preferably be performed later, by the accumulated NLD of the first three calvings. Survival analysis showed that by STAY1, females would be discarded later (8th parturition), when compared to STAY2 (6th parturition).
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    Percepção dos consumidores e profissionais de saúde sobre a produção de suínos e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. em carne suína no estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-06-14) Teixeira, Karla Andrade; Arnhold, Emmanuel; Stringhini, José Henrique; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez;; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez; Mello, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho; Pozza, Magali Soares dos Santos; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Almeida, Vivian Vezzoni de
    Although pork is one of the most consumed in the world, its consumption in Brazil is still low compared to other countries and other types of meat.However, when we look at pork consumption data by Brazilian state, it appears that Goiás stands out with an average consumption higher than the national one and with potential for increase. Thus, it is necessary to first understand the consumer's profile and his perspective on pork. Due to the greater access to information that the current consumer has, a multiplicity of variables or attributes present in a product influence the decision-making process of purchase and consumption, in addition, it can also be influenced by opinion makers such as health professionals. Consumers, when buying the product, are more concerned with aspects related to their health, the quality of the product in relation to the presence of possible contaminants and residues, and some are concerned with the way of production and slaughter of these animals and their well-being. In terms of quality, a major concern is the microbiological quality of the meat, since it can be contaminated with different types of pathogens, among them Salmonella sp .. Which is an important transmitter of foodborne diseases (DTAs). From this context, two surveys were carried out. The first with 361 people from the state of Goiás. By means of an electronic questionnaire with 38 questions, to know beyond the profile the consumer's perception regarding consumption habits, healthiness, quality, production system, and animal welfare. The second was carried out with 90 health professionals, in order to get to know the point of view about pork and what they recommend about it to their patients / clients. The professionals answered 15 questions. A study was also carried out to verify the presence of Salmonella sp. in meat sold in commercial points in the city of Goiânia (GO). 60 samples of fresh meat (sirloin and ham) and 40 samples of industrialized meat (sausage and ham) were collected and processed and analyzed. Samples with the presence of Salmonella sp. underwent an antimicrobial susceptibility profile analysis, 9 bases were tested. It was noticed that the profile of the people who participated in the research is quite varied and that there are still the presence of myths, doubts and misconceptions in all aspects addressed, therefore, there is a need to work on these aspects, and it is possible to do so draw up educational plans. The results obtained with the participating health professionals demonstrated that the misinformation among them still exists, especially regarding the nutritional value, the health and hygiene of pork. Thus, as it is an opinion-forming public, it is imperative that actions are developed in order to bring more information about the entire production process of the pig chain. From meat samples 16.75% of shank and 10% of loin were positive for the presence of Salmonella sp. Of the isolates, 100% showed resistance to any of the tested antibiotics and 87.5% showed multidrug resistance.
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    Uso de emulsifiante em dietas de frangos de corte
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-04-01) Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Garcia de; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez; Mendonça, Raiana Almeida Noleto; Sysneiros, Cristine dos Santos Settimi; Lopes, Karina Ludovico de Almeira Martinez
    Two experiments were conducted. The first one aimed to study the effects of the emulsifying in diets using three different levels of metabolized energy (ME) (low, recommended and high) in the initial and growth phases of broilers, with a 3x2 factorial. In the initial phase, the diets had 2.950, 3.050, and 3.150 kcal/kg, and in the growth phase, 3.100, 3.150 and 3.200 kcal/kg of ME, with the inclusion of 0,125% of an emulsifying that has soy lecithin as its main component. The aim was to determinate the apparent metabolized energy (AME) and the apparent metabolized energy corrected by nitrogen (AMEn) in diets with three levels of metabolized energy (ME), as well as nitrogen balance (NB), digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DCDM), ether extract (DCEE), nitrogen (DCN), and crude energy (DCCE). It was verified that the inclusion of the emulsifying increased the DCDM, DCN, NB, and AMEn in diets with 2.950 and 3050 kcal/kg, while in the growth phase, the AME and AMEn in diets with lower levels of metabolized energy (3.100 kcal/kg), suggesting the inclusion of the emulsifying in broilers’ diet with lower levels of metabolized energy. The second experiment aimed to study the inclusion of the emulsifying in broilers’ diet with two different fat sources (soy oil and chicken fat), therefore forming a 2x2 factorial. It was used an emulsifying that has soy lecithin as its main component with 0,5% of inclusion (on top). The emulsifying (soy lecithin) improved the broilers’ body weight in 35 (120 g) and 42 (150 g) days old, regardless to the fat source used in the diet, as well as the productive efficiency ratio (416,69). There were no differences to the percentage of ether extract found in the excrete of 7 and 21 days old broilers. To assess the intestinal histomorphometry of 21 days of age, the emulsifying increased the villous height in the intestine of broilers fed with soy oil, not showing any differences to the chicken fat, while in the jejunum, the greatest villous height was found in diets with chicken fat and in the ileum, with soy oil, both of which used the emulsifying. There was no verification of the emulsifying effect and the type of fat for the liver’s histology, but it was verified that the fat source influenced the serum blood profile, which the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were higher in diets with chicken fat for 7 days old chicks. The glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) enzyme showed lower values for diets with soy oil and emulsifying, and the glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was higher for the chicken fat, without any effect of the emulsifying for 7 days old chicks. For 21 days old broilers, the GPT was higher for broilers fed with chicken fat in the diet. There was no interaction, as well as emulsifying effect, for the relative liver weight, pancreas and small intestine on the evaluated ages (21 and 42 days), as well as the carcass yield. The inclusion of the emulsifying improved the body weight of 21 and 42 days old broilers, the productive efficiency ratio and the height of the villous, both in the duodenum and jejunum, being indicated its inclusion in the broilers’ diet.
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    Associação de xilanase, protease e dois níveis de fitase em dietas de frangos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-09-08) Rezende, Pedro Moraes; Carvalho, Fabyola Barros;; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Stringhini, José Henrique; Brito, Alexandre Barbosa de; Rodrigues, Sandra Iara Furtado Costa; Vieira, Bruno Serpa; Leite, Carla Daniela Suguimoto
    Two trial were conducted at the School of Veterinary and Animal Science / UFG to evaluate the combination of xylanase, protease and two levels of phytase in diets of chickens from 1 to 42 days old. The experimental design of both experiments was completely randomized in a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, with two inclusions of phytase (750 FTU and 1500 FTU), xylanase (with and without xylanase) and protease (with and without protease). In the first trial, 1536 male Ross 308AP chicks were housed, raised in a floor shed with litter, until 42 days, consisting of 8 treatments, 6 replications of 32 birds. In the second experiment, 480 male chicks Cobb500 strain were housed, reared in batteries up to 42 days old, subjected to 8 treatments, 6 replications of 10 birds (1 to 21 days) and in the other phases (22 to 42 days) by 8 treatments, 5 replications of 4 birds. In the first trial, the use of xylanase or protease in diets with 750 FTU of phytase influenced the improvement in feed conversion of chickens at 42 days old. The use of xylanase promoved a higher chicken breast at 42 days. The use of 1500 FTU of phytase obtained higher thigh and drumstick yields. Diets containing xylanase and protease obtained higher wing yield. The use of 750 FTU of phytase and protease in the diet showed lower abdominal fat. Xylanase and protease in diets containing higher levels of phytase showed a higher content of dry matter and protein in the chicken breast. The increase in phytase dosage promoted an increase in mineral matter in the birds' breasts. There was an effect of protease in the diet in increasing the potassium content. The use of phytase and xylanase increased the zinc content in the breast. The inclusion of enzymes did not influence the metabolizability of chickens at 21 days. In the second experiment, the use of 1500 FTU of phytase associated with protease in the feed promoted improvement in the feed conversion of chicks at 7 days. The inclusion of 1500 FTU with xylanase in the diet increased weight gain in chickens at 41 days. Diets containing 750 FTU of phytase containing xylanase or protease showed an increase in the nitrogen metabolizability coefficient of chickens at 21 days. The highest level of phytase with protease in the diet promoted an increase in apparent metabolizable energy. The increase in the yield of chicken thigh + drumstick at 42 days was observed in diets with phytase containing protease in the diet. There was an increase in amino acids in the chemical composition of chicken breast at 21 days, observed in birds fed 1500 FTU of phytase. Effect also observed at 42 days, with the inclusion of 1500 FTU of phytase and protease in the diet. In the serum biochemical levels of chickens at 21 days of age, the increase in the dosage of phytase associated with xylanase and protease influenced the serum levels of globulin, total proteins, total and ionic calcium and phosphorus. In the serum levels of chickens at 42 days of age, birds fed 750 FTU of phytase containing xylanase influenced the increase in albumin, Ca ionic and P. Xylanase and protease contributed to improve bone characteristics of chickens fed with increasing levels phytase at 21 and 42 days of age.
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    Desempenho e respostas fisiológicas de frangos alimentados com rações processadas termicamente, contendo milho ou sorgo, nas fases pós-eclosão e pré-inicial
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-04-30) Sousa, Regina Fialho de; Carvalho, Fabyola Barros de;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Leite, Paulo Ricardo de Sá da Costa; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Guimarães, Igo Gomes; Oliveira, Eduardo Miranda de
    Resumo em língua estrangeira: Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance, the metabolizability of nutrients and the physiological responses of chicks fed with thermally processed feed, containing corn or sorghum, in the post-hatch and in the pre-initial phase. In Experiment I, was evaluated the thermal processing of the post-hatch diet, made with corn or sorghum. The design was completely randomized, in a 2x2 factorial scheme (pelleted or extruded feed, containing corn or sorghum), with four treatments, six replications of 30 chicks each. The experimental diets were supplied in transport boxes for 24 hours after hatching. After the post-hatch phase, all chicks were housed and received the same pre-starter feed. Analysis of variance was performed and the means compared by the Tukey test (5%). After 24 hours, chicks that consumed the pelleted post-hatch diet showed less weight loss. There was greater absorption of nutrients from the yolk sac in chicks that consumed feed with sorghum, regardless of thermal processing. It was also found that post-hatch diets with corn, when extruded, resulted in greater specific amylase activity and lower glucose concentration in chicks. At seven days of age, chicks that consumed feed extruded with corn showed worse feed conversion. In Experiment II, the effect of thermal processing of pre-starter diets with sorghum or corn was evaluated on performance, development of TGI and specific activity of amylase and pancreatic lipase in chicks. were used 360 broiler chicks, distributed in completely randomized, in a 2x2 factorial scheme, two ingredients (corn or sorghum) and two types of thermal processing (extrusion or pelletizing), six repetitions of 15 chicks each. The experimental rations were supplied to the chicks in the pre-initial phase (1 to 7 days) and after all the chicks received the same meal, mash. At seven days of age, it was found that chicks fed with extruded feed, based on sorghum, showed better performance. A greater relative weight of the pancreas, jejunum and ileum was observed when the pre-initial diet was based on sorghum. The extruded feed based on corn resulted in greater specific activity of pancreatic amylase. Chicks that consumed feed extruded with sorghum showed greater height of villus in the duodenum and jejunum. The effect of the pre-starter feed on the weight gain observed at seven days of age remained until 21 days. In Experiment III, the objective was to evaluate the effect of the thermal processing of the pre-initial diet for broiler chicks on the performance, development of the digestive tract and metabolizability of nutrients. were used 270 male chicks, distributed in a completely randomized design, with the treatments: pelleted feed and extruded feed. Analysis of variance was performed. At seven days of age, chicks fed extruded feed had less development of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and worse metabolizability of nitrogen, dry matter, in addition to less metabolizable energy compared to pelleted feed. At 21 days of age, chicks that consumed pelletized pre-starter feed showed better performance compared to extruded feed. It is concluded that post-hatch diets based on sorghum, stimulate the absorption of the yolk sac, regardless of the type of thermal processing used. The extrusion of the pre-initial feed produced with sorghum is the processing that results in better performance, development of the organs of the digestive system. Pelletizing of the pre-starter ration is the most suitable thermal processing for corn-based diets, as it results in greater performance and metabolizability of nutrients in broiler chicks.
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    Adição de enzimas em dietas de frangos de corte a base de milho de diferentes qualidades
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-31) Andrade, Tiago Vieira de; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez; Arnhold, Emmanuel; Carvalho, Genilson Bezerra de; Fortes, Bruno Duarte Alves
    The nutritional quality of stored corn grains is of paramount importance to formulate more efficient diets, given that corn grains with low nutritional value, trigger metabolic disturbances and consequently negative effects on the performance and use of nutrients in birds. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of exogenous enzymes in diets of broilers based on corn kernels of different qualities. with 696 birds of the Cobb 500 strain. In experiments 1 and 3, with the purpose of evaluating performance at 1, 7, 21, 35 and 42 days of age and intestinal histomorphometry at 21 and 42 days of age, 600 chicks were used 1 day old males. In experiments 2 and 4, metabolism assays were carried out with 96 14-day old male chicks from experiment 1 and 3 to estimate the metabolizable energy values of corn of different qualities with the inclusion of exogenous enzymes and mycotoxin adsorbent in diets for broilers. In all experiments, a completely randomized design (DIC) was used, distributed in a factorial arrangement (2x2), with experiment 1 and 2 being the addition or not of the XAP enzyme blend (Xylanase, Amylase and Protease) and two types of corn (types 1 and 3), and for experiment 3 and 4 with or without the addition of mycotoxin adsorbent and with or without the addition of the enzymatic blend. It was observed that the birds that consumed type 1 corn with enzyme had higher average weight and better feed conversion. It was observed that the birds that consumed diets containing enzyme showed better digestibility for the values of EMAn, EMA and CMMS in the period of 17 to 21 days. It was observed that birds that consumed type 1 corn with enzyme showed better intestinal development for height of the jejunum and ileum up to 21 days of age. There was a reduction in uric acid and AST for birds that consumed type 1 corn with enzyme. There was a reduction (p <0.05) in LDH for birds that consumed type 1 corn. There was a higher (p <0.05) average weight for birds that consumed diets containing enzyme and adsorbent in the period from 1 to 7 days . In conclusion, it can be said that birds that consumed type 1 corn with enzyme showed good performance, carcass yield, use of nutrients and intestinal development.
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    Influência do ambiente na qualidade de oócitos, produção in vitro de embriões e na taxa de prenhez em taurinos, zebuínos e adaptados
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-04) Naves, André Coelho; Oliveira Filho, Benedito Dias de;; Gambarini, Maria Lucia;; Gambarini, Maria Lucia; Pôrto, Regiani Nascimento Gagno; Noronha Filho, Antônio Dionísio Feitosa; Lopes, Dyomar Toledo; Souza, Guilherme Rocha Lino de
    This longitudinal observational study was developed with the objective of evaluating the influence of temperature, humidity and thermal stress, on the quantity and quality of oocytes, embryos and their relationship with the conception rate in different breeds of Bos taurus and Bos indicus species and its compounds adapted to the tropical climate. The temperature and humidity index (THI) was used to study the influence of the environment. A database was used, consisting of 10,489 follicular aspirations with production of 210,120 structures, 168,203 of which are viable and 41,917 not viable, totaling the production of 62,467 (37.14%) embryos and 52,852 (31.43%) transferred structures. For in vitro fertilization of aspirated oocytes, a total of 641 bulls were used in the period from January 2006 to December 2016, analyzing the dry and rainy seasons in the state of Goiás. The results showed differences (P <0.05) in the evaluated characteristics with superior conception rate in the rainy season 37.6 ± 0.4 versus drought 32.4 ± 05. Regarding the production of oocytes, the Zebu cattle showed superiority (6.6 ± 0.1) to the taurino (3.6 ± 0.4) in the studied stations, with the adapted intermediate ones (5.5 ± 0.2). The results of the conception rates showed an influence of the environment on the quality of the recipients, 37.2 ± 0.5 for the Zebu, 48.1 ± 3.0 for the taurino and 37.8 ± 1.2 for the adapted ones. Embryo production was higher in the rainy period than in the drought period (P <0.05). Bos indicus cows showed better response both in relation to the quantity and quality of oocytes obtained and in the production of embryos after in vitro fertilization, also showing the importance of selecting recipients to obtain better results when using embryos from Bos taurus animals.
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    Efeito da reutilização da cama de frango no conforto térmico das aves e seu uso como fertilizante para a cultura do milho
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-10) Migotto, Dannielle Leonardi; Racanicci, Aline Mondini Calil;; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Stringhini, José Henrique; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Silva, Wilton Ladeira da; Teixeira, Itamar Rosa; Santos, Vinícius Machado dos
    A large generation of poultry litter (PL), arising from the increased production of broiler chicken, has become an environmental problem with indiscriminate use. The best forms of reuse are needed to minimize this impact on the environment and to be used by agriculture as a fertilizer to improve physical and chemical soil characteristics and to reduce fertilizer expenditure. Understanding some variables that include the reuse of PL in the livestock environment is also necessary. The enthalpy comfort index (ECI) can be used to understand the environmental conditions in relation to the condition of thermal stress suffered by the animal under conditions of reuse of the PL. The aim of this research was to evaluate the microclimate of sheds of broiler with different types of PL using the ECI, and to evaluate the addition of two chemical soil conditioners in different PL produced as fertilizer in corn crop. The experiments were conducted at Santa Terezinha Farm and GRANJA 54 (Goiás-Brazil), which carries out commercial broiler and grain production. Two broiler sheds (negative pressure tunnel type) measuring 1,680m2 and 20,000 birds/shed were used in this experiment (population density of 11.9 birds/m²). The treatments consist of the amount of reuse of poultry litter (R3 - PL with 3 flocks of reuse and R6 - PL with 6 flocks of reuse). The absorbent material used was a rice husk. No experiment I, of welfare, the design used was completely randomized, with time subdivided plots and the data were analyzed in a factorial scheme 2x4 (poultry litter reuses x schedules), totaling 8 treatments with 12 replicates. Were collected the instantaneous temperature, maximum and minimum of sheds and PL, the relative humidity, ammonia levels and ECI, from 7 to 42 days of age of birds. We used three digital thermo hygrometer at equidistant points in the sheds and as measurements were taken at the following schedules: 07: 00h, 10: 00h, 14: 00h and 19: 00h. ECI equation considers 3 environmental variables: temperature, relative humidity and local barometric pressure (Brasília average = 890mmHG). The results were statistically analyzed using the R software and comparing as media by the Tukey test (5% significance). A difference (P≤0.05) was observed in the relative humidity between sheds, R6 with 47.32% and R3 with 44.31%, and between the measurement hours (P≤0.05), with average humidity higher than 07am with 54.02%, against 44.01% at 10am, 41.09% at 14pm and 44.14% at 19pm. No interaction (P>0.05) was observed for the ECI, being classified as a “comfort zone” for both sheds. The ECI did not differ between the different poultry litter reuse values. This result means that either reuse for six flocks consecutive in relation to three reuse is safe with respect to broiler comfort. In experiment II, the adopted statistical design was the completely randomized, with three blocks and nine treatments, composing a 2x4 factorial scheme (reuse of PL x additive or not), each experimental unit media 27m². The conditioners used for the preparation of the treatments were calcitic limestone (40% of the PL weight) and mineralizer (20lts/ton.PL). The treatments were piled up with 55% moisture, fermented aerobically for 10 days and revolved on the 5th day. The treatments applicabled to the soil were: SC: negative control, without PL; R3: PL with 3 reuses; R3: R3 + Calcitic limestone (C); R3M: R3 + Mineralizer (M); R3CM: R3 + C + M; R6: PL with 6 reuses; R6C: R6 + C; R6M: R6 + M; R6CM: R6 + C + M. All treatments received mineral fertilization with 220kg/ha NPK 05.25.15. 4ton./ha of PL treatments were applied in the soil. The corn planted was the high yield hybrid 30F53VYH (PIONEER®). The results were statistically analyzed using the R software and comparing as media by the Scott-Knott test (5% significance). The treatments with PL presented significant (P≤0,05) values for the variables humidity (R6CM and R3CM), pH (R3CM, R3M and R6M), CTC (R3M, R6, R3 and R6M), calcium (R3C, R3CM, R6C and R6CM), manganese (R3CM, R3C, R6C, R6CM and R3CM), boron (R3M and R6M) and iron (R6CM, R3M, R6M and R3CM). The results of corn yield index showed difference for plant height (2.92m) and first ear insertion (1.62m) in R3M. The PL proved to be favorable in several variables for use in agriculture when compared to the treatment without PL, improving soil variables and morphological characteristics of corn.
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    Sincronização ruminal de energia e proteína em bovinos de corte criados em sistema pasto-suplemento
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-02-28) Socreppa, Leandro Munhoz; Moraes, Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de;; Restle, João;; Restle, João; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Costa Nuñez, Amoracyr José; Bilego, Ubirajara Oliveira; Guimarães, Tiago Pereira
    Protein-energy supplementation was evaluated during 84 days on the consumption, digestibility, metabolism and performance of Nellore bulls kept in pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu,with two levels of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) (72.5% and 48.8% of CP) and two levels of energy ( 1.5 and 3.0 kg / animal / day) and mineral supplementation (control treatment) in the transition period from the dry to the rainy season. To evaluate the performance, 30 animals with initial weight (IW) of 181.5 ± 6.3 kg were distributed in 15 paddocks with 0.66 ha in a completely randomized design. To evaluate the effects of the diet on metabolism, five bulls with IW of 183.34 ± 30.54 kg kept in individual paddocks of 0.33 ha, were used in a 5x5 Latin square design, each period lasted 15 days, with 7 days for adaptation and 8 days for sample collection. The concentrated supplement decreased the consumption of DM from pasture by 22% (P <0.10) and increased (P <0.10) the average daily consumption of CP proportionally to the energy level. The concentrated supplement improved the digestibility of organic matter, CP and NDF (P <0.10). The intake of N and the retained N suffered an effect (P <0.10) of the concentrated supplementation, with 32.05% lower values of retained N for the control diet compared to the other treatments. For animals supplemented with concentrate, those that received high energy obtained higher values for the retention of N. The ruminal pH did not differ between treatments (P>0.10). The blood plasma urea level was lower (P <0.10) in the control animals compared to concentrated supplementation. Furthermore, it was observed that the level of RUP influenced the plasma urea concentration, and treatments with high RUP resulted in lower values (P <0.10) of plasma urea compared to treatments with low RUP. Animals kept on pasture receiving only mineral mixture had an average daily gain (ADG) of 0.873 kg, being lower (P <0.10) than animals that received concentrated supplementation, whose averages were 1.095 and 1.328 kg for the supply of 1.5 and 3.0 kg, respectively. It was observed that animals supplemented with high RUP and high energy showed a drop in ADG (P <0.10) compared to those supplemented with low RUP and high energy. It is concluded that supplementation with different levels of RUP and energy affect the metabolism, mainly in the blood urea levels, of the animals, however, RUP does not affect the performance of animals kept on pasture during the transition period of the dry season. for rainy.
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    Níveis de fitase e redução de cálcio em dietas de frangos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-12-06) Costa, Miliane Alves da; Café, Marcus Barcellos;; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Stringhini, José Henrique; Laboissiere, Michele; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Jardim Filho, Roberto de Moraes; Brito, Alexandre Barbosa de
    Two experiments were conducted at the Poultry Department of the Federal University of Goias to evaluate the inclusion of different phytase doses and reduction of calcium levels in diets of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days old. In the first experiment the experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments, eight replications and 18 birds in each plot. In the second experiment the experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments, six replications and 10 birds in each plot. The treatments consisted of three levels of Ca (100%, 82% and 64%) and two phytase inclusions 750FTU / kg and 1500FTU / kg of feed. The 1.011% level was considered as 100% of the calcium recommendations for the pre-initial phase, 0.907% for the initial, 0.822% for growth and 0.661 for the final phase. For the phosphorus (P) requirement in the diet, the requirement of each phase was reduced by 0.150% for the treatments. Phytase overdose improved feed intake weight gain (P <0.05). In the first experiment, at 21 days of age, 36% calcium reduction and phytase supplementation of 1500FTU provided higher final weight, weight gain and feed intake (P <0.05). At 42 days, 1500FTU phytase supplementation improved final weight, weight gain and feed conversion. Reducing calcium inclusion improved feed conversion (P <0.05). Phytase supplementation of 1500FTU and calcium reduction by 18% showed higher carcass yield (P <0.05). In the first experiment, phytase overdose (1500FTU / kg of feed) increased the length, diameter, weight and bone strength of 21-day-old chicken (P <0.05). Regarding bone quality of broilers at 42 days of age, there was only effect of phytase factor for bone length and diameter (P <0.05). When birds were supplemented with 1500FTU phytase / kg feed, there was no effect of calcium levels on bone breaking strength (P <0.05). In the first experiment, reducing calcium inclusion in diets reduced cooking fluid loss and increased shear force of chicken breast meat (P <0.05). The inclusion of 1500FTU of phytase provided less liquid loss by thawing (P <0.05). The reduction in calcium inclusion associated with phytase supplementation decreased shear strength (P <0.05). In the second experiment, there was no effect of calcium levels and phytase enzyme supplementation on the incidence of woody breast at 42 days of age (P> 0.05). Regarding the histopathological evaluations, in the second experiment, the treatments were not effective in the action on meat quality (P> 0.05). Up to 36% reduction in calcium supplementation with inclusion of 1500 FTU / kg phytase can be used without adverse effects on performance, bone quality and meat quality of 42-day-old broilers.
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    Fontes e niveis de fibra na dieta de frangas de postura comercial
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-03-01) Royer, Ana Flávia Basso; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Stringhini, José Henrique; Santos, Fabiana Ramos dos; Santos, Bruno Moreira dos; Laboissiére, Michele; Santos, Januária da Silva
    Dietary fibers constitute a significant part of all vegetable diets and vary in amount and structure in different ingredients. Has featured in the formulation of feed for poultry, seen the benefits in the development of the digestive and reproductive systems and on the behaviour of birds. However, knowledge of the relationship of the fiber and nutrient utilization needs to be better understood in poultry nutrition, especially in the quality of eggs, and optimal levels of inclusion in commercial diets. Thus, the objective of evaluating the inclusion of crude fiber in the diet of laying hens in light creates, recreates, about weight and body development characteristics, development of digestive organs, and reproductive behavior. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Goias, Goiania – GO, using vipul Bovans White line 300, in completely randomized design with factorial arrangement 2 x 2 +1, being two levels of crude fiber in the diet (3.0% and 3.5% from FB) two sources of fiber (wheat bran and bagasse) and a treatment witness (feed corn and soybean meal), totaling five treatments, with six repetitions of 10 birds in each stage of builds. We evaluated patterns of behavior and well-being. The use of crude fiber in the feeding of birds did not change the behavior of the birds, but improved the conditions of well-being. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia – GO, using vipul Bovans White line 300, in completely randomized design with factorial arrangement 2 x 2 +1, being two levels of crude fiber in the diet (3.0% and 3.5% from FB) two sources of fiber (wheat bran and bagasse) and a treatment witness (feed corn and soybean meal), totaling five treatments, with six repetitions of 10 birds in each stage of builds. We assessed the performance, carcass and organs relative weight, digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and FDA. The inclusion of 3.0% crude fiber and wheat bran improves the development of intestines of birds. The use of bagasse improves the digestibility of dietary neutral detergent fiber. The experiment II was held at Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, gilded-MS, using 360 White Bovans line vipul created from the first week of age until the 18th week, in completely randomized design with factorial arrangement 2x2+1, being two levels of crude fiber in the diet (3.0% and 3.5% FB) two sources of fiber (wheat bran and bagasse) and a treatment witness (feed corn and soybean meal), totaling five treatments, with six repetitions of each birds in 12 creates and 10 birds in rearing phase. We assessed the performance, carcass and organs relative weight, digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and FDA. The use of bagasse damages metabolizabilidade of diets, especially with the use of 3.0% FB. However, on the birds that use rebuilds food increases the size of the large intestine, gizzard and oviduct. And the use of wheat bran, with the inclusion of 3.0 and 3.5% FB, reduces the age at first egg.
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    Desenvolvimento do trato gastrintestinal de aves de corte de genótipos de crescimento lento na fase inicial e digestibilidade de alimentos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-04-18) Assis, Saullo Diogo de; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca;; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Leite, Paulo Ricardo de Sá da Costa; Minafra, Cibele da Silva; Hellmeister Filho, Paulo
    Three experiments were carried out with the objective of evaluating the differences in performance, nutritional utilization of the ration and development of the digestive tract of four slow - growing broiler strains. The effects of the breeding system on the development of the digestive tract and determine the metabolizable energy values of the main feed of broiler chickens slow growing. In the experiment I were evaluated the zootechnical performance, the bioeconomic index and the metabolizability of the nutrients of the ration of different strains of slow - growth and early - growth broilers. A total of 544 day - old chicks, 136 of each genotypes were used: Label Rouge Pesadão, Isa Label Rouge Naked Neck, Carijó and CarijóNaked Neck, distributed randomly in eight replicates of 17 animals each. The studied variables were performance, bioeconomic index, nutrient metabolizable coefficients, apparent metabolizable energy (EMA) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn). In experiment II, 600 slow - growing chickens (Label Rouge Naked Neck) were housed initially in a conventional masonry shed, raised up to 70 days old. At 35 days of age they were divided into two groups, one of which had access to free area and another one remained in the shed until the end of the experiment. The variables studied were live weight, digestive tract development and intestinal histomorphometry at different ages. For experiment III, six hundred broiler chicks of the Label Rouge Naked Neck line were used. The treatments consisted of seven foods and one reference diet. The methodology used was the total collection of excreta. The tested foods were: soybean meal, corn grain, rice bran, sorghum grain, 60% corn gluten, wheat bran and soybean oil. There were differences (P <0.05) for live weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion among the four lines studied, at 7, 14, 21, 28and 63 days of age. The Carijó Neck strain showed the worst performance results from 1 to 63 days of age compared to the other lines studied. There was a difference (P <0.05) for the bioeconomic index (IBE). The Carijó, Label Rouge Neck and Label rouge lines had the highest IBE values. The metabolizable coefficients of the nutrients differed (P <0.05) between the lines at seven and 21 days of age. The highest value of the metabolizable coefficient of the protein and mineral matter of the diet was obtained by the Carijó line at seven and 21 days of age. There was a difference (P <0.05) between the lineages in live weight, allometry of digestive tract organs and intestinal histomorphometry at one, seven and 28 days of age. The breeding systems influenced (<0.05) the live weight and the allometry of the organs of the digestive system of broiler chickens of the Isa Label Neck Snack Line at 72 days of age. The semiconfined breeding system improved the performance and growth of the small intestine of the Isa Label Naked Neck line. The values of AMEn (kcal / kg) of foods based on natural matter were: soybean meal, 2215 kcal / kg; corn grain, 3568 kcal / kg; sorghum grain, 3212 kcal / kg; rice bran, 2365 kcal / kg; wheat bran, 2482 kcal / kg; soybean oil, 7902 kcal / kg and 60% corn gluten, 2860 kcal / kg. The slow growing strains present differences in performance, nutritional utilization, allometric digestion tract and energetic utilization of the ration when compared to each other.
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    Suplementação de glicosaminoglicanos na ração de frangos de corte
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-08-17) Martins, Julyana Machado da Silva; Sgavioli, Sarah;; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Café , Marcos Barcellos; Faria, Doulglas Emygdio de; Rocha, Fernanda Rodrigues Taveira; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Stringhini, José Henrique
    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate performance, hematology and serum biochemistry, locomotor problems, bone and cartilage development, and nutrient metabolizability of broilers supplemented with glycosaminoglycans on ration. The first experiment was conducted in completely randomized design, in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme (three levels of chondroitin sulfate: 0, 0.05, 0.10%, and three levels of glucosamine sulfate: 0, 0.15 and 0.30%), each treatment with six replicates of 30 birds. It was evaluated variables of performance, gait score, valgus and varus, hematology and serum biochemistry, carcass yield, femoral degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, macroscopy of tibia and articular cartilage, bone densitometry and strength, bone mineral profile, chondrocyte number, proteoglycans and type II collagen detection tibia articular cartilage, and gene expression of MMP-9 metalloproteinase and its inhibitor in femur articular cartilage. Glucosamine sulfate supplementation increased weight gain at 35 and 42 days old (p = 0.0470 and p = 0.0385, respectively). Chondroitin and glucosamine sulfates reduced the frequency of gait score (p = 0.0067 and p = 0.0001, respectively), and valgus and varus (p = 0.0138 and p = 0.0002, respectively). Glucosamine sulfate reduced frequency of femoral degeneration in the right (p = 0.0139) and left (p < 0.0001) femurs and linearly increased (p = 0.0284) the proliferating cartilage area. Interaction (p < 0.05) was observed of sulfates for leukocytes, lymphocytes, triacylglycerols, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and total calcium at 21 days; high density lipoprotein (HDL) and ionic calcium at 21 and 42 days; and for phosphorus, chlorides and sodium at 42 days. Chondroitin sulfate increased linearly (p = 0.0099) albumin and quadratic (p = 0.0140) total serum proteins at 21 days, and linearly (p = 0.0012) calcium blood at 42 days. Glucosamine sulfate linearly reduced (p = 0.0237) the chlorides at 21 days and demonstrated a quadratic effect (p = 0.0450) for albumin at 42 days. There was interaction (p < 0.05) of sulfates for tibial length at 21 days, proximal epiphysis width at 21 and 42 days, and epiphysis distal at 42 days, transverse and medial thickness of articular cartilage of proximal epiphysis at 21 days, and distal epiphysis at 42 days. At 42 days, there was a quadratic effect of glucosamine sulfate levels on tibial length (p = 0.0320) and increasing linear on distal articular cartilage weight (p = 0.0322). There was a higher percentage of calcium (p = 0.0009) and phosphorus (p = 0.0007) on tibia at 21 days with inclusion of glucosamine sulfate, as well as interaction (p < 0.0001) of sulfates for calcium at 42 days. There was interaction (p < 0.05) of sulfates for chondrocytes number, collagen type II and proteoglycans at 21 and 42 days, and for MMP-9 genes expression and its inhibitor at 42 days. The second experiment was performed in completely randomized design, was used in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme (two levels of chondroitin sulfate: 0 and 0.10%, and two levels of glucosamine sulfate: 0 and 0.30%), with eight replicates of 10 birds. Performance, feed nutrient metabolization and intestinal histomorphometry were evaluated. At 21 days old, broilers supplemented with glucosamine sulfate presented greater weight gain (p = 0.0229). There was interaction (p < 0.05) of sulfates for the metabolic coefficients of nitrogen, mineral matter and calcium, and for jejunum villi height. It was concluded that supplementation with glucosamine sulfate in broiler ration increased weight gain and stimulated intestinal histomorphometry and together with the chondroitin sulfate improved the locomotion condition and the bony and cartilaginous development. Sulfates alone promoted greater metabolism of minerals.
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    Delipidação química na produção in vitro e criopreservação de embriões bovinos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-09-13) Diesel, Tiago Omar; Porto, Regiani Nascimento Gagno;; Arnhold, Emmanuel;; Gambarini, Maria Lúcia;; Meirinhos, Maria Lúcia Gambarini; Biancardi, Manoel Francisco; Oliveira Filho, Benedito Dias de; Matos, Moema Pacheco Chediak; Mascioli, Arthur dos Santos
    Chemical delipidation has been used as an alternative to improve the cryotolerance of in vitro produced embryos (IVP). The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (LC) on the development and survival of vitrified IVP bovine embryos by the Cryotop method in the first assay, and in the second trial the effect of LC and Forskolin on Cryotop cryopreserved embryos Experiment 1), or by modified slow freezing (Experiment 2), so mitochondrial activity, intracytoplasmic lipid (LI) content, cellular apoptosis (NCA) and hatching after heating were evaluated. In the first essay LC was used at the concentration of 0,6 mg/mL in maturation culture medium (IVM), embryo culture (IVC) and / or post-thawing (REC), in four treatments: without LC (Control), LC added to CIV (LCiv), LC to CIV + LC to REC (LCivR), and LC to MIV / CIV + LC to REC (LMivCR). The addition of LC increased the production of blastocysts in D7 by 28.6% (LCiv) and the amount of embryos grade I by 36.9% (LCivR), the re-expansion rate in 22,7% and hatching in 20.1% (LCiv), and mitochondrial activity was 1.9 times higher (P <0.001) (LCivR) than Control. The LI quantity was 29% lower in LCiv and LCivR and 50.2% in LMivCR compared Control (P <0.001). In the second experiment the embryos were cultured without addition of delipidators (Control), in the presence of 10μM of Forskolin added to the IVC in D5 (FORSK) or L-carnitine (0.6 mg / mL) added to the IVC and in post-thawing (LC). LC supplementation increased the production of blastocysts in D7 by 22.0% and grade I embryos by 30.1% (P <0.05), in relation to Control and FORSK. In Experiment 1, the re-expansion rate in LC increased (P <0.05) 28.9% in relation to FORSK. In Experiment 2, two Control treatments were used for slow freezing (Classic and Modified). Hatching after 48 hours was greater (P <0.05) in LC compared to FORSK and Classical and Modified Controls (77.5%, 41.9%, 40.5%, 40.8% respectively). In the LC treatment, there was a decrease (P <0.05) of 64.7% in the degenerate embryo rate in relation to the Classical Control. Treatment with delipidators reduced LI content (P <0.001) by 2.2 fold in FORSK and four times in the LC compared to Control. The addition of 0.6 mg / mL of L-carnitine to the culture medium and the post-thawing increased the rate of in vitro production of bovine embryos acting positively on mitochondrial potential, reducing the amount of intracellular lipids and cellular apoptosis and increasing cryotolerance of embryos submitted to the modified slow freezing protocol.
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    Gel nutritivo e simbiótico para frangos de corte
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-12-15) Castejon, Fernanda Vieira; Café, Marcos Barcellos;; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora;; Stringhini, José Henrique;; Stringhini, José Henrique; Laboissière, Michele; Rocha, Fernanda Rodrigues Taveira; Santos, Bruno Moreira dos; Pôrto, Regiani Nascimento Gagno
    Two experiments aimed to evaluate the association between a nutritive gel and synbiotic, offered on different days and pharmaceutical formulations in face of the situations of pre-allotment fasting and sanitary challenge. At the first trial, the synbiotic supplementation associated to the nutritive gel were evaluated at the performance of broilers, nutrient metabolizability, intestinal histomorphometry, blood biochemistry, organ morphometry and carcass traits in chicks submitted to fasting. The treatments were: CN - negative control; G - nutritive gel in the hatchery; GS - synbiotic dissolved in the nutritive gel; GSS - synbiotic dissolved in the nutritive gel+synbiotic offered in drinking water on specific days and S - only synbiotic, on specific days, in the water. Significant differences were observed on 7, 21, 28 and 35 days of age, with higher values for the G, GS and GSS treatments, as well as higher metabolizable values for the ether extract. There were no differences of total intestinal length or segments, but the relative weight of some organs differed between treatments. Carcass yield were not influenced by the treatments. In the second experiment, the objective was to evaluate the synbiotic supplementation associated with nutritional gel in mortality, lesion scores, oocyst excretion, litter quality, zootechnical performance and organ morphometry in chickens challenged with E. acervulina, E tenella and E. maxima. The treatments were: CP - positive control; GSA - synbiotic dissolved in the nutritive gel in the hatchery and supply, of synbiotic in the water on specific days; GSR - synbiotic dissolved in the nutritive gel in the hatchery+ continuous use of synbiotic in the diet and SAL - anticoccidial salinomycin added in the diet. Higher absolute mortality in all treatments was observed in the third experimental week and higher total mortality was found in the CP group. No differences were found for intestinal lesions, oocyst excretion, pH and dry matter of the bed between treatments. Some differences were found between relative weight of organs at the ages evaluated. Better overall performance was observed in the SAL group. It is concluded that in the pre-accommodation fasting situation, the early supplementation of nutritive gel associated or not to the synbiotic can stimulate or contribute to the functional development of the gastrointestinal tract, which was reflected in better performance and metabolizability. Under the conditions of the second experiment, the same observed benefits of the use of the gel associated or not to the synbiotic were not observed, since no improvement could be verified in the evaluated parameters, so the use of anticoccidial in the diet should still be recommended.
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    Aditivos fitogênicos na terminação de tourinhos nelore confinados
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-07-13) Moreira, Kíria Karolline Gomes; Fernandes, Juliano José de Resende;; Padua, João Teodoro;; Bilego, Ubirajara Oliveira; Neves Neto, José Tiago das; Silva, Maurícia Brandão da; Miyagi, Eliane Sayuri; Padua, João Teodoro
    Phytogenic additives with action similar to ionophores can be used as alternatives to synthetic additives. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of phytogenic antimicrobial additives on performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility and ruminal metabolic profile of Nellore bulls feedlot. In the first experiment, 114 Nellore steers (335.48 ± 25.70 kg) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with 4 treatments: monensin; S. Adstrigens extract; essential oils blend; functional oils cashew, castor and copaiba on the growth performance and carcass. The diet consisted of 19.49% sugarcane bagasse and 80.51% concentrate (DM basis). DMI of animals receiving monensin (104 days feedlot) was 16.2% lower than the animals that consumed dry extract and 8.6% lower than the animals that received functional oils (P <0.001). Animals that consumed dry extract of S. adstrigens showed higher consumption of NDF (P <0.001). FBW (μ = 485.60 kg) and ADG (μ = 1.42 kg/d) were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). FE was better (P <0.05) for MON (0.184 kg/kg) than BBT and MOE. There was no difference (P>0.05) for carcass characteristics. The use of phytogenic additives in feed of confined cattle did not influence the carcass characteristics, but the use of monensin still provides better performance results. In the second experiment, was to evaluate the characteristics of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of nutrients of a finishing diet with phytogenic additives. Five fistulated steers (initial BW = 275.40 ± 15.53 kg) were used in a 5 × 5 Latin Square design. Treatments were: no additive; monensin 30 mg/kg DM; extract of S. adstrigens 1.500 mg/kg DM; mixture of essential oils 118 mg/kg DM; mixture of functional oils from cashew, castor, and copaiba 250 mg/kg DM. The diet consisted on DM basis of 19.49% of sugarcane bagasse and 80.51% of concentrate with corn, soybean meal, urea and minerals. There were no effects (P>0.05) on nutrients intake, apparent digestibility concentration of VF, acetate:propionate ratio and concentration of NH3-N. Steers fed mixture of functional oils showed higher ruminal pH (6,75) than BBT (6,54; P <0.05). Phytogenic additives have the potential to replace synthetic antibiotics without penalizing the productive system of beef cattle.