Doutorado em Ecologia e Evolução (ICB)

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    Modelos mecanicistas para entender dinâmicas populacionais e adaptação termal como fatores emergentes
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-11-30) Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Klein de; Marco Júnior, Paulo De;; Marco Júnior, Paulo De; Silva, Daniel de Brito Cândido da; Prado, Paulo Inácio de Knegt López de; Paglia, Adriano Pereira; Andrade, André Felipe Alves de
    At first, I review the effects of temperature on organisms and higher levels of biological organization in the first chapter. After that, in the second chapter, my goal was to develop an IBM that predicts realistic population dynamics in different temperature regimes, and that can be general enough to account for the responses of a variety of species. I used theoretical knowledge of thermal ecology, coupled with some principles of dynamic energy budget theory to reach realistic population outcomes for generated random species. After those models were complete, in the third chapter, I incorporated variability and heritability in the organisms’ thermal traits, so that it was be possible to glimpse on the possibilities for fast adaptation to abrupt changes in temperature. A mechanistic approach to those questions can be important for theoretical developments, and may open possibilities to understanding of other questions related to models’ assumptions and predictions.
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    Extinção, descrição de espécies e estratégias de conservação da biodiversidade
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-08-31) Moreira, Mateus Atadeu; Ribeiro, Matheus de Souza Lima;; Ribeiro, Matheus de Souza Lima; Terribile, Levi Carina; Nomura, Fausto; Faleiro, Frederico Augusto Martins Valtuille; Bernardo, Paulo Vitor dos Santos
    In the first chapter of this thesis, we evaluated the main trends and patterns of spatio-temporal research associated with analytical articles (articles in which researchers performed spatial prioritization analyzes using real data) on Systematic Conservation Planning. In the second chapter of this thesis we briefly review what we know about some patterns, possible causes and consequences of mammalian extinction over the last 126,000 years. We also briefly discuss the knowledge gaps and methodological challenges we face in studying such extinctions. In the third chapter of this thesis, we investigate the balance between described, extinct and categorized as endangered species within Tetrapoda. Our data show 519 extinct tetrapods in 519 years and 6673 species receiving threatened status in 56 years (1965-2021) (119.16 spp/year). When we count the number of species that went extinct before, in the same year, or a few years after their description (up to 20 years later) we have 318 species. The distribution of years of description of these 318 species is concentrated in recent years (from the 1970s to the 2000s). Our results corroborate what other researchers have found: recently described species (and therefore very likely undescribed species as well) are at greater risk than other species. Many species are likely to become extinct without ever having been described. Investing in intensive research targeting areas with high diversity of undescribed species in tropical areas can be of great help to protect species with small populations and small distribution sizes that face severe threats.
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    Macroecologia evolutiva de morcegos do Novo Mundo: uma abordagem filogenética
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-08-28) Fortunato, Danilo de Siqueira; Diniz Filho, José Alexandre Felizola;; Camacho, Crisóforo Fabricio Villalobos;; Camacho, Crisóforo Fabricio Villalobos; Lima, André Felipe Barreto; Martínez, Pablo Ariel; Maestri, Renan; Faleiro, Frederico Augusto Martins Valtuille
    Macroecology studies ecological patterns on large spatial scales, at these scales the main source of information is the geographical distribution of species. From the distribution of species emerge spatial patterns of richness, geographic range size, and endemism. Recently, evolutionary macroecology has been proposing a new approach to macroecological patterns of biodiversity when using metrics that combine the effect of time accumulation with the basic element of macroecology, the area of distribution of the species. In this thesis, we explore how another perspective of the biodiversity patterns can be obtained using phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism and how the evolutionary response of distribution sizes changes between parts of the phylogeny. First, we tested how beta diversity can evince ecological and evolutionary processes that act with different intensity along spatial scales and are determinants of the geographical pattern of biodiversity. We find that when we consider only small-scale phylogenetic diversity, beta diversity is important for increasing diversity in the tropics. On larger scales, and for species richness on all scales, the diversity gradient is determined by an effect of species removal in areas with a more seasonal temperature towards the subtropical region. We tested the effect of climate stability in the past as a determinant of the phylogenetic endemism pattern, that captures the accumulation of evolutionary time in a restricted distribution area, in more stable regions throughout the glacial cycles. We find that more stable areas presented deeper phylogenetic endemism, and also that areas of paleo-endemism are concentrated in more stable areas than areas of mixed endemism. However, areas of neo-endemism are located in stable areas surounded by unstable regions and areas of super endemism are located in climatically stable areas that present conditions of isolation by distances, as in the Caribbean islands. Lastly, we tested how the historical origin of groups can affect the range size evolution in relation to the climatic attribute of the species niches. We found that species of groups of temperate origin tend to have larger range sizes in colder and seasonal areas, following a Rapoport effect as a function of climate variability. Conversely, species of groups of tropical origin tend to broaden their range sizes in less seasonal areas, presenting a pattern contrary to the Rapoport effect, indicating a historical effect, determined by a trend of phylogenetic conservatism of ancestral climate preferences. Thus, in this thesis, we show some alternatives of how to integrate the main geographic patterns of biodiversity through an evolutionary macroecology approach based on phylogenies for a better understanding of macroecological and macroevolutionary processes.
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    Avaliação da importância de vertebrados e invertebrados carniceiros na dinâmica local e global de remoção de carcaças de vertebrados
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-08-16) Rocha, Joedison dos Santos; Carvalheiro, Luisa Mafalda Gigante Rodrigues;; Almeida Neto, Mário;; Almeida Neto, Mário; Nabout, João Carlos; Lopes, Welinton Ribamar; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Carlucci, Marcos Bergmann
    Vertebrate carcasses compose the pool of dead organic matter in the ecosystems, highlighting as a food resource for a plethora of living organisms, from microorganisms to large vertebrates. A decomposition island is established when a vertebrate dies, altering the nutrient inputs and diversity of microorganisms in the soil, as well as the composition of plant communities. Scavenger animals (invertebrates and vertebrates) are responsible for recycling nutrients from carcasses, thus preventing dead animals from accumulating in natural environments. Therefore, scavengers act both in the large-scale distribution of nutrients and in sanitation and ecosystem health. Despite this, there are several gaps regarding how these scavenger groups affect the dynamics of carcass removal and their effects on ecosystem functioning. Even basic information such as which species are involved in the removal process is scarce in the literature. The present thesis aimed to elucidate the local and global importance of vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers for: a) removal efficiency; b) nutrient cycling; and c) disease control in vertebrate carcasses, as well as d) interactions between both groups. First, an experiment using caged and uncaged carcasses (n=16) was conducted in a well-conserved Cerrado area to test the effect of loss of vertebrate actions on removal time and nutrient inputs to the soil. After 10 days, all carcasses were removed by vultures and invertebrates, without difference between treatments, suggesting that invertebrates can compensate for the absence of vertebrates. Also, the experiment showed that potassium and magnesium inputs increase in the soil around carcasses when vertebrates are absent. Besides the typical scavenger species (necrophagous flies and vultures), carcasses were largely visited by opportunistic or facultative species (e.g. wasps, butterflies, and mammals). From two global systematic reviews, we observed that the complementary activity of vertebrates and invertebrates ensures high removal efficiency compared to carcasses removed experimentally in the absence of vertebrates. Furthermore, vertebrate communities that are highly efficient in removing carcasses are typically composed of few species (<10 spp.) and higher proportion of birds. This result highlighted the functionally unique contribution provided by vultures and crows across the world. Finally, based on a model relating scavenger vertebrates to cases of zoonoses, a higher prevalence of anthrax was associated with a high diversity of facultative scavengers (e.g. eagles and mammalian carnivores), but not with the richness of vultures. Thus, the study demonstrated that vertebrate diversity represents an important factor in carcass removal efficiency. However, invertebrates can outperform vertebrate functions in certain contexts, as observed in the Cerrado. The actions of both groups affect the rates of nutrient inputs from carcasses to the soil, while partially affecting the spread of zoonoses around the world.
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    Contribuição relativa de preditores de dispersão simétrica e assimétrica nos modelos de nicho ecológico em ambientes aquáticos
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-07-26) Parreira, Micael Rosa; Nabout, João Carlos;; Ribeiro, Matheus de Souza Lima; Terribile, Levi Carina; Silva, Daniel de Paiva; Oliveira, Guilherme de; Nabout, João Carlos
    Species distribution models are based mainly on environmental (mostly climatic) and species distribution data to predict the potential distribution of species. In this sense, the species dispersal (i.e., movement) is often ignored in their predictions. In freshwater habitats, species dispersal is not restricted only by physical barriers but also by the directional movement of the hydrographic network, which can be considered through spatial predictors. Here, we aim to evaluate the effect of including asymmetrical dispersal predictors in the potential geographic distribution of a freshwater fish in the Tocantins-Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Furthermore, we aim to assess if the predictions using climatic and asymmetrical dispersal vary depending on multiple species occurrence distribution and range, and on the inclusion of hydropower plants as dispersal barriers in the predictions. For this, we built models with seven variable sets representing environmental (climatic) and dispersal models, as well as their interactions. The models’ accuracy metrics were then used to compare the performance of different model sets (e.g., asymmetrical and symmetrical dispersal and environmental predictors), the performance of multiple species models based on their occurrence distribution among sub-basins and range, and the effect of including dispersal barriers into the models. First, we found that the models with higher performance are those built using asymmetrical dispersal predictors, either solo or combined with environmental variables. Second, species more restricted had models with higher performance when modeled using asymmetrical dispersal predictors, especially when distributed in different sub-basins. Third, predictions including the hydropower plants as dispersal barriers showed a higher loss of species richness and composition, especially for the areas with the highest number of dams. Therefore, the inclusion of asymmetrical dispersal variables, taking into account dispersal limitations of species, decreased the overprediction to climatically suitable but disconnected areas through rivers. Furthermore, those models using asymmetrical dispersal better represented restricted species distributed in both sub-basins of the basin and also the effect of dispersal barriers in the fish species richness and composition along the basin. Therefore, future SDM studies, especially those using species groups with asymmetrical dispersal, should consider the inclusion of asymmetrical dispersal predictors to increase the model’s accuracy and ecological reality of predictions.