Doutorado em Agronomia (EA)

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    Fertilização nitrogenada como ferramenta para mitigação de efeitos do déficit de radiação solar no arroz irrigado
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-09-06) Carvalho, Renata de Castro Marques; Moraes, Moemy Gomes de;; Heinemann, Alexandre Bryan;; Heinemann, Alexandre Bryan; Stone, Luís Fernando; Santos, Marcos Paulo dos; Silva, Rodrigo de Souza; Silva, Elaine Fernanda da
    Rice is part of the routine diet of the Brazilian population. Worldwide, it is considered one of the species with the greatest potential for combating hunger. Nitrogen is the nutrient most required by the rice crop. Solar radiation is one of the elements of the climate that most affects crop productivity. In Brazil, rice is grown in different regions, whose locations have a different supply of solar radiation throughout the cycle. This is one of the factors that explains the differences in productivity between regions. Some studies have shown that the supply of nitrogen as a top dressing minimizes the damage caused by solar radiation deficit in irrigated rice. In view of the above, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of the solar radiation deficit on two cultivars of irrigated rice and to investigate whether the supply of nitrogen minimizes the effects caused by this deficit. Two field trials were conducted for the 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 harvests. The work was carried out at the Palmital Farm experimental station, belonging to Embrapa Rice & Beans, in the municipality of Goianira-Goiás. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in a subdivided plot design, with shading as the main plot, the nitrogen dose as the subplot and the cultivars as the sub-sub-plots. The cultivars studied were BRS Catiana and IRGA 424 RI. The nitrogen source used was urea, at doses of 50 kg ha-1 of N (applied just once, at the V2 stage) and 180 kg ha-1 of N (spread over three seasons, V2; V3 and V6, with the respective doses of 50; 50 and 80 kg ha-1 of N). The light-restricted plots were covered with a black propylene screen with an attenuation capacity of 30% of global solar radiation, which was installed at the start of flowering (R4) and remained in place until physiological maturity (R9). Fifteen days after the shading was installed, the plants' gas exchange was assessed using an infrared gas analyzer. At the same time, plant samples were taken for analysis of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and total nitrogen content. At harvest time, a 1.0 m row was sampled for analysis of yield components. Yield was obtained by harvesting 10 m of the row. Whole grain yield was assessed by processing a 100 gram sample from each experimental plot. The data was submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared using the Tukey test (p<0,05). Shading reduced the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates in the leaf and stem of the cultivars in the shaded condition. The nitrogen content in the plant was reduced under conditions of light restriction. Gas exchange (net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration and transpiration) was affected by the availability of solar radiation. Under shaded conditions, there was a lower yield of whole grains. Increased nitrogen application allowed for a recovery in gas exchange, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen content in the plant, productivity and whole grain yield, under conditions of limited solar radiation. The IRGA 424 RI cultivar had a greater ability to adjust in the shaded condition compared to BRS Catiana, which implied higher productivity in this condition. In the unshaded condition and at the highest dose of N (180 kg ha-1), the BRS Catiana cultivar showed higher productivity than IRGA 424 RI. Applying nitrogen as a top dressing is a management strategy that can be applied to minimize the impact of solar radiation deficit on irrigated rice crops.
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    Fenologia de plantas e curva de maturação de frutos de caquizeiro
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-05-01) Nascimento, Lucas Marquezan; Cunha Júnior, Luis Carlos;; Campos, André José de;; Seleguini, Alexsander;; Souza, Elí Regina Barboza de; Campos, Luiz Fernandes Cardoso; Vendruscolo, Eduardo Pradi; Camilo, Yanuzi Mara Vargas; Seleguini, Alexsander
    Climatic changes tend to cause changes in the phenological behavior of plants, directly influencing the development and changing the duration of the cycle. Such variations will influence the management, growth, seasonality of the plants and their fruits, as well as their maturation and quality. The objective was to evaluate the phenological behavior and fruit development of three common persimmon cultivars (Rama Forte, Giombo and Pomelo) conducted in the Midwest of Brazil. The plants were evaluated during four subsequent cycles, from August 2014 to June 2018. For the studies that involved the phenology of the plants, the following phenophases were counted, in days after the production pruning: swollen bud, green tip, sprouting , flowering, fruiting, fruits with 50% of the final size, fruits with 70% of the final size, fruits with 90% of the final size, beginning of the harvest and end of the harvest. For thermal sum the thermal sum or degrees-day (GD) was considered for the culture to complete each phenological phase. The number of accumulated cold hours (NHF) was also quantified. For the ripening curve, in 2018, 120 fruits were marked on six plants in the orchard. Weekly, two months after pruning and application of hydrogenated cyanamide (WAC), the transversal (DT) and longitudinal diameter of the fruit (DL) in the field were evaluated. From the 18th to the 31st week after the application of hydrogenated cyanamide, nine fruits were analyzed weekly being measured the color of the pulp and skin, external and pulp firmness (FIR), fresh mass, soluble solids content (SS), titratable acidity (AT), pH and Maturation Index. In hot years and with late pruning, plants sprouted more quickly. ‘Pomelo’ has adapted better to the local climate. The interval between sprouting and flowering in tropical conditions was shorter than that observed by other authors in milder climates. Annual climatic variations caused differences in the growth rates of the transverse diameter of the fruits. ‘Pomelo’, ‘Giombo’ and ‘Rama Forte’ reached the point of harvest with less thermal need compared to other published works. ‘Rama Forte’ and ‘Giombo’ did not show a pattern of thermal demand between the years. At least 400 hours below 14 ° C met the demand in cold hours of the persimmon tree. Fruit growth was faster until the 14th WAC. Between the 15th and the 20th WAC there was a reduction in the growth rate, and after the 22nd WAC the fruits started to have a more expressive growth. ‘Pomelo’ had bigger and heavier fruits. The epidermis of the fruits changed from green when immature to intense red when ripe. In three weeks, the external FIR went from 81 N to 5 N. The peak in the SS content of the fruits of ‘Pomelo’ and ‘Rama Forte’ was at the 26th WAC, and ‘Giombo’ at the 29th SAC. Under tropical savanna conditions, it is recommended that the best time to harvest the fruits of the cultivars is about three weeks before full maturity.
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    Evapotranspiração das culturas do milho e feijão no bioma Cerrado utilizando sensoriamento remoto por drones e satélites
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-02-28) Almeida, Fillipe de Paula; Teixeira, Antônio Heriberto de Castro;; Júnior, José Alves;; Alves Júnior, José; Souza, João Maurício Fernandes; Giongo, Pedro Rogerio; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Pena, Diogo Silva
    Corn and beans are two of the main grains grown worldwide, with great importance in human and animal food. Corn cultivation is carried out mainly in the 1st and 2nd harvest, depending most of the time on rain and being vulnerable to dry spells. Likewise beans, which are mostly produced in the 2nd harvest. As a result, knowledge of crop evapotranspiration is essential to feed models for estimating and breaking productivity, managing water resources and managing irrigation. In this context, remote sensing becomes a viable alternative, with low operating costs and good accuracy. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of the Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER) algorithm in estimating the current evapotranspiration (ETa) of corn and bean crops in the northwest region of Goiás. Both studies were carried out in ItaberaíGoiás in an area irrigated by center pivot in the year 2021. The research was carried out in two parts: the first was to evaluate the impact of bolting on the calculated ET in an area cultivated with corn. Images from a MicaSense Altum multispectral and thermal camera coupled to a drone and three different sources of albedo images were used: Landsat 8, Sentinel 2A and drone. The albedo from the drone was obtained through the camera's reflectance images. The second part was to evaluate the impact of different albedo sources on the calculated ET, also using the camera images, but using four albedo sources. For this, an albedometer was installed in the field. The ET estimated by each source was determined with the ET obtained by the FAO method, Embrapa and climatological water balance from statistical indices. Tasseling in the maize crop contaminated the NDVI and albedo pixels, leading to a greater underestimation in the reproductive phase. On average, the MDE (mean square error) and AME (mean absolute error) were close to 1 mm day-1. Estimation of ET by remote sensing is not recommended for the reproductive phase of maize. Estimation of the ETa for the common bean crop is recommended from multispectral and thermal camera images, with both surface albedo sources. The confidence index ranges from 0.91 to 0.97. ETDroneAlb showed lower error compared to the standard methods.
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    Respostas da cultura do tomate para processamento industrial a fatores ambientais e irrigação
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-02-16) Knapp, Fábio Miguel; Battisti, Rafael;; Alves Júnior, José;; Alves Júnior, José; Battisti, Rafael; Casaroli, Derblai; Evangelista, Adão Wagner Pêgo; Bezerra, Ricardo de Souza
    The tomato crop for industry is strongly conditioned by environmental conditions. In this way, this work aimed to determine the meteorological variable with the greatest influence and contribution to growth and the thermal sum accumulated in each stage of development of different hybrids, in addition to evaluating the responses of tomato plants in two irrigation systems: central pivot sprinkler and located by subsurface drip. For this, experiments were set up in Abadia de Goiás, Hidrolândia, Itaberaí, Palmeiras de Goiás, Piracanjuba and Silvânia during the 2020 harvest, fortnightly collections of plants were carried out for biometric measurement of number of leaves, leaf area, number of branches, number of fruit and plant height, as well as the collection of meteorological variables from each location with the aid of an automatic meteorological station, to determine the variable with the greatest interference in the growth and development of the crop, canonical correlation and multivariate Stepwise regression were used, in addition to separation of averages by Scott-knott. The main variable that affected crop growth was water availability. The water supply was responsible for 86.2% of the plant height and 79.6% of the leaf area index. On the other hand, the average air temperature, solar radiation and accumulated thermal sum showed little influence on crop growth. The industrial tomato responded to the accumulated degree days, with the average degree days accumulated in the first and second seasons of 1,394 and 1,364 degree days, respectively, and its average cycle of 124 and 116 days from transplanting to maturation. The irrigation systems did not show savings in the amount of water used in the crop during the cycle, but the subsurface drip irrigation system provided a shorter period of leaf wetness, improving plant health, delaying senescence and leaf abscission and providing greater productivity and increase in water use efficiency in this system.
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    Identificação molecular de helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-05-21) Oliveira, Thayssa Monize Rosa de; Tembrock, Luke Raymond; Gilligan, Todd Michael; Cunha, Marcos Gomes da;; Cunha, Marcos Gomes da; Timm, Alicia Eva; Dianese, Érico de Campos; Coelho, Regina Melo Sartori; Godinho, Karina Cordeiro Albernaz
    Previously found only on Old World continents, the caterpillar Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is capable of great economic damage, coming to be considered one of the most destructive agricultural pests. Its identification through morphological analysis is only possible with complex dissection of the adult male genitalia. The morphology of all phases of the life cycle, egg, larva, pupa and adult, is very similar with the morphology of other species of the genus, making the identification difficult. As it is a highly invasive pest and correct identification is the first step to be taken to decide the best management strategy, we realize the need for precise, easy and fast tools for the identification of this species. Thus, the objective of the work was to develop specific primers and to optimize different protocols for use in real-time PCR and digital PCR methodologies in order to identify H. armigera, even if this sample is of poor quality, only a fragment and/or is mixed with other species. For that, design, selection and optimization of primer and probe concentrations, primer annealing temperature gradients, tests and adaptations with different DNA extraction methods were carried out, with or without post-DNA extraction purification, tests with different ratios of H. zea and H. armigera mixed in the same reaction, determination of the maximum sensitivity in both methodologies and interpretation of the obtained data. We present the protocols developed to successfully identify the specie H. armigera, both with real-time PCR and digital PCR methodologies.
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    Papel de Urochloa brizantha em áreas antropizadas no Cerrado
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-09-12) Monteiro, Marina Morais; Correchel, Vladia;; Venturoli, Fábio;; Correchel, Vladia; Borges, Jácomo Divino; Calil, Francine Neves; Resende, Rafael Tassinari; Collier, Leonardo
    Invasive species are among the leading causes of global ecological degradation. When invasion occurs in hotspots, such as the Brazilian Savanna, the Cerrado biome, the aggravation of the presence of these species becomes even more worrying. In the Cerrado, african grasses, mainly of the genus Urochloa, initially introduced for livestock purposes, have become a barrier to ecological restoration in recent decades. Due to aggressive competition with native plants, these species tend to occupy the ground persistently, acting as a barrier to natural regeneration and other means of restoration of degraded areas, such as planting native trees. Therefore, the control of these exotic grasses is essential for the return and maintenance of ecological balance in degraded areas in the Cerrado. Thus, the understanding of the relationship of these grasses with soil aspects of degraded environments and the development of techniques that optimize the ecological restoration processes can act favoring the ecological succession and the barrier transposition imposed by these invasive plants. Therefore, the present work aimed to establish correlations between ground cover, soil physicochemical aspects and the environments in which it occurs, and these environments present different levels of ecological degradation with the occurrence of african grass Urochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) R.D.Webster. At the same time, in one of these environments, we tested the effectiveness of using polystyrene plastic tarpaulin to fray U.brizantha in the crowning region of tree species in planting to recover degraded area. The study area (16º33'26,5''S; 49º17'25,7''W) has environments allocated in a private rural property and in a vegetation fragment adjacent to the same property, in the municipality of Goiânia, Goiás state, Brazil. Originally, the area was part of the Cerrado biome, but it is currently divided into five different land use environments: 21 ha of remaining Mata Seca, 10 ha of grass with U.brizantha (Braquiarão), 6 ha in natural regeneration process of native vegetation for 15 years, 2.5 ha of 10-month-old native tree planting and two ha of 10-year-old native tree planting. Ground cover data were collected with the assist of a 40 cm x 60 cm template, which was randomly launched 30 times in each environment. Through the template the percentage of ground occupied by U. brizantha, native regenerating species, exposed ground and litter was accounted. For soil analysis, deformed samples were collected from 0 to 20 cm for soil chemistry description and undisturbed for soil physics. For the tarpaulin test, in the 10-month-old native tree planting environment, the species with the largest number of individuals (421), Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, was selected and a fragment of 1m2 polystyrene plastic tarpaulin was allocated to 30 seedlings crown region’s. The seedling survival and growth data were collected by counting the number of individuals remaining alive over time and measuring their seedlings. heights (H) and collection diameters (DC), respectively. H and DC were collected in two periods, the first, five months after planting and the second 13 months after planting. Mortality data were collected at 13 months after planting. All data were submitted to multivariate analysis, the first correlating the physical soil characteristics and the ground cover with the environments and the second correlating the survival and growth of the seedlings with the percentage of U. brizantha in the crowning region of A. colubrina seedlings with the use of plastic tarpaulin In the first analysis it was noticed that the study environments differ more due to the ground cover than the physical aspects of the soil but that the soil moisture and the hydraulic conductivity of the saturated soil are the physical properties that most differentiating the environment in natural regeneration of the others. In the second analysis, for the tarpaulin test, it was concluded that the effect of tarpaulin use on the crown region of A. colubrina seedlings was sufficient to eliminate U.brizantha from this region, not influencing the mortality and incremental rate. in H and CD of the A. colubrina and was more pronounced in the rainy season than in the dry season.
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    Seleção de genótipos de cana-energia em produção orgânica e convencional e resposta a adubação
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-27) Santos, Tamara Rocha dos; Leandro, Wilson Mozena;; Brasil, Eliana Paula Fernandes;; Leandro, Wilson Mozena; Nascimento, Abadia dos Reis; Ferreira, Gislene Auxiliadora; Silva, Vanderli Luciano da; Calil, Francine Neves
    The objective of this work was to select energy cane genotypes in different agricultural production systems (organic and conventional) and to evaluate the influences of fertilization on some phenotypic and agronomic characteristics in first and second year harvest. The two field studies were carried out in an experimental area belonging to the Federal University of Goiás, in Goiânia-GO, one of the experiments being carried out in an area certified as organic by IBD (certificate GO-022-001) and the other in a conventional area. A greenhouse test was also set up. The soils in the experimental areas (organic and conventional) are classified as Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico and the one used in the greenhouse is the Latossolo Vermelho Ácrico. In the field experiments, the test was carried out in plots consisting of 7.5 m2 per plot with borders of 1.5 m (5 meters in length, spaced in 1.5 m) with the planting of sheets containing three buds in 30 cm furrows. depth, with three sheets per meter. The experimental design was a randomized block with five replications. And in a field experiment, the treatments were: T1- Organic fertilization (200 m3 / ha of biofertilizer) and T2- Control (without fertilization) and the second factor, the genotypes: UFPR 1274, UFPR 1230, UFPR 12180 and UFPR 127004. In the greenhouse, the experimental design was randomized blocks, in a factorial scheme, 2x5, the first factor being: T1- Nitrogen fertilization (50 mg / kg of urea) T2- Control (without fertilization) and the second factor, the genotypes: RB 127008, UFPR 1230, UFPR 1213, UFPR 1274 and a commercial cultivar with four replications. 24 energy cane genotypes were used, obtained from the Energy Cane Genetic Improvement Program at the Federal University of Viçosa (PMGCA / UFV / RIDESA). The agronomic and phenotypic variables carried out in the field studies were: content of soluble solids (Brix°), plant color, plant height, stem diameter and total biomass. The variables evaluated in the greenhouse study were: plant height, stem diameter; root growth, root volume and leaf area. It is concluded that the energy cane genotypes evaluated show high productivity, showing great potential for planting in conventional system. The genotypes with the highest performance in terms of biomass are: RB 127004, UFPR 12157, UFPR 1265, UFPR 12180 and UFPR 1277 in the conventional system and RB 127004 and RB 127035, UFPR 1273, UFPR 12180 and RB 127024 in the organic system. The phenotypic variable that correlates with biomass in the two production systems is the stem diameter. The energy cane genotypes evaluated are not responsible for chemical nitrogen fertilization or organic fertilization. The genotypes UFPR 1274 and the commercial variety show higher performances in terms of leaf area under nitrogen fertilization and the genotypes with higher performances in terms of biomass are: RB 127008 and UFPR 127004 under organic fertilization.
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    Alternativas de manejo de Meloidogyne enterolobii Meloidogyne incognita em tomate industrial
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-11-22) Silva, Juliana de Oliveira; Rocha, Mara Rúbia da;; Rocha, Mara Rúbia da; Santiago, Débora Cristina; Araújo, Fernando Godinho de; Pinheiro, Jadir Borges; Puerari, Heriksen Higashi
    Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of the main phytosanitary problems that hinder the cultivation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Among the species of the genus Meloidogyne, M. incognita stands out as the most important species for the tomato crop. Another species that has caused concern to the producers is M. enterolobii, due to its ability to develop in cultivars with resistance to other species of Meloidogyne. For an adequate control of these plant parasites it is necessary to adopt an integrated management using practices such as resistant cultivars, biological control, resistance induction, chemical control, among others. This study had the objective to evaluate the reaction of tomato genotypes to M. enterolobii and the effect of chemical and biological products on resistance induction of tomato plants to M. enterolobii. We also evaluated the efficiency of three non-fumigant nematicides on the M. incognita control in tomato plants. the development of nematodes and the histological modifications caused in the root cells of plants when treated with these products and evaluating three new non-fumigant nematicides in the reduction of the population of M. incognita in tomato. Twenty-one tomato genotypes were inoculated with 2000 eggs and J2 of M. enterolobii and kept in a greenhouse for 35 days after inoculation (DAI) were used. All genotypes tested showed a susceptibility reaction to M. enterolobii. Four tomato genotypes were submitted to treatments with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis + B. subtilis + Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM) and Extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis, inoculated with M. enterolobii and evaluated 60 days after inoculation. The plants that received the treatment with B. subtilis presented greater development of aerial part and root. The ASM resistance-inducing agent was able to reduce the reproductive factor when applied to the PXT 408 genotype. Seedlings of cultivar H-9553 were inoculated with 2000 M. enterolobii eggs and J2 and treated with ASM; B. subtilis; B. subtilis + B. licheniformis + T. longibrachiatum and Extract of R. sachalinensis and collected at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 DAI for nematode penetration evaluation and histology of tomato root cells. In the evaluation of the nematode development and cell histology, the use of R. sachalinensis showed efficiency in the reduction of fourth stage juveniles and galls in the plants at 20 DAI and in the reduction of the final population of the nematode and reduced the number of females per gall. All the plants infected by the nematode, regardless of the treatment, presented vascular cylinder displaced from the center of the structure of the roots. Tomato seedlings of the Red Gnome cultivar were submitted to treatments with fluensulfone, fluopyran and fluazaindolizine and inoculated with 5000 eggs and J2 of M. incognita and evaluated at 60 DAI to determine the efficacy of the products used. The new nematicides tested showed efficiency in the reduction of the M. incognita population in the tomato roots.
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    Sustentabilidade estrutural de latossolos cultivados com cana-de-açúcar do estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-04-28) Silva, Gustavo Cassiano da; Correchel, Vladia;; Santos, Glenio Guimarães;; Santos, Glenio Guimarães; Correchel, Vladia; Flores, Rilner Alves; Severiano, Eduardo da Costa; Nóbrega, Julio César Azevedo
    With the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil, the mechanized production system has promoted benefits such as reduced harvest time. However, if the soil has inadequate moisture levels, depending on the texture of the soil, the traffic of implements can result in soil compaction and, consequently, its degradation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physical-hydraulic attributes in commercial areas under sugarcane cultivation at the São Martinho plant (Boa Vista), located in the municipality of Quirinópolis de Goiás, and at the Jalles Machado plant in Goianésia, both under the conventional cultivation, in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Four areas were selected for both study plants: first cycle of cultivation, three cycles, seven cycles and a reference area native vegetation, at the São Martinho plant first cycle cultivation, two cycles, four cycles and native vegetation at Jalles Machado. For the selection, the areas were pre-evaluated before the study, in order to obtain as homogeneous areas as possible, with areas of medium texture and variety RB 867515 in all areas of the São Martinho plant. At the Jalles Machado plant, areas of clay texture and variety CTC4 were selected. Regarding the study of physical water attributes, indicators of physical-water quality were evaluated, such as soil density, total porosity, saturation humidity, blocked pores, void index, macroporosity, microporosity, effective saturation, readily available water, soil water retention, aggregate stability, the mechanical resistance to penetration and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of field, in the 0-0,10 layers; 0.10-0.20; 0.20-0.30 and 0.40-0.50 m of a typical dystrophic RED LATOSOL. The data were submitted to descriptive and inferential analysis, at a significance level of 5%. The cultivation of sugarcane changed the physical-hydric quality of the soil in relation to the native vegetation. Therefore, regardless of the textural class and variety of sugarcane, the impacts of implantation of the crop are observed in the first, second and third cultivation cycles, but as of fourth cycles there are already signs of recovery of the soil's physical-water quality. Until seventh cycles this resilience of the productive environment is observed.
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    Feições redoximórficas, micromorfologia e endurecimento da plintita em solos da planície do rio Araguaia, Brasil
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-07-17) Santos, Djavan Pinheiro; Oliveira, Virlei Álvaro de;; Santos, Glenio Guimarães;; Santos, Glenio Guimarães; Oliveira, Virlei Álvaro de; Collier, Leonardo Santos; Souza Júnior, Valdomiro Severino de; Pereira, Marcos Gervásio
    The soils of the Araguaia River plain have abundance in redoxymorphic features, especially plinthite. The predominant soils in this plain are plinthossols that are subjected to natural water table fluctuation and altered by the anthropic use nearby, by the flood irrigation project in Luiz Alves, São Miguel do Araguaia, state of Goiás. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the chemical and mineralogical composition of the redoxymorphic features, dynamics of the iron element present in the soils, formation mechanisms and possible causes or conditioning of the plintite hardening, as well as the morphological aspects (macro and micro) of this feature. Redoxymorphic features were collected in different positions of the soil profiles and submitted to all analytical procedures as recommended by the specialized manuals for each analysis, as well as specific equipment to obtain the data. The iron contents in all the studied forms determined are always higher in the plinthite feature, intermediate in the mottled feature and lower in the soil matrix feature. The iron present in secondary minerals (vermiculites, VHES and illites) reach values of the order of 64.60% in P1 and 58.02% in P2, while only part (around 35.40% in P1 and 41.98% in P2) is detected in the form of oxides such as goethite and hematite that would have the possibility of being formed in oxi-reduction processes. The mottled and plintite features present in these soils are not the product of the classic process of segregation, mobilization and accumulation of iron as a result of oxidation processes. They formed or appeared in them as a result of a relatively slow and constant decomposition process of their source material, which is being decomposed in an aqueous medium releasing much of its components, including iron and more mobile elements such as bases and silicon, which leave the system by draining water, and some small part of them can recombine to form new less complex minerals, such as kaolinites and oxides. The greater hardness of the plintite features of the soils is directly related to the content of ferric iron contained in its fine fraction. Iron oxides are the elements responsible for promoting and maintaining the hardening of features. The presence of the plintite feature, with the requirements of color and hardness fully satisfied, was established in the cases studied with a combination of the following factors: condition of seasonality of the water regime; absolute levels of Fed of at least 40 g kg-1 associated with a Fed / Fes ratio of at least 0.35 and Fes values equal to or greater than 100 g kg-1 , associated with a Fes/Fet ratio of at least 0.70. The accumulations of iron identified in these features by the micromorphological study are probably formed in earlier times, immediately after the release of iron from silicate structures and in a distinct moisture condition that allowed its recombination in the form of oxides, probably with less water movement.
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    Eficiência agronômica do fosfato natural de Bonito, MS, em milho, braquiária ruziziensis e feijoeiro comum
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-04-30) Freitas, Roberto José de; Leandro, Wilson Mozena;; Leandro, Wilson Mozena; Calil, Francine Neves; Oliveira Júnior, Juarez Patricio de; Nascimento, Abadia dos Reis; Zang, Joachim Werner
    Cerrado agriculture is highly dependent on the intensive application of fertilizers, given the natural conditions of low fertility of its soils. The correction and phosphate fertilization in particular constitute essential and costly operations, in view of the low availability and high adsorption of P in these soils, due to its high acidity and oxydic mineralogy. In addition, Brazil is highly dependent on the import of this nutrient, making wide use mainly of industrialized P sources with high solubility in water and high cost. Reactive natural phosphates are interesting technical and economic alternatives for application in these soils, also being provided for phosphate fertilization in agroecological production systems, where the use of industrialized soluble phosphates is not certified. The agronomic characteristics of these fertilizers are low solubility in water, presenting slower release of the nutrient. Most Brazilian phosphate reserves are of magmatic origin, with structure of non-weathered crystals, presenting very low efficiency if not industrially processed. Recently it was prospected and entered the process of mining in Bonito-MS, phosphate reserve of sedimentary origin, with P contents of the order of 20%, with great potential as a corrective source remineralizing the soil in this element. The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of this natural phosphate of Bonito (FNB), compared to the natural phosphate of Morocco (FNM) and triple superphosphate (STP), applied in no-tillage of corn, intercropping with brachiaria ruziziensis and with successive cultivation of beans, in a cultivation model used in the recent crop-livestock integration systems, allowing to observe immediate and residual effects of the application. An experiment was installed in an area of the Agronomy School of UFG, with application in the fnb planting furrow at the doses of 45, 90,180 and 360 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 from the STP and FNM sources. The fertilization was carried out in spaced grooves of 50 cm, where corn was planted and sown to the pitch of brachiaria ruziziensis, also making sequential cultivation of beans. There were significant responses to fnb doses in grain yield and leaf terrors of Corn and bean P, in the dry matter production of brachiaria, as well as in the increase of soil P availability, demonstrating that the FNB is an efficient source of P for fertilization and soil correction in the Cerrado. The FNB showed lower efficiency than the SFT in the production of corn grains and equivalent efficiency in the dry matter production of brachiaria and common bean grains. Its efficiency was similar to that of the FNM.
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    Estrutura populacional de isolados de Magnaporthe oryzae Couch & Kohn de arroz (Oryza sativa) no Brasil
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2013-02-18) Gonçalves, Fábio José; Filippi, Marta Cristina;; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Silva, Gisele Barata da; Lobo, Valácia Lemes da Silva; Araújo, Leila Garcês de
    Rice blast is caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, an ascomycete which presents an accentuate variability, probably caused by mutation, parassexual recombination, Avr gene deletions and the movement of transposition elements (transposons and retrotransposons). This pathogen is rganized in populations composed of pathotypes with distinct virulence pattern, whose identification is based on the blast leaves reactions of national and international rice differential cultivars. The objectives of this work were to determine national and international pathotypes frequencies of M. oryzae isolates, collected from different brazilian rice producing regions; to identify the diversity index that better fits with M. oryzae population diversity; to detect the presence of some avirulence genes; and investigate the genetic variability of collected isolates using 18 microsatellite markers. National and international differential series and commercial rice cultivars were sown in trays and, 21 days after planting it were spray inoculated with a conidia suspension of M. oryzae, in greenhouse conditions. The plants were evaluated nine days after spray inoculation and notes 0 to 3 were considerate resistant (R) and 5 to 9 susceptible (S). The pathotypes were identified and the frequencies calculated. The indexes of Gleason, Shannon and Simpson were calculated over three successive years and analyzed by multiple linear regression with Factor Analysis throw means of principal components method and stepwise. For the genetic studies 494 isolates were grown in liquid culture medium, followed by mycelium filtration, frozen and lyophilized for DNA extraction, which was quantified, amplified and separated by electrophoresis. The polymorphism data, the Nei's genetic distance index and the AMOVA were calculated with Structure, Genetix and Arlequin softwares. AS results we had 523 pathotyped and the frequencies were IF 1 and BA 1 (18% and 12%) in Goiás; IA 45 and BI 1 (32% and 13%) in Mato Grosso do Sul; BD 16 (33%) in Mato Grosso; IA 45 1 and BF (20% and 11%) in Santa Catarina; IA 1 and BA 105 (33% and 22%) in Rio Grande do Sul; IA 1 and BA 126 (14% and 11%) in Tocantins; IE 1 (45%) and BC8, BD16 and BI 1( 25% each) in Para; IF 1 and 8 (52% and BC 40%) in Rondônia; IC 1 and IG 1(18% each) and BI 1 in Minas Gerais; According to Nei’s index the closest international group were C and D (0.080) and the most distant were groups A and F (0.477), among the national groups, the closest were (C) and (D) (0.014) and the most distance F and H (0.429). Based on the regressions results, Gleason index should be represented by R and E factors, and Shannon by factors N and R. Among the isolates which were compatible to cv. CO-39 (S) 86.7% were incompatible (R) to isolineas C 101 LAC (Pi-1/Avr-1), 81.5% to C 101 PKT (Pi-4a/Avr-4a) and (66.7%) C 101 A51 (Pi-2-Avr-2), for samples from both irrigated and upland conditions. The best grouping value for 494 isolates was K = 19. According to AMOVA analyses the variability among subpopulations was 62.87% and 37.13% within subpopulations. Among the 18 locos studied 16 were polymorphic, the markers Pyrms 077b-078 e Pyrms 319-320 were the best ones for detecting differences among the subpopulations with 80.50% and 80.34% of variation, respectively. The markers Pyrms099b-100b, Pyrms037-038 and Pyrms 409-410 were the best one for detecting differences within subpopulations with 70.16%, 67.06% and 63.98% of variation, respectively. The value of genetic differentiation of populations (FST) was 0, 62868 (p < 0.001) calculated by 10,000 random permutations. According to the Nei's Index, subpopulations 8 and 4 are the ones most distance (1,822) and subpopulations 15 and 19 are the closest (0.119). We concluded that, in Brazil the highest frequency were 45-IA and BA-1 pathotypes and, that the molecular markers used in this work were efficient to detect population structure organizing the 494 representative isolates of rice producing regions in 19 subpopulations, according to the cultivar’s origin of the isolate with a strong environment interaction
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    Diagnóstico do estado nitrogenado e manejo da água no cultivo do arroz irrigado tropical
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-23) Santos, Marcos Paulo dos; Heinemann, Alexandre Bryan;; Heinemann, Alexandre Bryan; Stone, Luis Fernando; Moraes, Moemy Gomes de; Silva, Mellissa Ananias Soler da; Lanna, Anna Cristina
    In Brazil rice production is concentrated in the South under the irrigated system. For reasons of food security, there is a need to distribute production in the country. Significant gains in grain yield have been associated with applications of high amounts of nitrogen. However, when assessing the efficiency of the use of nitrogen (EUN) [kg of grain produced / kg of applied N], utilization of less than 40% has been observed. Thus, strategic nitrogen management is crucial for high-efficiency agricultural production and sustainable agriculture. In addition to the need to increase the EUN, there is a growing interest in reducing the volume of water used in irrigated rice farming with the application of continuous water depth throughout the cycle. With the reduction in the volume of water applied with this management, in addition to the reduction in the cost of production, there is an increase in water use efficiency and EUN. Thus, intelligent and premeditated interventions in relation to natural resources must be carried out in order to optimize the management of N and to reduce water use, without reducing productivity. The objective of this study was to determine potential vegetation indices for diagnosing the nitrogen status of the crop and to evaluate impacts of water depth management on morphophysiological characteristics and grain yield of contrasting irrigated rice cultivars. The state of N in the plants was evaluated from vegetation indexes obtained with the canopy reflectance to the radiation offered by low altitude optical sensor. From the combination of three spectral bands of reflectance, 22 vegetation indices (IV) were calculated and evaluated for their efficiency in estimating the state of N during periods of growth of irrigated rice. The results of this study indicated that the selected IVs considerably underestimate the dry leaf biomass and did not efficiently estimate the nitrogen indicators in the crop, such as the concentration and accumulation of leaf nitrogen, in the growing season. Greater variations in these indicators can be explained by the IV in subsequent periods. The IV selected in the calibration process proved to be highly promising for explaining the variation of dry leaf biomass and the leaf area index in the reproductive and grain filling periods. However, modest IV performances were obtained to estimate leaf nitrogen concentration in the reproductive period. The vegetation index adjusted to the modified red edge soil (M_RESAVI) and the red edge index by normalized difference (NDRE) showed high performance in estimating the nitrogen nutrition index (INN) in all growth periods, as well as in the cycle whole. These results show the importance of using active sensors with more than two fixed bands, especially with the addition of the red border band, to better estimate the nitrogen status of the culture. The effect of alternative irrigation managements on phenological development, gas exchange, biomass accumulation and productivity of tropical irrigated rice was also studied. Two experiments were conducted in Goianira-GO from 2016 to 2018 to evaluate the effect of irrigation managements: intermittent flooding with aeration (IIA), intermittent flooding throughout the cycle (IIC) and intermittent flooding until flowering (IIF) in relation to management continuous flooding throughout the cycle (ICC). In these experiments, four rice cultivars were studied: BRS A702 CL, BRS Catiana, BRS Pampeira and IRGA 424. The data on phenology, gas exchange, growth dynamics and productivity were subjected to joint analysis to produce general inferences in cultivation. Irrigation management did not affect the vegetative development of the crop. The intermittent flooding with aeration prolonged the flowering time for cultivar BRS A702 CL. It was found that it is possible to decrease the water supply with the maintenance of saturated soil or the use of intermittent flooding until flowering, or even, throughout the cycle, without compromising transpiration. There was no direct relationship between the accumulation of biomass due to differences in the photosynthetic rate between cultivars and irrigation management. The accumulation of dry biomass was reduced by the occurrence of smaller accumulations of radiation and degree-days in the reproductive and grain filling phases. Grain productivity and harvest index were similar between the irrigation management investigated. The findings of this study allow us to infer that the management of the state of N in irrigated rice can be done from the INN estimated by the M_RESAVI and NDRE indices and that strategies that rationalize water use such as: intermittent flooding with aeration (IIA) and intermittent flooding the whole cycle (IIC) can be adopted in the cultivation of tropical irrigated rice without damage to grain productivity.
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    Atributos fitotécnicos e bioquímicos de solo com doses e fontes de ureia na cultura do arroz de terras altas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-10-31) Oliveira, Vinícius Almeida; Flores, Rilner Alves;; Brasil, Eliana Paula Fernandes;; Brasil, Eliana Paula Fernandes; Nascimento, Abadia dos Reis; Leandro, Wilson Mozena; Corcioli, Graciella; Santos, Felipe Corrêa Veloso dos
    Rice cultivation upland stands out in the Cerrado region and on the climatic conditions of the region, management studies of nitrogen fertilization become essential for greater efficiency in the use of this nutrient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of cultivating upland rice BRS-Emerald to different nitrogen sources and doses in the Brazilian Cerrado. The experiments were conducted in Goiânia, GO in the agricultural years of 2013/2014 and 2014/15 in Oxisol. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a factorial 3x4 + 1 (3 fonts, 4 doses and control without N) with four replications. The nitrogen sources used were conventional urea (Uconv); urea treated with NBPT® urease inhibitor (NBPT) and coated urea Kimcoat® polymers (N+) tested in doses 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of nitrogen in rice upland BRS Esmeralda spacing 0.5 m between rows. For the characteristics evaluated nitrogen source NBPT was superior to other sources in the development of rice cultivar BRS Esmeralda. For the characteristics evaluated the soil quality bioindicators little or nothing were influenced by nitrogen source, the biomarkers were more influenced by the planting period and doses of nitrogen applied.
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    Uso do sensoriamento remoto para a estimativa da evapotranspiração atual e diagnóstico do manejo da irrigação da cultura do tomate industrial em Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-26) Sena, Carolina Carvalho Rocha; Souza, João Maurício Fernandes;; Battisti, Rafael;; Alves Júnior, José;; Alves Júnior, José; Casaroli, Derblai; Heinemann, Alexandre Bryan; Giongo, Pedro Rogério; Bezerra, Ricardo de Souza
    The cultivation of processing tomatoes in Goiás is carried out during the dry season, making irrigation necessary, however, usually its management is carried out empirically, which can lead to errors due to excess or water deficit. Thus, monitoring current irrigation management, as well as improving knowledge about crop evapotranspiration, are fundamental practices to improve the sizing of new irrigation projects, the management of water resources and the management of irrigation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER) and Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution using Internalized Calibration (METRIC) algorithms to estimate the current evapotranspiration (ETa) of processing tomatoes and to analyze the use of tomatoes of irrigation water for this crop in south-central Goiás. Both studies were carried out in nine areas where processing tomatoes irrigated by a central pivot, in Goiás, during 2018 and 2019. The study was divided into two stages: in the first stage, using images from the Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, for estimation of ETa by SAFER and METRIC models comparing with ET obtained by FAO, Embrapa and soil water balance based on statistical indexes. The ETa of the processing tomato estimated by the algorithms throughout the cycle varied between 0.85 and 5.20 mm day-1, in general average. The SAFER model provided a better correlation with standard methods when compared to METRIC, with a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.64 to 0.99. The algorithms showed good statistical performance in the estimation of ETa in phases II and III of the processing tomato. The diagnosis of irrigation management indicated that in all the evaluated areas there were errors in irrigation management, when considering the total water applied in the cycle. The results showed that the water demands varied from 280.3 to 436.8 mm, in 109 to 129 days of cycle. The average error for excess water applied was 83.4 mm, representing 77.8% of the analyzed areas, and the deficit error was 39.3 mm, corresponding to 22.2% of the analyzed areas. The study also revealed that in all areas the irrigation was carried out at the wrong frequency, which may have caused the runoff of water on the soil surface. These results point to an incorrect management of irrigation in the production of processing tomatoes in Goiás.
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    Adubação orgânica em sistema agroflorestal: atributos químicos e físicos do solo e desempenho das espécies consorciadas
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-25) Andrade, Carlos Augusto Oliveira de; Leandro, Wilson Mozena;; Collier, Leonardo Santos;; Collier, Leonardo Santos; Calil, Francine Neves; Flores, Rilner Alves; Freitas, Gilson Araújo de; Silva, Átila Reis da
    The insertion of barueiros in the production systems through agroforestry system SAFs can promote the integration of rural areas in the Cerrado, especially when combined with crops of high relevance for farmers in this region, preserving natural resources and providing additional income for producers. Due to the integration of different crops, whether through consortia, successions or crop rotation, the demand for nutrients can be intensified, causing greater dependence on mineral fertilizers, which increases production costs. Organic fertilization can be a lower cost strategy to supply the nutrient demand for SAFs, in addition to contributing to the maintenance of the system's sustainability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in different doses of organic compost in the chemical and physical attributes of the soil and in the development of crops grown in an agroforestry system in the Cerrado of Goiás. The experiment was conducted in a SAF composed of barueiros, divided into six rows of 14 trees, with banana trees and agricultural crops grown between the rows. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions. The treatments consisted of four doses of organic compost (5, 10, 20 and 40 Mg ha-1), a treatment with mineral fertilization, plus the control without fertilization. The chemical and physical attributes of the soil, the agronomic performance of cowpea and banana and the growth of cassava and baru trees were evaluated. The applications of organic compost promote positive changes in the chemical attributes of the soil, especially in the first layers, with increased levels of MOS, P, K and Mg compared to mineral fertilization. During the studied period, the doses of organic compost and mineral fertilization did not affect the physical attributes of the soil to a depth of 0.20 m. The organic compost formed by energy cane biomass and cattle manure shows potential as an organic fertilizer in the cultivation of cowpea and banana cultivated in an agroforestry system, being able to substitute at 100% the mineral fertilization in the nutrition of these cultures. Doses 20 and 40 Mg ha-1 of organic compost provided the greatest increases in the vegetative performance of cassava, equivalent to mineral fertilization. During the period studied, mineral fertilization and doses of organic compost did not affect baru growth.
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    Efeito da aplicação foliar de silício no manejo, na produção e na qualidade dos frutos do meloeiro
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-10-27) Soares, Jordânia Medeiros; Flores, Rilner Alves;; Silva, Flávio Alves da;; Souza, Eli Regina Barboza de; Brasil, Eliana Paula Fernandes; Flores, Rilner Alves; Vera, Rosângela; Lacerda, Julian Junio de Jesus
    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a fruit much appreciated for its qualities and its production has been growing and gaining space in the national and international market. Noble melons are more susceptible to stresses caused by biotic and abiotic factors, however, silicon can alleviate these effects and can also increase the productivity and quality of the fruits produced. Silicon (Si) is not considered a nutrient, however its beneficial effects justify its application in commercial crops, and may even reduce the use of pesticides for the phytosanitary control of crops. Thus, the objective was (a) to evaluate the effect of foliar application of silicon on agronomic characteristics and its post-harvest quality, of frog skin melon in the field and protected environment; (b) to evaluate the effect of Si application on the productive, qualitative and nutritional characteristics of melon lace. Two experiments were developed. Experiment I: It was carried out with the melon skin frog variety, at the Federal University of Goiás from August to October 2018. The design was in randomized blocks, in a 5x2 factorial scheme, with five Si concentrations: 0.0 (control without Si), 0.3; 0.6; 0.9, 1.2 g L-¹ of Si, two production environments (protected and open field) with 4 repetitions. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, relative chlorophyll index and determination of gas exchange rates in the plant, and titratable acidity (AT), soluble solids (SS), pH, SS / AT ratio in fruits were evaluated . Experiment II: It was conducted with the variety of lacy melon, in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Piauí, from May to August 2019. The design was in randomized blocks, each plot was represented by a plastic pots with 15 dm3 of soil. The treatments consisted of five Si concentrations: 0.0 (control without Si), 0.3; 0.6; 0.9, 1.2 g L-¹ of Si with 4 repetitions. The following were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, chlorophyll index, dry mass of the aerial part, fresh weight of the fruit, circumference and length of the fruit, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (AT), ratio (SS / AT), productivity and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Si in the aerial part of the leaves and pulp of the lacy melon. The protected environment provided better growth for the frog skin melon. The application of silicon via leaf did not directly interfere in the growth of the frog skin melon, but indirectly provided better development, showing a significant effect on physiological variables such as transpiration and photosynthesis. Application of foliar silicon provided greater accumulation of potassium and calcium in the fruit pulp, greater titratable acidity, soluble solids and ratio (SS / AT) in the lacy melon. The concentration of silicon, which contributed most to the physiological variables and qualities of the fruit, ranged from 0.45 to 0.8 g L-1.
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    Biomassa da vegetação arbórea, rasteira e necromassa em formações florestais e savânica em Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-11-25) Guimarães, Luanna Elis; Roitman, Iris;; Venturoli, Fábio;; Freitas, Joberto Veloso; Miranda, Sabrina do Couto de; Venturoli, Fábio; Shimbo, Julia Zanin; Roitman, Iris
    The Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil. It plays an important role in carbon balance and has already lost half of its original vegetation. However, uncertainties about its vegetation-biomass stocks are high. The present study aims to contribute to reduce such uncertainties regarding the distribution of tree biomass and different vegetation compartments in the biome. The objectives were to a) perform systematic review on the aboveground biomass estimates in the Cerrado and in savanna-vegetation strips outside the biome; b) estimate tree aboveground biomass, by the indirect method, in four phytophysiognomies in Niquelândia, Goiás: wooded savanna (Sa), forested savanna (Sd), semideciduous seasonal forest (Fa) and montane deciduous forest (Cm); c) estimate the dry biomass, by the direct method, and develop biomass expansion factors for the following compartments: undergrowth, natural regeneration, herbaceous, woody necromass, and litter. It was expected that the distribution of biomass between compartments would be different in Sa compared to other formations, with a higher proportion of undergrowth and herbaceous compartiments. The study was carried out at the Legados Verdes do Cerrado Reserve in Niquelândia, Goiás. Signs of disturbance were observed in Sa, Sd and Fa. Tree sampling consisted of 20 plots of 100 m² in each phytophysiognomy and included trees with a base diameter (taken at 0.30 cm from the ground) ≥ 5 cm for Sa and diameter at breast height > 5 cm for the other formations. Tree biomass was estimated with pre-selected allometric equations applied to height and diameter data. In each plot, biomass samples were collected from the following compartments in five sub-plots of 1 m2: natural regeneration, undergrowth, woody necromass and litter. For herbaceous samples were collected in a subplot with dimensions 0.4 x 0.6 m. Fresh biomass recorded in the field and a representative sample was taken to determine its dry mass in the laboratory. The difference in biomass distribution between phytophysiognomies was tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (p <0.05). In the review, 65 publications were found, in 415 locations, most of them in Tocantins and Minas Gerais, for the Sa phytophysiognomy and covered the tree component. The largest study gaps are concentrated in the north, northeast and southwest of the biome and in Sd formations and seasonal deciduous forests. Total aboveground biomass density (Mg ha-1) followed the decreasing order of 118.84 (Cm), 81.52 (Fa), 40.48 (Sd), and 19.09 (Sa). Although in Sa the amount and proportion of biomass in the sub-shrub compartment (herbaceous and undergrowth) was numerically greater than in forest formations, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in biomass distributions between phytophysiognomies. In general, the expansion factors produced in this study are lower than the ones found in the literature. We recommend the use of the biomass expansion factors produced in this study for vegetations with similar physiographic and environmental conditions, tree structure and disturbance regime.
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    Crescimento de porta-enxertos e interação entre porta-enxertos e cultivares copas de videira (Vitis spp.) na região de Goiânia-GO
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-05-07) Campos, Luiz Fernandes Cardoso; Seleguini, Alexsander;; Seleguini, Alexsander; Campos, André José de; Corrêa, Gilmarcos de Carvalho; Aguiar, Renata Alves; Teramoto, Adriana
    In order to evaluate the growth of three cultivars of rootstocks, as well as for the cultivation of rootstocks and canopy, better adapted to the conditions of soil and climate of the Cerrado, are important for the growth of viticulture in Goiás state. Such as the influence of rootstocks on production, physical-chemical characteristics and maturation evolution in four table grape cultivars grown in Goiânia, GO. In the first experiment, to evaluate the growth of rootstocks, the experiment was performed in a randomized complete block design (3x7), with five replications, each replicate formed by one plant. The first factor consisted of three rootstocks: IAC-313 'Tropical', IAC-572 'Jales' and IAC-766 'Campinas'. The plants were evaluated from 45 days after drastic pruning, totaling seven evaluations (45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135 days after pruning), being the second factor. The diameter of the main branch was evaluated at grafting height (80 cm), and main branch length, in addition to the absolute growth rate. In the second experiment, a randomized complete block design was used, with five replications. The studied combinations were composed by the rootstocks IAC 766 'Campinas' x IAC 572 'Jales' under the cultivars BRS Vitória, BRS Núbia, BRS Isis and Niagara Rosada. Each cultivar was evaluated in isolation for the two rootstocks. The rootstock cultivar IAC-572 'Jales' shows greater vigor for branch growth. In length it was 69% and 47.3% higher, in diameter it was 49.8% and 18.8% higher than the IAC-313 'Tropical' and 'IAC-766' Campinas rootstocks, respectively. The rootstock cultivar IAC-766 'Campinas' although has low vigor in branch growth, presents a satisfactory development. The cultivar BRS Vitória presented higher productivity on the rootstock IAC 766 and greater development of the curls and berries on the IAC 572. This cultivar presented a cycle of 119 days and a thermal requirement of 1419 Degrees of Pruning until harvest. The BRS Nubia cultivar presented higher productivity on the IAC 572 rootstock. The thermal requirement for BRS Nubia to complete its cycle was 1725 Degrees-Day, with a productive cycle, from pruning to harvesting of 140 days. The cultivar BRS Isis on the rootstock IAC 572 presented higher values of yield, yield and number of bunches per plant. On the IAC 766 rootstock, BRIS Isis presented a thermal need of 1958 Degrees, with a cycle of 154 days. For IAC 572, it took 2079 Degrees-Day, 161 days after pruning. The evaluated rootstocks did not influence the productive and physical-chemical characteristics of Niagara rosé. The productive cycle of the pruning until the harvest was of 133 days and thermal necessity of 1622 Degrees-Day, for both rootstocks. The cultivars BRS Vitória, BRS Núbia, BRS Isis and Niágara rosada are recommended for cultivation in the region of Goiânia-GO.
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    Eficiência de biofertilizante oriundo da metanogênese na cana energia
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-02-21) Barros, Leonardo Rodrigues; Flores, Rilner Alves;; Leandro, Wilson Mozena;; Leandro, Wilson Mozena; Brasil, Eliana Paula Fernandes; Correchel, Vladia; Ribon, Adriana Aparecida; Zang, Joachim Werner
    Biofertilizer is a co-product obtained through the anaerobic fermentation of organic residues. It is presented, in general, in liquid form, having a variable composition of nutrients, mainly nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. The study of agronomic variables is essential in crops that received the biofertilizer for the proper management of energy cane. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effect of application and residual doses of biofertilizer from methanogenesis in energy cane during three years of cultivation. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at UFG. The soils used were: LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Ácrico (LVw) (490 g kg-1 of clay) and LATOSSOLO VERMELHO AMARELO Distrófico (LVAd) (160 g kg-1 of clay). The design was in randomized blocks, factorial scheme (2x6), with 2 soils of different textures and 5 doses of biofertilizer (0; 150; 300; 600 and 1200 m3 ha-) and an NPK treatment. The biofertilizer came from the methanogenesis of energy cane. Biometric analyzes (height, diameter and number of tillers) were carried out for cane plant monthly adding up to a total of ten evaluations, for cane ratoon I and II there were 5 evaluations. The productivity and fertility evaluation were carried out at the end of each cycle, whereas the leaf evaluations in the cane plant and ratoon II were in the period of 8 months of development of the culture. The physiological evaluations in the plant cane were carried out at 300 DAP. The results obtained were submitted to analysis of variance by the F test, and polynomial regression. For the tiller variable in the plant energy cane in the LVAd and LVw, it was noted that the higher the dose applied, the plant had a higher number of tillers. In the total green biomass in the cane plant in the LVAd and LVw the maximum efficiency doses were 1083.69 and 811.28 m3 ha-1 . The leaf potassium contents in the cane plant in the LVw were higher at doses of 600 and 1200 m3 ha-1 , with the following averages 8.27 and 9.19 g kg-1 . A linear increase in total dry biomass was observed in the first ratoon in the LVAd. In the second ratoon evaluation of soil fertility, a significant effect of treatment was observed only for organic matter in the soil. In general, the application of increasing doses of biofertilizer improves the productivity of cane energy plant and ratoon. The doses of biofertilizer in plant cane are significantly responsive to physiological variables: photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. The residual effect of the biofertilizer on the second cane energy ratoon does not affect the development of the crop in height and diameter and stalk production, however it increases the number of tillers. The biofertilizer application increases the potassium content in the plant, and reflects in the stalks production of the energy cane plant.