Mestrado em Ciências Ambientais (PRPG)

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    Potencial do sensoriamento remoto aéreo e orbital na análise do manejo integrado do fogo: um estudo de caso no Parque Nacional Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-01-24) Costa, João Vitor Silva; Nunes, Gustavo Manzon;; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo;; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Faria, Karla Maria Silva de; Araújo, Fernando Moreira de; Nunes, Gustavo Manzon
    Fire is an element of great protagonism in the Cerrado. It occurs naturally since the beginning of the biome, playing an important role in the maintenance of this rich ecosystem. With the intensification of the anthropic occupation process, which started in the mid-1950s, the recurrence of forest fires grew excessively, largely due to the use of fire as a conversion tool. In the period from 1985 to 2020, approximately one third of the Cerrado territory experienced some fire event, with areas with very high recurrence. Years with more than 10 million hectares burned have been recorded. In recent years, environmental managers have started to adopt the prescribed burning practice, not only for building firebreaks, but also as a way to control the amount of vegetation biomass, which is the fuel for forest fires. This and other practices make up the Integrated Fire Management. In this context, this project aims to understand the potential of aerial and orbital remote sensing in the analysis of Integrated Fire Management, using time series of satellite images, and data obtained in loco by the Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS). The results achieved showed better potential in the use of Drones due to the level of detail of the data, capable of providing information at the understory level. This detail becomes more important when fire management is carried out at the beginning of the dry season, and biomass control is lower. It is worth mentioning that, even less effective in analyzing early burning, the satellite images, Sentinel-2, had satisfactory results for analyzing burning in the months of June and July, registering a correlation between data of R² = 0.71.
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    Análise geoecológica como subsídio ao planejamento ambiental da bacia hidrográficado rio Caldas-GO
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-03-05) Sousa, Ana Caroline Rodrigues Cassiano de; Faria, Karla Maria Silva de;; Faria, Karla Maria Silva de; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Silva, Edson Vicente da
    The landscapes of hydrographic basins in Cerrado of Goiás are the target of many transformations, often due to agriculture and pasture exploitation and due to the lack of the use planning of natural resources, which can cause environmental impacts as vegetation fragmentation and erosions, which motivate integrated and interdisciplinary studies, as that utilized in the theoretical and methodological approach of Landscape Geoecology. The Hydrographic Basin of Caldas River (BHRC) presents multiple uses and its main river is indicated as the future watercourse for the public supply of the Metropolitan Region of Goiânia. Therefore, this work aims to propose priority areas for environmental conservation of BHRC, to reduce the impacts of fragmentation and soil losses. The methodological procedures involved the surveying of the socio-environmental aspects; the cartography of Geoecological Unities (UGs) by superposition of hypsometry, slope, precipitation, geology, and pedology; the analysis of land occupation dynamics through MapBiomas 4.0 for the years of 1988, 2000 e 2018; the analysis of landscape metrics (CA, PLAND, NP, TCA, TCAI, TE e ENN-MN), validated by Principal Component Analysis; the mapping of erosion vulnerability, with weights and arithmetical standard between the themes; and the adoption of criteria to the proposition of priority areas: remanent areas since 1988, >100ha nearby APPs of water bodies, in UGs more significant and with patches more vulnerable to erosions. The BHRC was compartmentalized into six Relief Geoecological Unities (UGR), subdivided into 34 UGs, and pasture is the predominant class of use in the whole basin. In almost all the UGRs, parts of native vegetation were converted to agriculture and pasture, mainly in soft relief, the grassland area the most fragmented in size and isolation, followed by savannas and forestall, and central areas represents about 21%, 24%, and 45%, respectively; forest isolation and area reduction are considerable, in comparison to other regions of Cerrado. The medium erosion vulnerabilities are predominant since 2000 and the medium and high presents an increase mainly related to anthropogenic uses, which emphasizes the need for conservation to avoid and mitigate risks. Of the remanent fragments since 1988, 19 matched the adopted criteria and were suggested as priority areas to environmental conservation; is expected that this area would be used as aids in the conservation planning of biodiversity, hydric and edaphic protection in BHRC.
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    Avaliação ambiental das bacias de captação de água no estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-12-27) Dantas, Tiago Miranda; Ribeiro, Hugo José;; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino;; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Arruda, Poliana Nascimento
    Considering the assumption of limited natural resources, it is clear that preservation initiatives are essential for maintaining a balanced socio-environmental system. The change in land use over the past decades in the Cerrado biome shows an occupation focused on activities predominantly of agriculture and cattle ranching, with public and fiscal incentives, which guaranteed access to producers and large companies to new technologies and methods to make the biome, a world reference in the production of commodities. The expansion of the agricultural frontiers from the second half of the 20th century on, made the Goiás state a reference in agribusiness, which leveraged the regional economy. However, these occupation processes have directly affected many environmentally fragile areas, which can directly impact the natural resource base for all production processes, water. The Goiás state has 192 hydrographic basins for public supply in which their collection points are managed by SANEAGO, the sanitation company, which in recent years has been reporting recurrences of emergency situations in the water supply of municipalities in periods of drought, which directly affects the populations of the municipalities supplied. Thus, this study aimed to identify the change in land use and occupation in the water catchment areas of the state, correlating data on precipitation and factors that identify areas of environmental fragility. The results obtained showed that in the water supply watersheds of the Goiás municipalities there has been no change in rainfall intensities. However, the catchments located in the central-southern portion of the state of Goiás have their native vegetation cover impacted due to the occupation processes, which occurred without planning, enabling the increase of erosive processes, affecting the production of sediments, besides the water recharge. It is important that the Goiás state develops specific policies aimed at the sustainable use of water catchment areas, seeking the preservation of native vegetation in environmentally fragile areas of these watersheds, thus ensuring the water security of the municipalities.
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    Seleção de bactérias da rizosfera de lactuca sativa capazes de bioconverter glicerol em 1,3-propanodiol e 2,3-butanodiol
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2016-05-23) Soares, Renan de Souza; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves;; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; Silva, Daniela de Melo e; Leal, Geraldo Sadoyama
    The coproducts production is one of the main setbacks in the biodiesel’s productive chain. One of these coproducts, the most representative is the glycerol. In this aspect, this study aim to contextualize the use and production of fossil fuels and biofuels, mostly biodiesel, and to investigate the biotechnological potencial of lettuce’s (Lactuca sativa) rhizobacteria on glycerol bioconversion into value-added products. For such purpose, it was conducted a literature search about the use of fossil fuels and the biofuels market development, besides the biotechnological potential of the use of glycerol in fermentative processes. From rhizosphere soil samples, it was bioprospected micro-organisms with the ability to utilize glycerol as the sole carbon source and in bioconvert 2,3-butanediol and 1,3-propanediol. In order to preserve the maintenance and development of urban activities a change in the energy matrix is necessary since fossil fuels are a finite resource and shown to be unsustainable or cause impacts in environment and human health. Through the implementation of policies that aimed to invest in research and production of biodiesel Brazil stands out as a major producer of the compound. In the experimental segment, among the sampled and identified microorganisms, the family Enterobacteriaceae was highlighted. All isolated presented biochemical / physiological profile heterogeneous and belonging to genera notedly used in the glycerol bioconversion. Three samples were identified as simultaneous producers of compounds of interest, simultaneously AG3 was the best producer of 2,3-BD and 1,3-PD, 0522 g.L-1 and 0.735 g.L-1, respectively. AG6 stood out in the production of 1,3-PD, 0842 g.L-1. Therefore, the sustainability provided by biofuels, highlighting biodiesel, brings a promising perspective to future and the use of co-products generated by the biodiesel production chain can contribute to the appreciation of biodiesel. Lactuca sativa’s rhizobacteria have the biotechnological potential for bioconversion of glycerol, promising discovery for the development of biodiesel and biorefinery sector.
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    Adoção de tecnologia na pecuária leiteira e conservação ambiental: estudo de caso em propriedades rurais de Silvânia, Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-12-23) Fernandes, Hayla da Silva; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia;; Miziara, Fausto;; Couto, Victor Rezende Moreira; Silva, Daniela de Melo e; Miziara, Fausto
    The necessity to produce food should incorporate environmental protection, knowing that it´s the main responsible for occupation of land and native areas also causes important impacts at the landscape. Produce food to supply a world growing population brings the challenge of increase productivity of properties decreasing the impact per unit of feed produced. Cattle raising is the main responsible for anthropization in Brazilian biomes, and especially dairy activity are very important and present in most of Brazilian proprieties, characterized by a big range of diversity producer profiles, majority by pasture systems and big heterogeneity in the technology employment. The answers to challenges presented, in general way, imply in a standard of technology adoption who can articulate a better productivity and less environmental impact. Thus, this research looked for measure the relationship between the technology standard and environmental impacts in dairy properties at Silvânia, Goiás. Were worked the technology employee on that and conservation rates of vegetation local provided by Long Term Research Program (PELD) to generate the present work. In this research was verified that properties who utilized more technology impacted less the environment, measured by conservation indicators, besides be more productive, diluting the impact per milk litter produced. Therefor there is a strong and positive relationship between adoption of technology and less environmental impact. It is worth mentioning that properties who use artificial insemination also presents more productivity (milk production in relation with total number of animal at the farm) in comparison with farms non users. A bigger efficiency at utilization of productive resources in general way also are associated with less environmental impact.