Mestrado em Ciências Ambientais (PRPG)

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Agora exibindo 1 - 20 de 38
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    Hortas escolares urbanas: da produção de alimentos ao ensino da sustentabilidade ambiental
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-10-26) Melo, Tálita Nogueira Gonzaga; Hora, Karla Emmanuela Ribeiro;; Hora, Karla Emmanuela Ribeiro; Echeverria, Agustina Rosa; Leandro, Wilson Mozena
    The urban and peri-urban practice has been strengthened in multiples spaces of the cities, through multiple entry points, which range from self-consumption and food supplementation, alternative employment and income for vulnerable groups, solutions for environmentally resilient cities, to an opportunity to practice social and environmental education activities. Considering this last aspect, the theme of this research is the study of the use of urban school gardens as a pedagogical tool for environmental sustainability, integrated with the provision of healthy food in school environments and the challenges of the practice itself. Starting from the question of how urban school gardens are effective, we sought to discuss how they are appropriate in the teaching-learning activities about the environmental issues, analyzing the obstacles to their incorporation as a teaching tool. Likewise, we sought to understand how the food produced in the gardens is used in school meals and how maintenance activities are carried out. Methodologically, the research has a qualitative nature and is based on technical procedures of bibliographic, documental and participant observation research, semi-structured interviews and photographic records. As an analytical object, the research relies on the study of multiple cases of four school gardens implemented in the year 2021, in the cities of Anápolis, Catalão, Rio Verde and Ouvidor, in the State of Goiás. The results indicate that, although school gardens are difficult to maintain, they benefit school meals by offering quality food, in great variety and quantity. At the same time, they have potential uses as an educational tool in the development of education activities for the teaching of environmental sustainability.
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    Disputa pela terra em Moçambique - caso do distrito de Marracuene
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2024-01-29) Yung, Telma Leo; Salomão, Alda Isabel Anibal; Miziara, Fausto;; Miziara, Fausto; Hora, Karla Emmanuela Ribeiro; Campos, Ricardo Luiz Sapia de
    The research was carried out within the scope of the Graduate Program in Environmental Sciences, with the aim of investigating land access and tenure in the Marracuene District, Mozambique. The main focus is to identify the main factors that cause land disputes in the study area, with an emphasis on the point of view of traditional producers. The increase in the demand for land in the district is driven by several factors, such as the geographical proximity to Maputo city, the "Maputo Ring Road", the Bridge over the Incomati River that connects Macaneta and the holding of the "Maputo International Fair - FACIM". In addition, the purpose of housing and investments in sectors such as trade, agriculture and tourism also contribute to the pressure on land. The combination of these factors contributes to an increase in demand for land in the district, generating pressure on land, boosting the economic, social and environmental development of the region. To investigate this, the study adopted mixed research procedure techniques, relying on field observations, questionnaires and interviews. Based on data collected in the field and information provided by the Serviço Distrital de Planeamento e Infra - Estruturas (SDPI), we identified four communities facing disputes over land, involving different actors, being: (1) Marracuene Vista Company, Traditional Leaders and the neighborhood Mapulango; (2) Community of Eduardo Mondlane I and Regulus Magaia; (3) Guava Peasant Association and the Korean Mission; (4) Community of the neighborhood of Zintava and Sr. Milton Torre de Vale and Fundo para o Fomento e Habitação (F.F.H). To resolve these disputes, the parties involved are invited to participate in conciliation processes, mediated by the Land Chiefs, with the assistance of the Regulus. In some cases, the block chief and Neighborhood Secretary may also be involved, depending on the nature of the conflict or dispute. In situations considered difficult to resolve, cases related to land disputes in Marracuene can be referred to higher instances, such as the 2nd and 1st levels, including at the locality level, the Administrative Post and, finally, the District Administration. The Dispute Resolution Committee, present at the SDPI (Serviço Distrital de Planeamento e Infra- Estruturas), also plays an important role in the mediation and arbitration process. These higher authorities are called upon to seek more comprehensive and complex solutions, in order to achieve a fair and adequate resolution to land disputes or conflicts. The district of Marracuene is going through a period of expansion marked by the transition from an agrarian base to latent urban growth, dissociated from the industrialization process. This transition highlights urbanization associated with commercialization, reflected in the increase in land prices and the boost in the tourism sector. However, this process has been accompanied by the destruction of agrarian and peasant life, resulting in a totalizing social dynamic of urban society and the perception among interviewees reveals concerns about the loss of agricultural land, resettlement without adequate compensation and corruption in the bodies of dispute resolution. With all this, these interests often trigger territorial disputes and environmental degradation. The necessary approach must reconcile socioeconomic development with environmental preservation and social justice, requiring the effective implementation of public policies and the protection of the rights of local communities to ensure fair and sustainable land management.
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    Potencial do sensoriamento remoto aéreo e orbital na análise do manejo integrado do fogo: um estudo de caso no Parque Nacional Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-01-24) Costa, João Vitor Silva; Nunes, Gustavo Manzon;; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo;; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Faria, Karla Maria Silva de; Araújo, Fernando Moreira de; Nunes, Gustavo Manzon
    Fire is an element of great protagonism in the Cerrado. It occurs naturally since the beginning of the biome, playing an important role in the maintenance of this rich ecosystem. With the intensification of the anthropic occupation process, which started in the mid-1950s, the recurrence of forest fires grew excessively, largely due to the use of fire as a conversion tool. In the period from 1985 to 2020, approximately one third of the Cerrado territory experienced some fire event, with areas with very high recurrence. Years with more than 10 million hectares burned have been recorded. In recent years, environmental managers have started to adopt the prescribed burning practice, not only for building firebreaks, but also as a way to control the amount of vegetation biomass, which is the fuel for forest fires. This and other practices make up the Integrated Fire Management. In this context, this project aims to understand the potential of aerial and orbital remote sensing in the analysis of Integrated Fire Management, using time series of satellite images, and data obtained in loco by the Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS). The results achieved showed better potential in the use of Drones due to the level of detail of the data, capable of providing information at the understory level. This detail becomes more important when fire management is carried out at the beginning of the dry season, and biomass control is lower. It is worth mentioning that, even less effective in analyzing early burning, the satellite images, Sentinel-2, had satisfactory results for analyzing burning in the months of June and July, registering a correlation between data of R² = 0.71.
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    Análise geoecológica como subsídio ao planejamento ambiental da bacia hidrográficado rio Caldas-GO
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-03-05) Sousa, Ana Caroline Rodrigues Cassiano de; Faria, Karla Maria Silva de;; Faria, Karla Maria Silva de; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Silva, Edson Vicente da
    The landscapes of hydrographic basins in Cerrado of Goiás are the target of many transformations, often due to agriculture and pasture exploitation and due to the lack of the use planning of natural resources, which can cause environmental impacts as vegetation fragmentation and erosions, which motivate integrated and interdisciplinary studies, as that utilized in the theoretical and methodological approach of Landscape Geoecology. The Hydrographic Basin of Caldas River (BHRC) presents multiple uses and its main river is indicated as the future watercourse for the public supply of the Metropolitan Region of Goiânia. Therefore, this work aims to propose priority areas for environmental conservation of BHRC, to reduce the impacts of fragmentation and soil losses. The methodological procedures involved the surveying of the socio-environmental aspects; the cartography of Geoecological Unities (UGs) by superposition of hypsometry, slope, precipitation, geology, and pedology; the analysis of land occupation dynamics through MapBiomas 4.0 for the years of 1988, 2000 e 2018; the analysis of landscape metrics (CA, PLAND, NP, TCA, TCAI, TE e ENN-MN), validated by Principal Component Analysis; the mapping of erosion vulnerability, with weights and arithmetical standard between the themes; and the adoption of criteria to the proposition of priority areas: remanent areas since 1988, >100ha nearby APPs of water bodies, in UGs more significant and with patches more vulnerable to erosions. The BHRC was compartmentalized into six Relief Geoecological Unities (UGR), subdivided into 34 UGs, and pasture is the predominant class of use in the whole basin. In almost all the UGRs, parts of native vegetation were converted to agriculture and pasture, mainly in soft relief, the grassland area the most fragmented in size and isolation, followed by savannas and forestall, and central areas represents about 21%, 24%, and 45%, respectively; forest isolation and area reduction are considerable, in comparison to other regions of Cerrado. The medium erosion vulnerabilities are predominant since 2000 and the medium and high presents an increase mainly related to anthropogenic uses, which emphasizes the need for conservation to avoid and mitigate risks. Of the remanent fragments since 1988, 19 matched the adopted criteria and were suggested as priority areas to environmental conservation; is expected that this area would be used as aids in the conservation planning of biodiversity, hydric and edaphic protection in BHRC.
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    Avaliação ambiental das bacias de captação de água no estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-12-27) Dantas, Tiago Miranda; Ribeiro, Hugo José;; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino;; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Arruda, Poliana Nascimento
    Considering the assumption of limited natural resources, it is clear that preservation initiatives are essential for maintaining a balanced socio-environmental system. The change in land use over the past decades in the Cerrado biome shows an occupation focused on activities predominantly of agriculture and cattle ranching, with public and fiscal incentives, which guaranteed access to producers and large companies to new technologies and methods to make the biome, a world reference in the production of commodities. The expansion of the agricultural frontiers from the second half of the 20th century on, made the Goiás state a reference in agribusiness, which leveraged the regional economy. However, these occupation processes have directly affected many environmentally fragile areas, which can directly impact the natural resource base for all production processes, water. The Goiás state has 192 hydrographic basins for public supply in which their collection points are managed by SANEAGO, the sanitation company, which in recent years has been reporting recurrences of emergency situations in the water supply of municipalities in periods of drought, which directly affects the populations of the municipalities supplied. Thus, this study aimed to identify the change in land use and occupation in the water catchment areas of the state, correlating data on precipitation and factors that identify areas of environmental fragility. The results obtained showed that in the water supply watersheds of the Goiás municipalities there has been no change in rainfall intensities. However, the catchments located in the central-southern portion of the state of Goiás have their native vegetation cover impacted due to the occupation processes, which occurred without planning, enabling the increase of erosive processes, affecting the production of sediments, besides the water recharge. It is important that the Goiás state develops specific policies aimed at the sustainable use of water catchment areas, seeking the preservation of native vegetation in environmentally fragile areas of these watersheds, thus ensuring the water security of the municipalities.
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    Seleção de bactérias da rizosfera de lactuca sativa capazes de bioconverter glicerol em 1,3-propanodiol e 2,3-butanodiol
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-05-23) Soares, Renan de Souza; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves;; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; Silva, Daniela de Melo e; Leal, Geraldo Sadoyama
    The coproducts production is one of the main setbacks in the biodiesel’s productive chain. One of these coproducts, the most representative is the glycerol. In this aspect, this study aim to contextualize the use and production of fossil fuels and biofuels, mostly biodiesel, and to investigate the biotechnological potencial of lettuce’s (Lactuca sativa) rhizobacteria on glycerol bioconversion into value-added products. For such purpose, it was conducted a literature search about the use of fossil fuels and the biofuels market development, besides the biotechnological potential of the use of glycerol in fermentative processes. From rhizosphere soil samples, it was bioprospected micro-organisms with the ability to utilize glycerol as the sole carbon source and in bioconvert 2,3-butanediol and 1,3-propanediol. In order to preserve the maintenance and development of urban activities a change in the energy matrix is necessary since fossil fuels are a finite resource and shown to be unsustainable or cause impacts in environment and human health. Through the implementation of policies that aimed to invest in research and production of biodiesel Brazil stands out as a major producer of the compound. In the experimental segment, among the sampled and identified microorganisms, the family Enterobacteriaceae was highlighted. All isolated presented biochemical / physiological profile heterogeneous and belonging to genera notedly used in the glycerol bioconversion. Three samples were identified as simultaneous producers of compounds of interest, simultaneously AG3 was the best producer of 2,3-BD and 1,3-PD, 0522 g.L-1 and 0.735 g.L-1, respectively. AG6 stood out in the production of 1,3-PD, 0842 g.L-1. Therefore, the sustainability provided by biofuels, highlighting biodiesel, brings a promising perspective to future and the use of co-products generated by the biodiesel production chain can contribute to the appreciation of biodiesel. Lactuca sativa’s rhizobacteria have the biotechnological potential for bioconversion of glycerol, promising discovery for the development of biodiesel and biorefinery sector.
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    Adoção de tecnologia na pecuária leiteira e conservação ambiental: estudo de caso em propriedades rurais de Silvânia, Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-12-23) Fernandes, Hayla da Silva; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia;; Miziara, Fausto;; Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira; Silva, Daniela de Melo e; Miziara, Fausto
    The necessity to produce food should incorporate environmental protection, knowing that it´s the main responsible for occupation of land and native areas also causes important impacts at the landscape. Produce food to supply a world growing population brings the challenge of increase productivity of properties decreasing the impact per unit of feed produced. Cattle raising is the main responsible for anthropization in Brazilian biomes, and especially dairy activity are very important and present in most of Brazilian proprieties, characterized by a big range of diversity producer profiles, majority by pasture systems and big heterogeneity in the technology employment. The answers to challenges presented, in general way, imply in a standard of technology adoption who can articulate a better productivity and less environmental impact. Thus, this research looked for measure the relationship between the technology standard and environmental impacts in dairy properties at Silvânia, Goiás. Were worked the technology employee on that and conservation rates of vegetation local provided by Long Term Research Program (PELD) to generate the present work. In this research was verified that properties who utilized more technology impacted less the environment, measured by conservation indicators, besides be more productive, diluting the impact per milk litter produced. Therefor there is a strong and positive relationship between adoption of technology and less environmental impact. It is worth mentioning that properties who use artificial insemination also presents more productivity (milk production in relation with total number of animal at the farm) in comparison with farms non users. A bigger efficiency at utilization of productive resources in general way also are associated with less environmental impact.
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    Disponibilidade hídrica superficial e subterrânea em assentamentos em Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-03-31) Costa, Isabella Almeida; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Basso, Raviel Eurico; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins
    Due to the numerous cases of population supply problems due to low water availability, this subject has become one of the references for the management of water. The lack of studies directed at settlement communities makes this management difficult and the reality of the families is unknown. In order to determine the consumption and availability of surface and underground water and the respective specific flow rates in settlements in the state of Goiás, settled communities from the Regional Superintendence 04 of the National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA) were selected. The aquifers and study basins were identified according to the location of 62 communities. Through data analysis and methodological application it was possible to obtain estimates of water availability for each community, using the parameters of reference flow rate in 95% of the time (Q95) and exploitable volumes of groundwater and deep aquifers, thus making it possible to calculate the specific flow rates for each resource analyzed. The demands for consumption and for the development of activities were stipulated in order to establish correlation with the results found. It was observed that with regard to surface resources the demands can be met in 64.52% of the settlements, as for the underground resources this index remained at 100% for deep aquifers and 80% for groundwater aquifers. This demonstrates the importance of knowledge regarding the use of resources for the supply of each family and that allows each of these communities to understand the water situation and promote the management of these water resources.
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    Desafios no processo de obtenção da segurança hídrica frente a aplicação dos instrumentos de gestão da água
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-12-16) Ribeiro, Rodrigo Zanelati; Teixeira, Denilson;; Teixeira, Denilson; Bayer, Maximiliano; Barbosa, Domingos Sávio
    The increased demand for water has aggravated conflicts between different users and about half of the world's population lives in areas of potential water scarcity, for at least one month a year, a percentage that could worsen until 2050. These two pieces of evidence point to dimension of the water crisis on a world scale. The extensive literature on the subject highlights that this crisis is more related to management than to the availability of the resource. In this sense, there are gaps in the understanding and applicability of instruments responsible for supporting the Integrated Water Resources Management process, as well as their importance for Water Security. In this context, the main research’s objective is to characterize the current scenario of Water Security, in an interstate hydrographic basin, as well as the weaknesses of the legal instruments involved in this process. To this end, a risk mapping was drawn up showing the weak points in terms of water security, based on water consumption data, land use and occupation, and water availability in the basin. The study was carried out in the hydrographic basin of the Paranaíba River, due to its socioeconomic importance for the central west region of Brazil. It presents, as main conclusions, the need for the effective application of the management instruments of Law nº 9,433 of 1997, in addition to demonstrating the high risks to water security in regions upstream of large urban centers and, mainly, in regions close to the source of the river Paranaíba. The results found reflect a national reality.
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    Valoração dos danos ambientais à fauna silvestre decorrentes da implementação da Estrada-Parque GO-239
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-05-28) Domiciano, Felipe Silva; Ribeiro, Francis Lee;; Ribeiro, Francis Lee; Miziara, Fausto; Abdala, Klaus de Oliveira
    This research aimed to assess the damage to wild fauna due to the implementation of GO-239, from the perspective of its users (tourists and residents). GO-239 is a road that has its own characteristics due to the nature of its creation, as it is a Road-Park that borders and cuts through a Conservation Unit, the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás, in a region that presents a typical fauna of the Cerrado biome. In order to carry out this work, an observation of the road was made to evaluate its characteristics and conditions. An application of online questionnaires was also made, where the thoughts and attitudes of the users of Road-Park were obtained in relation to it, and a valuation was made of the fauna of the region, checking the Willingness to Pay of the interviewees for this, through the Contingent Valuation Method. It was concluded that the GO-239, even though it is, by law, a Road-Park, still has flaws that make it uncharacteristic as such, and that other measures to reduce impacts should be implemented. It was also found that users understand that the road should be more focused on the protection of the fauna around them, but they are resistant to pay an amount to make it happen, presenting a Willingness to Pay of R$ 6.34 by the simple average, and R$ 6.16 by the weighted average.
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    Conformidade entre dados biofísicos orbitais e terrestres para o zoneamento agroclimático, identificação espaço-temporal de tendências de precipitação e suas relações com uso e cobertura da terra no bioma cerrado
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-09-10) Bettiol, Giovana Maranhão; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo;; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Ferreira Júnior, Laerte Guimarães; Luiz, Gislaine Cristina
    Context The Cerrado biome plays a prominent role in Brazilian and global agricultural production, where approximately 50% of the national agricultural production and 30% of the country's gross agricultural income are in this biome. The Climatic Risk Agricultural Zoning (ZARC) arises as an important instrument of the Brazilian agricultural policy by indicating more favorable dates of crop planting on a municipal scale. The improvement of the methodology used in ZARC is of paramount importance and should be carried out continuously. Altitude and temperature are important agricultural conditions, with altitude being one of the factors used for the calculation of temperature by utilizing regression equations. As for the precipitation data, they are factored in the modeling of the water balance of different agricultural crops in ZARC. Goals In this context, the current study aims to analyze the conformity/accuracy between the altitude and precipitation data obtained from terrestrial reference stations and estimated by orbital sensors, and to identify trends of increase or decrease of precipitation in the Cerrado biome, itemized by classes of land use and land cover. Materials and methods The digital elevation models (MDEs) analyzed were NASADEM_HGT from NASA and ALOSAW3D30 version 3.1 from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), both with a spatial resolution of 30 meters. These models were evaluated according to the parameters recommended in the Cartographic Accuracy of Digital Cartographic Products Standard (PEC-PCD), which defines tolerances according to the evaluation scale and classes (A, B, C, or D). NASA's IMERG Final Run Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) data, available every half hour, were compared with the hourly measurements of 215 automatic surface weather stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) of the Cerrado biome in the 2017-2019 period. In addition, considering the period from 2000 to 2019, areas of precipitation tendency were identified in the biome and compared to the predominant classes of land use and land cover, obtained by the MapBiomas project. Results Considering class A of the PEC-PCD, MDE NASADEM_HGT was compatible with 1:250,000 scales and smaller, while MDE ALOS AW3D30 reached scales of 1:100,000 and smaller. When compared to each other, the models provide close and similar altitude measurements and may be used in ZARC. There was great conformity between GPM precipitation data and data from automatic weather stations, notably for months of the dry season (May to September), especially June, which showed the best performance (0.89), high agreement (0.96), and very strong positive correlation (0.93). All the evaluation indices that were considered, that is, detection probability, false alarm rate, critical success rate, and correct percentage, demonstrated a high ability to detect rain via orbital data. For the 2000 - 2019 period, it was possible to notice that the dry season in the biome is being intensified. Approximately 20% of the Cerrado that is covered with native vegetation showed a trend of statistically significant reduction of precipitation of -2.58 mm/month and -2.55 mm/month in 12% of the total area of Cerrado with anthropic cover. The areas that presented significant positive precipitation trends occupied 5% of the Cerrado (around 5 mm/month of increase). Final considerations The results of this study showed that the MDEs and the GPM data have great potential to be incorporated into the ZARC methodology, especially to complement the historical series of data from surface rainfall stations. More in-depth studies need to be conducted to analyze the trend of increase or decrease in precipitation with possible relations with changes in the land use and land cover of the biome.
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    Pagamento por serviços ambientais: análise do programa “Produtor de Água no Ribeirão João Leite”
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-26) Canedo, Luís Fernando Teixeira; Ribeiro, Francis Lee;; Ribeiro, Francis Lee; Faria, Karla Maria Silva de; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigo Choupina Andrade
    In 2015, Saneamento de Goiás S / A - SANEAGO, with the support of the National Water Agency - ANA and other federal, state and municipal agencies, initiated the payment program for environmental services - PES to rural producers located in the Ribeirão João Leite watershed, with the primary objective of environmentally revitalizing the basin and obtaining improving the quantity and quality of water. The choice of this location was motivated by being a very anthropized area, with high environmental degradation, the scene of conflicts over the use of water and where the main reservoir for supplying Goiânia-GO, capital of the State of Goiás, is located. Nevertheless, there were programs all over the world that used the PES name but that were not true PSAs from the perspective of environmental economics, which portrays the mainstream of economic thought and exerts a strong influence with international multilateral organizations, in addition to being more likely to attract private investment. In addition, since the early 1990s, hundreds of PES schemes have been implemented around the world with varying levels of success. In many countries there have been totally or partially failed experiences of PES, either because they have not achieved the objectives they set themselves, or because they have not achieved general improvement in the ecological, economic and social conditions of the region, or even because they have compromised ecosystem services even more, the economy or the well-being of participants and others. Another problem is that Brazil does not yet have a national PES policy that establishes the legal frameworks to be observed by program participants and formulators. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the Water Producer Program in Ribeirão João Leite - PPARJL in the face of these issues. For this purpose, bibliographic and field research were carried out, based on the analysis of the program's documentary collection and on semi-structured questionnaires applied to the main representatives of the agencies participating in the program. The results demonstrate that the PPARJL is a Coasian-type program, formulated from the perspective of environmental economics, a branch of neoclassical economic theory. Regarding the chances of success, it was found that the design and praxis of PPARJL bring it closer to the definition of success than that of partial success or failure. However, the survey also revealed notable failures and problems that can mitigate the program's success. Finally, it was also possible to conclude that the legal format adopted by PPARJL is sufficient to provide legal certainty to the public entities and producers that make up the program.
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    Análise da fragilidade ambiental na bacia hidrográfica do Rio das Almas, GO
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-10-09) Vespucci, Ariel Godinho; Zancopé, Márcio Henrique de Campos;; Miziara, Fausto;; Miziara, Fasto; Bayer, Maximiliano; Bueno, Guilherme Taitson
    The Das Almas River Basin (BHRA) is one of the main affluent from Serra da Mesa reservoir in northern Goiás, covering Central Goiano Mesoregion and part of Northwest, North and East regions in Goiás. There are 38 municipalities served by important infrastructure roads focused on national macroeconomics (Ferrovia Norte-Sul and BR-153), which are fundamental to the occupation history of this region. With growing process of transforming the Cerrado native vegetation into anthropic uses encouraged by public policies for agricultural and industrial development, the pressure on BHRA's natural resources has increased. This study proposes an analysis of BHRA's Environmental Fragility evolution (ROSS, 1994), which fragility degrees result from the interaction and interdependence of components in natural and socioeconomic systems. So, BHRA's environmental fragility evolution was analyzed by comparing the fragility maps of the years 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2018, produced by the cartographic data intersection of physical environment with those of land use and occupation in the corresponding years. The results indicate that biotic and socioeconomic factors dynamics are responsible for different forms of occupation of this region and the evolution of BHRA's environmental fragility, since the morphopedological characteristics do not change in analysis time scale. Throughout the study period, the remaining vegetation is concentrated in higher altitudes regions, with greater relief dissection, while anthropic use occurs in flatter areas, with better soils and less dissection. Over the years studied, the gains in strong and medium fragility areas followed the losses in Cerrado areas and pastures and agriculture gains in the first two decades. This link between Cerrado areas and environmental fragility in BHRA becomes more evident when, from 2005 to 2018, there is a Cerrado recovery (gain of areas) and areas of weak and very weak fragilities, simultaneously the loss pasture and medium fragility areas, accompanied by a drop in growth in strong and very strong fragility areas. The analysis of environmental fragility and the identification of environmental systems are important subsidies for environmental planning aiming sustainable development of the study area.
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    Dendrogeomorfologia, erosão hídrica e uso do solo em uma área urbana do município de Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-31) Nicolau, Ricardo de Faria; Momoli, Renata Santos;; Chagas, Matheus Peres;; Faria, Karla Maria Silva de;; Faria, Karla Maria Silva de; Momoli, Renata Santos; Chagas, Matheus Peres; Bovi, Renata Cristina; Silva, Marcos José da
    soils, especially when it is inserted in urban environments. However, methods that have enough longevity to distinguish natural and accelerated erosion events are still poorly explored in the literature. In this context, dendrogeomorphology is an important methodology to date and estimate the magnitude of erosion and sedimentation processes, with high spatiotemporal precision. In this perspective, the objective of this work was to evaluate the intensity of the erosive processes in the Botanical Garden Amália Hermano Teixeira (JBAHT), using dendrogeomorphological indicators of the exposed roots wood and the rates of soil loss and annual sedimentation. The methodological procedures consisted of carrying out analyzes of the historical influence of use and occupation of the surrounding soils, the analysis of urban drainage and the texture and fertility of the soils. To determine the anthropic influence on the growth of individuals in the forest fragment of the Botanical Garden, two species were chosen, Anadenanthera macrocarpa and Schefflera morototoni. The analysis of the history of land occupation and use revealed intense changes in soil waterproofing from 1988 to 1992 and the analysis of the efficiency of the urban microgeneration system was characterized, predominantly as compromised, which allowed to infer association with the high rates of movement of land. soils in the forest fragment. The dendrochronological results indicated that the studied species showed high sensitivity to the external environment and formation of annual growth rings. Dendrogeomorphological analyzes revealed that the highest vertical rates of soil loss range from 7 to 500 millimeters per year, while horizontal losses are 110 to 665 millimeters. Sedimentation rates were 6.4 to 18.6 millimeters per year and the dates of root exposures are more frequent in the years 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2013. The chronological comparison of the probable years of occurrence of water erosion by the roots exposed with the intense and erosive rains determined that the dates of occurrence of the erosive processes occurred in the years 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2016. The individual erosive rains with more than 10 millimeters in interval of 15 minutes, correlated with the number of evidence of erosion, recorded by the exposed roots wood, showed a significant correlation with a 90% confidence level. Meanwhile, the erosive rainfall defined for tropical regions, greater than 25 mm.h-1, showed a relatively high correlation of 70%. Considering this, intense and erosive rains can have significant importance in carrying soil. As well as the texture of the soils that presented high sand content, above 50% in 65% of the samples. The analysis of soil fertility for the element Potassium (K +) showed values from 2 to 27 times above the normal level. These results indicate that the high levels of Potassium (K +) may be due to urbanization by transport through rainwater pipes or by disposal of chemical waste. It is concluded that, the anthropic waterproofing alterations, the high gradient of the relief associated with the frequent occurrence of intense rains may be affecting the appearance of the erosive processes. Soil water erosion affected the growth of the trees, such as, for example, the greater growth of the sampling groups of trees with exposed roots and buried in relation to the group of trees without changes in soil level.
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    Avaliação da disponibilidade hídrica superficial no estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-12) Honório, Michelle da Silva; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Nomes dos; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Bezerra, Nolan Ribeiro; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino
    Based on the principle that water resources are limited and vulnerable, associated with the use by a growing population, industrial and agricultural expansion, management in an integrated manner is necessary, with the use of preventing damage and ensuring the use of quality water and quantity for the present and future society. The issuance of grants in the state of Goiás for the use of state-owned waters is under the responsibility of the Secretaria de Estado de Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável, which describes in the Resolução n° 09, de 04 de maio de 2005 the conditions and criteria for effecting the authorizations. In this process, knowledge of water availability is paramount, but obtaining hydrological information directly is not always possible and, in many situations, tools are needed to assist in obtaining this information, such as flow regionalization. So, this study had as main objective to evaluate water availability in surface catchment basins for public supply in the state of Goiás, through the comparison between the traditional method of flow regionalization and the method used by the water resources management agency in Goiás Of the 195 surface catchment basins analyzed, it was found that 27.7% have flows granted that exceed the flow that can be granted and/or exceed the reference flow present in 95% of the time. It was concluded that these catchment basins for public supply are in critical situations and that the grants, granted in these places, exert an excessive pressure on the springs, since the withdrawal of water is greater than allowed. As much as water availability estimates have been carried out using flow regionalization, these areas can be considered as priorities for the planning and management of water resources and for implementing actions based, for example, on payment for environmental services.
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    Aplicação do modelo WEAP na avaliação de alocação de água do reservatório dos Pequenos Libombos, Moçambique
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-02-12) Notisso, Pedro Francisco; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins;; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Teixeira, Denílson; Cortes, Jussanã Milograna
    The issue of satisfying human and environmental water needs has been tackled in the water resources management and planning framework in the Africa Austral. Currently, the Umbeluzi river basin is Greater Maputo main source of water supply. This study was driven by uncertainties generated by difficulties in meeting future water needs. What can happen to water supply if the patterns of population growth, industrial growth and increase in irrigation areas change? This article aims at assessing the capacity of meeting water needs in the Greater Maputo area in Mozambique through application of WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System). WEAP is a model that allows simulation of water resource systems with multiple uses in an integrated manner. The case study is the Mozambican part of the Umbeluzi River basin. Four scenarios were simulated: the reference scenario which corresponds to the on-going exploitation; three impact scenarios: Lower Growth that represents lower values of growth of consumption sites, Trend that reflects average growth values of consumption sites and Greater Growth which corresponds to higher values of population growth, expansion of the agricultural and industrial area, between 2018 and 2040 and adaptation measure. The methodology included the estimation of affluences to the system obtained from the results of the Water Year Method. An assessment of the capacity to meet water needs was made using indicators such as coverage and supply guarantee. The results obtained show the system's inability to meet current and future needs. The system has an annual water supply guarantee of 70.9% and 63.5% in the Reference and Lower Growth scenarios, with more critical values of 42.1% and 31.7% in the Trend and Higher Growth scenarios. All scenarios have an average duration of each failure exceeding three months.
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    Avaliação de áreas de pastagens a partir de bibliotecas espectrais, dados lidar e imagens aéreas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-01-07) Mesquita, Vinícius Vieira; Ferreira Júnior, Laerte Guimarães;; Ferreira Júnior, Laerte Guimarães; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Tyrone, Rherison
    Grasslands are important environments for global food security as they are responsible for the production of meat and milk from ruminant animals. Unfortunately, the negative consequences of the expansion of pasture areas is the loss of biodiversity, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado where more than 23% of natural vegetation has been converted to pasture. Thus, it is necessary to look for solutions to maintain the growth of food production without deforestation focusing on the recovery of degraded areas and intensification of use in underused places. Through hyperspectral data collected in the field, aerophotogrammetric data obtained by RPAS and laser pulses emitted by airborne LiDAR sensor, this work aims to evaluate the use of these data in pastures under different management and different seasonality conditions. The experiment area is the Rio Vermelho Basin (BHRV). In this region we were collected spectral data over 17 months in five pasture areas of 500 x 500 meters to compose a spectrum-temporal library. RPAS data were also collected in 2019 and LiDAR in 2015 and 2018 along a 50 km by 200 meters transect. The library built from spectral data was able to represent variations related to seasonality and management of pasture areas. The LiDAR point clouds on pastures were able to produce canopy height information faithful to the landscape observed in the field. The results obtained with RPAS proved to be insufficient to reach the objective, requiring more experiments to be usable. The spectro-temporal library formed exclusively by data sampled at pasture and the use of data from LiDAR showed a remarkable ability to describe the landscape and its nuances. However, further studies are still needed to better understand the results and validate the techniques.
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    Instrumentos de política ambiental para redução da geração dos resíduos sólidos urbanos: a percepção de especialistas no município de Goiânia – GO
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-09-30) Melo, Will Sandes de; Ribeiro, Francis Lee;; Ribeiro, Francis Lee; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Alves, Paulo Alexandre de Toledo
    There are many policy tools to foster the reduction of urban solid waste, which could be understand as the core of the Brazilian national solid waste policy. The choice of the most suitable instruments at the local level may be critical to success or failure of the policy implementation. However, frequently, such choice does not result of a rational process based on objective criteria, which favors the establishment of preferences for instrument. This works aims to check if there is a preference for instruments to reduce solid waste generation within the municipality of Goiânia, as well as what would explain this preference. In order to, it was performed a qualitative assessment, comprises the legislation at national level, the State of Goiás and the Municipality of Goiânia and other Government documents and publications associated with the implementation of the national solid waste policy. Moreover, were conducted eight structured interviews with experts in the field of waste management, who has worked in the waste plan of the city of Goiânia. The results suggest an alignment between the interviewees' understanding and the ideas spread by the Federal Government in the last decades, which gives great importance to the practice of environmental education. Also, noteworthy prominent views favorable on the adoption of instruments based on economic incentives, expectations around reverse packaging logistics, as well as restrictions on the adoption of a homogeneous municipal tax for the management of urban solid waste. As a final point, was identified a preference for the use of environmental education instruments. This preference can be explained by the occurrence of the heuristic of representativeness. These results suggest that the policy framework created by the Federal Government has significant influence on decisions at the local level.
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    Estudo hidrossedimentológico em rios da bacia hidrográfica do Rio Meia Ponte - Goiás, Brasil
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-02-11) Amaral, Ana Karolyna Nunes; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins;; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Bayer, Maximiliano; Ribeiro, Noely Vicente
    The present work show an analysis of hydrosedimentological dynamics in rivers of the River Basin Meia Ponte (BHRMP), localized in the State of Goias. The work was objective to analyze the sedimentological behavior as a way of understanding the river processes in the studied rivers. For the development of the work, were collected sediment in suspension in six rivers of the basin were collected in at least three points in each river. Hydrological surveys were carried out with ADCP equipment. For the granulometric distribution was used MASTERSIZER 2000 and the LISST – SL equipment. The samples were made during the dry season, at the end of July and November during the rainy season. The samples were submitted to laboratory analysis, which allowed the interpretation and discussion of the results afterwards. The granulometry of suspended sediments had their greatest representativity in the silt class. From the collected data, the Suspended Sediment Concentration in the BHRMP rivers ranged from 2,62 to 21,69 mg / l, transporting on average 6,31 tons/day of suspended sediments during dry season. In the rainy season the suspended sediment concentration ragend from 39,02 to 127,58 tons/day. From the calculations of specific sediment production, it was found that the basin produced 1,72 and 58,18 ton/km2/year form the dry to the rainy season respectively.
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    Saneamento rural: o esgotamento sanitário no Programa Moradia Camponesa
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-10-01) Sacho, Sara Duarte; Hora, Karla Emmanuela Ribeiro;; Miziara, Fausto;; Miziara, Fausto; Scalize, Paulo Sergio; Souza, Cleonice Borges de
    Given the long way of invisibility of rural areas in public policies on housing and sanitation in the country, this research work is emerge from the central theme on the access of the population benefited with social housing programs to adequate sanitation solutions in rural areas. The debate is developed from the experience with the Programa Moradia Camponesa (PMC), which compose the National Rural Housing Program (PNHR) in the municipalities of Silvânia and Vianópolis in Goiás. The challenges faced during the program in relation to alternatives to sanitary sewage in housing units inspired the first questions of the research: How is sanitation addressed in housing programs of social interest in rural areas? The research was guided by the hypothesis that sanitation solutions are transplanted from urban to rural experiences, leading to inconsistencies with the reality of the traditional rural worker's way of life; the particularities of the construction site and the self-construction of the housing units. Based on the initial hypothesis, two research bases were fundamentally considered: a) the dynamics of the Programa Moradia Camponesa for the implementation of sanitary sewage solutions in housing units; b) the different parts involved in promoting sanitary sewage conditions in social housing of the program and the relationships established between them. It was verified that the incorporation of urban technologies in rural areas happens from the structure, bureaucracy and operationalization of the program, inherited from the experiences with the urban housing programs. The issue of sanitation is treated in a secondary way, from the demand for accountability with the guidelines of public policy. Despite culminating in the same object (the house), public policies on housing of social interest and basic sanitation remain fragmented in programs and initiatives in rural regions.