Mestrado em Engenharia Ambiental e Sanitária (EEC)

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    Estimativa do potencial eólico a partir de experimento em túnel de vento utilizando placa plana de camada limite
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-12-21) Maia, Cássia Silva de Azevedo; Fagundes Neto, Marlipe Garcia;; Mariano, Felipe Pamplona;; Mariano, Felipe Pamplona; Vasco, Joel Roberto Guimarães; Moreira, Leonardo de Queiroz
    Concern about environmental imbalances is frequent throughout the world and investment in clean and renewable energy is increasing progressively. The assessment of wind resources becomes increasingly challenging, as it takes into account environmental parameters, such as climate fluctuations, in addition to financial expenses in feasibility studies for the construction of wind farms. For these studies, the estimation of wind potential uses numerical and experimental models as a complement to field measurements. This work refers to the experimental study in a wind tunnel made, available by FURNAS of the atmospheric boundary layer variation from an apparatus known as a flat boundary layer plate, which contains installed pressure probes and a flap mechanism installed on the trailing edge. Different combinations of angles (-10°, +10°, 0°, -20°, +20°) and velocities (6, 13, 20, 26 and 33 m.s-1 ) were made. The results obtained show that, when modifying the flap positioning angle, the boundary layer generated on the plate undergoes significant changes. When analyzing the angle separately for each speed, the boundary layer generated is significantly different for all speeds studied. The wind potential was better at high speeds and had a slight increase at negative flap angles.
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    Avaliação de soluções de manejo de águas pluviais baseadas na natureza em loteamento urbano
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-10-25) Chagas, Isabela Moura; Basso, Raviel Eurico;; Basso, Raviel Eurico; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Swarowsky, Alexandre
    Worldwide urban growth is continuous, accompanied by an increase in impermeable areas. This results in a reduction of evapotranspiration and water infiltration capacity into the soil, leading to increased surface runoff and negatively impacting the environment and public health. Currently, nature-based stormwater management solutions seek to mitigate these negative impacts of urbanization. This study aimed to determine, through a hydrological model, the performance of these solutions in an urban development with a high percentage of impermeable area. Considering the literature review, municipal regulations, and design criteria, green roofs and cisterns were selected as nature-based solutions to be modeled using the SWMM software. The research was conducted in five stages, including literature review and selection of nature-based solutions, selection of the study area, acquisition of secondary data, evaluation of the hydrological performance of the proposed scenarios, and assessment of the impact on the conventional drainage system. The performance evaluation included selecting SWMM variables, designing the drainage network, analyzing input data, scenario development (isolated and combined techniques), SWMM application, and analysis and comparison of results. Ten simulations were carried out with different scenarios, including the implementation of isolated and combined techniques and variations in the degree of soil impermeability. The research investigated the behavior of green roofs and found that their implementation alone reduced surface runoff by 15.5% and peak runoff by 19.7%. The isolated cistern also contributed, but to a lesser extent, with a reduction of 8.5% in surface runoff and 4.3% in peak runoff. However, the combination of the two solutions showed a more effective synergy, achieving a reduction of 20.2% in surface runoff and 22.2% in peak runoff. The results also confirmed that the degree of impermeability of the soil is inversely related to its capacity to infiltrate rainwater.
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    Remoção de fluoreto em carvão produzido com borra de café ativada quimicamente com lixívia de cinzas de eucalipto
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-04-25) Bergamini, Mário Henrique Lobo; Oliveira, Sérgio Botelho de;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Costa, Adilson Ben da; Albuquerque, Antonio João Carvalho de
    The objective of this research was to produce a biochar from exhausted coffee grounds and chemically activate it with natural lye from eucalyptus ash to subsequently evaluate the fluoride adsorption process in an aqueous medium. The following were determined: moisture content, ash content and thermal analysis of coffee grounds; solubility, alkalinity and calcium content of eucalyptus ashes. Activated biochar was subjected to elemental composition (CHNS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), N2 adsorption and desorption, pH and potential of zero charge (PZC) for characterization. To select the best production condition for activated biochar, a 3² factorial design was performed. Kinetic adsorption studies were fitted to pseudofirst order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and Weber and Moris models. The nature of the process was studied by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The result of the factorial design indicated as the best scenario the impregnation rate of 5% and the temperature of 650 °C in the carbonization. SEM showed macroporosity. XRD confirmed the amorphous characteristic of cellulosic materials. The following functional groups were identified in coffee grounds and activated biochar: alcohol or phenol, hydroxyl, methyl, methylene, carbonyl, carboxylic acid, ester, chlorogenic acid, ketone, carbonyl, amino, amide and pyranose ring. The pH of the activated biochar was equal to 8.89 and the PZC was 7.17. Preliminary adsorption tests showed that the best dosage of activated biochar was equal to 3.2 g/L and the concentration of adsorbate caused a decrease in resistance to mass transfer due to the fact that there were more active sites of activated biochar in the liquid medium. However, the removal efficiency decreased with increasing adsorbate concentration. It was observed that coffee grounds, when used as an adsorbent, promoted a small reduction in the adsorbate concentration, with an average removal efficiency of 1.35%. The adsorption kinetics revealed that equilibrium is reached around 800 min and that the pseudo-second order model fitted better. The Freundlich model fitted the experimental data with the best quality. Freundlich's constant n allowed inferring that the adsorption is favorable and the isotherm appears to be L-type, with an initial downward curvature, which suggests less availability of active sites when increasing the adsorbent concentration.
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    Análise da presença de surfactante na remoção de microplásticos por eletrocoagulação
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2023-06-05) Oliveira, Luísa Rodrigues de; Cuba Teran, Francisco Javier;; Cuba Teran, Francisco Javier; Carissimi, Elvis; Ruggeri Júnior, Humberto Carlos
    Various types of pollutants are found in effluents, which can combine to form even more toxic components or impair the treatments used in effluent purification. Among the emerging contaminants, microplastics and surfactants can be mentioned, which coexist in different types of wastewater. The present work evaluated the effects caused by the anionic surfactant LAS and nonionic Tween 20 in the removal of pristine and aged PVC microplastic, added in synthetic water, by the method of electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes. For the experiments, a bench reactor was developed, which operated in batches and with synthetic water, in order to avoid interference from other substances. For the analyses, counting was used with the aid of a magnifying glass, gravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there was a reduction in the removal of plastic microparticles when surfactant was added, the only one that showed improvement was with the new microplastic in the presence of LAS at a concentration of 10 ppm. The worst removal percentages were for the concentration of 100 ppm, and when adding Tween 20 there was a decrease of 23% and 45% for pristine and aged microplastic, respectively, while for LAS the decrease was 6% and 24 %, for intact and deteriorated microplastic, respectively. Therefore, it is clear that the drop in removal was greater for degraded microplastics, both for the tests with Tween 20 and for the LAS. Comparing the decrease in removal between the two types of surfactant, it is observed that the non-ionic one reduces microplastic removal to a greater extent.
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    Associação entre variáveis ambientais relacionadas a criadouros de Aedes aegypti e doenças arbovirais em comunidades rurais e tradicionais de Goiás, Brasil
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2022-12-08) Silva, Adivânia Cardoso da; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Ventura, Katia Sakihama; Basso, Raviel Eurico
    Arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) represent a threat to public health and infect people all over the world, mainly in the Americas, due to environmental conditions favorable to the proliferation of the vector. The main objective of this dissertation was to associate environmental variables with Aedes aegypti breeding sites and arboviral diseases. For this, the specific objectives were to identify and assess the relevance of which environmental variables aggravate the existence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites and/or the occurrence of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the rural area (article 1). To analyze the relationship of 81,3% of the variablesidentified in the literature review to seroprevalence for arboviral diseases in rural and traditional communities in Goiás (article 2). Identify potential sites favorable to the reproduction of culicid vectors in the peridomicile in rural communities with families affected by dengue, Zika and/or chikungunya, and analyze the relationship between the number of breeding sites found and the seroprevalence for the three arboviruses (article 3). The methodology consisted of carrying out a systematic literature review (SLR) with a search for publications using Strings in the Scopus database and analyzing the studies qualitatively and quantitatively (article 1). Insert seroprevalence data for dengue, Zika and chikungunya from 39 rural communities distributed among settlements, quilombolas and riverside communities in the state of Goiás, within the scope of the SanRural Project, in linear regression models to investigate the relationship with local environmental variables (article 2). Gather information from peridomiciles regarding the presence of Aedes aegypti vector breeding sites in 137 households in 13 rural communities in Goiás with families affected by dengue, Zika and/or chikungunya (article 3). The results obtained were, the RSL resulted in 1007 productions, where 50 were relevant to the theme, which presented 16 different variables involving three categories, sanitation, climatology and socio-environmental factors, called “integrative”, with 52% of the articles associating, at least, two categories, where sanitation together with indicators from the integrative category was the combination used in 40% of the studies. Publications began in 1995, with Brazil at the center of discussions. Dengue was mainly associated in rural areas with socioeconomic and housing conditions, where sanitation was considered in 66% of the articles a crucial indicator that can explain the proliferation of vectors in a given region (article 1). 17,4% (12/70) of the indicators for the three categories of variables showed significant relationships with seroprevalence for dengue, Zika and/or chikungunya in rural communities in Goiás, notably: altitude and dengue (p-value <0,001); temperature and Zika; aspects of land use and chikungunya, with pvalue <0,05. The identified associations suggest that populations in rural areas in Brazil can be infected by arboviruses as much as inhabitants of urban areas, mainly due to the lack of universalization of sanitation services (article 2). More than 90% of households in 13 rural communities in Goiás had potential breeding sites for Aedes aegypti, which highlights the real possibility that culicid vectors have also reached rural areas in the state. The community that had the highest number of breeding sites with suspected Aedes aegypti vectors was also the one that resulted in the highest number of individuals affected by arboviruses (article 3). Thus, the present study is a municipal management tool for decision-making regarding disease prevention, as well as an alert to municipal health authorities, as implementing public policies is a measure that indirectly provides vector control and health promotion.
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    Análise de estimativas de precipitação por satélite e de diferentes métodos de preenchimento de falhas para a região do Sudeste Goiano
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-12-19) Duarte, Luíza Virgínia; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins;; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Souza, Saulo Bruno Silveira e; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino
    Precise estimation and monitoring of rainfall occurrence patterns are essential for the modeling of hydrological systems and the planning and management of water resources in various sectors of society. Failures in data series records may compromise studies in practical applications. Advances in precipitation physics are imperative to improve numerical models and rely heavily on testing new hypotheses for actual precipitation measurements, and improved predictions are deeply intertwined with the ability to measure precipitation. In this sense, the quality of satellite precipitation products has been significantly improved in the last decades, especially with the emergence of the missions: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) that comes as a successor to the TRMM mission in order to provide better global estimates of high quality and precipitation resolution. The objective of this study was to compare precipitation estimates generated by the GPM satellite with data observed on land in order to test the effectiveness of these rainfall estimates in relation to temporal and spatial patterns and to compare these data with traditional methods of filling data for the generation of complete series of data. The methods of comparison were applied for mean rainfall in the Meia Ponte and Rio dos Bois basins of the State of Goiás for daily, monthly and annual scales, and the failure completion methods were analyzed for the same region in daily and monthly data. The results were satisfactory for the monthly and annual analyzes in the region of the two basins and the daily precipitation data, due to their greater variability, they require more studies to refine the techniques in order to obtain better results.
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    Construção e aplicação de índice de salubridade ambiental em aglomerados rurais
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-19) Braga, Débora de Lima; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Bezerra, Nolan Ribeiro; Cruvine, Karla Alcione da Silva
    Environmental health is determined through the health status of a population, influenced by the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in which they live. One way to measure and analyze it is through the use of indexes and indicators. In this context, the Environmental Health Index emerged, which has been adapted to the particularities of the studied regions, losing one of the fundamentals of an index, comparability. In view of this scenario, the present study aims to propose a methodology for calculating the Environmental Health Index in rural agglomerates (ISARural) and apply it in rural communities in the state of Goiás. Based on the premise of the concept of environmental health, defined in this paper, and the specificities of rural areas. In order to achieve it, the methodology was carried out in four stages: bibliographic research to support the proposition of the concept and the elaboration of the forms used in this study; prior analysis for the proposition of an ISA Rural, with the participation of seven specialists; proposition of ISARural by the Delphi method, defined by the consensus of specialists in the previous step, starting with 168 specialists from the 27 Federative Units of Brazil; and the application in 43 rural communities (16 settlements, 21 quilombolas and 6 riverside) in the state of Goiás. ISARural was built in three stages: choosing and / or complementing the indicators suggested in the face-to-face discussion, weighting the indicators and selecting and weighting the sub-indicators. The specialists were divided by area of activity, which made it possible to select, adapt and / or create essential sub-indicators with specificity for each indicator. The proposed ISARural resulted in the composition of eight indicators, four related to basic sanitation, and the others, health, socioeconomic conditions, public services offered and housing conditions. The weight attributed to each indicator varied from 22.82%, for the water supply indicator, to 6.35% for the services indicator, and ISARural can be applied in its entirety or for the evaluation of each indicator individually. The application in rural and traditional communities in Goiás showed that 86.05% live in a situation of low health, highlighting the worst conditions for quilombola communities. In addition to identifying that the sewage component is the one that needs the most attention from the government. Finally, this study fulfilled the role of contributing to the proposition of an index in line with the concept of environmental health, which can be used within the scope of public policies as a condition for the application of priority resources, for planning and scenario general diagnosis of rural agglomerates.
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    Monitoramento e modelagem da quantidade de água subterrânea na bacia do Córrego Botafogo, Goiânia, Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2018-03-29) Romero, Vanessa; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins;; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Soares, Alexandre Kepler; Araújo, José Vicente Granato de
    The development of this research aimed to evaluate the behavior of the groundwater in the catchment area of the Botafogo stream in Goiânia / Goiás, through the monitoring and mathematical modeling of the free aquifer, using data from the level of the sheet, measured in the period of drought and rain, between May / 2016 and June / 2017. Monitoring was performed by measuring the groundwater level with the Water Tape electric meter in monitoring wells distributed throughout the basin. These piezometric level data helped to obtain the observed hydraulic loads and constituted input data for interpolation of the hydraulic load that entered as an initial condition in the modeling of the water table of the study área. Comparing the results of the dry period contemplated in 2016 and 2017 by this study, we noticed a greater fluctuation of groundwater level. The load contour condition defined in the calibration of the hydraulic conductivity of the Botafogo basin was of local flow, making possible the estimation of the recharge and the calculation of the outflow in the basin in permanent regime. In the transient flow regime, it was observed that, with the increase of hydraulic conductivity, the level of the water table rose, in the zone downstream of the Botafogo basin, but remained continuous over time, in terms of the highest value calibrated for the parameter storage (0.48 m³/day). Therefore, the fluctuation of the groundwater level in the catchment area of the Botafogo basin can be reflected both in the recharge caused by the precipitation and in the variation of the hydraulic load (the increase of which tends to degrade the water table).
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    Determinação de áreas impermeáveis por meio de ferramentas de geoprocessamento
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-08-18) Moreira, Pedro Augusto Gonzaga; Mendes, Thiago Augusto;; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino;; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Formiga, Klebber Teodoro Martins; Barberi, Maíra
    The accelerated urbanization process associated with the government’s lack of planning generates environmental, social and economic impacts. Inherent in the urbanization process, impervious surface coverage appears as one of the main factors that generate these impacts, even becoming an indicator not only of the degree of urbanization, but also of environmental quality. goiânia was planned for 50 thousand inhabitants, however, today it has more than 1.2 million inhabitants. Therefore, it is justifiable to determine the percentage of impermeable areas in the urban perimeter of the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil, as well as to determine the quality of drainage in the census sectors, generating a product that supports decision-making by of public managers. For that, we used the object-oriented classification technique implemented in the free InterImage software. The drainage quality map was generated by crossing the impermeable areas, Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) map and access to micro-drainage equipment. The result of the final classification was Kappa index 85%, considered excellent. The regions of the study area with the highest waterproofing rates were: central and south with 73 and 71%, respectively. The other regions had waterproofing rates close to 50%. However, it should be noted that the northern region is 35% urbanized, and according to the Goiânia risk map, this region should be preserved. In relation to the InterImage software, one should point out its limitation in relation to the maximum amount of pixel it can process. The urban drainage quality map generated identified that approximately 70% of the study area is found to be very unfavorable and unfavorable, a fact directly related to the current high degree of waterproofing of the study area
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    Proposição de tecnologias de tratamento de água aplicáveis em comunidades rurais e tradicionais
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-02-26) Oliveira, Patrícia Paulla de; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Bezerra, Nolan Ribeiro; Teixeira, Luiza Carla Girard Mendes
    Statistical data show that a large part of the population, with emphasis on the rural area, does not have basic sanitation, being deprived of access to safe drinking water for consumption and, in general, small communities have particularities that make it impossible to use the conventional water treatment process. In view of this, the present work aimed to propose water treatment technologies, which are adapted to the reality of rural and traditional quilombola communities in the state of Goiás. For this, a systematic review was carried out on the water treatment technologies usually used in small communities; four communities were selected for a case study; data and water were collected from sources and points of consumption, exclusively for ingestion; analysis of water quality and water availability was carried out; and, a situational diagnosis of each community was elaborated. The proposition of the technologies was based on the technical criteria of efficiency and effectiveness, based on the results of the systematic review carried out and sought to meet the requirements of Consolidation Ordinance No. 5 and recommendations of the technological matrices proposed by the National Rural Sanitation Program. From the systematic and bibliographic review, it was found that there are more studies on technologies of individual scope and on a bench scale. At the individual level, the most used technologies were the slow sand filter, ceramic filtration, boiling, Sodis and chlorination, while at the collective level were the filters composed by granular means, coagulation with oil moringa or aluminum sulfate, the adsorption process mainly with activated carbon, in addition to chlorination. In addition, there was a search for simple and natural treatment processes, replacing chemicals, which corroborates with sustainability, and a negative aspect identified was the low number of studies that evaluated the social acceptance of the technology, demonstrating the neglect with social participation in technological choice. On the other hand, results from the case study in the four communities, showed that in Canabrava many households are not yet covered by the Water Supply System. In Baco Pari, there were reports of a lack of water in the distribution network. In none of the communities is the treatment of water provided by collective systems carried out, which is rejected by the community due to organoleptic alteration, and many households do not carry out any intra-household sanitary measure, consequently, all water samples collected showed non-compliance with biological parameters. Therefore, the importance of water treatment and constant monitoring of its quality is highlighted. Finally, the present work fulfilled the objective of proposing technologies appropriate to the reality of small communities based on the criteria of efficiency and effectiveness, prioritizing technologies that are easy to operate and maintain, and yet, low cost. However, other aspects, such as social acceptance, financial availability and local operational labor, must be evaluated.
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    Modelagem do escoamento transcrítico sob regime permanente e transiente em canais
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2021-04-27) Carvalho, Thiago Pires de; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins;; Formiga, Klebber Teodomiro Martins; Vasco, Joel Roberto Guimarães; Soares, Alexandre Soares Kepler
    The understanding of phenomena related to floods propagation along open channels, especially in artificial urban ones, is becoming increasingly important to avoid flooding and inundation as a result of intense precipitations. In this context, there is still great difficulty in computational modeling certain hydraulic phenomena, such as hydraulic jump, which may occur during a flood wave flow along channels under specific conditions that generate changes in flow regimes. Seeking a better understanding of this phenomenon, this work proposes the development of computational tools that simulate, through physique and mathematical equations, the propagation of flows that occur in the transition from supercritical to subcritical regimes, the so-called transcritical flow. Two computational models were developed for free-surface simulation. The first for the gradually varying permanent regime, through the Standard Step Method, as proposed by Akan (2011). The second one for the transient regime, based on solving the Saint-Venant equations in a hybrid way, where the supercritical curve was defined by the Finite Difference Method (explicit resolution) as proposed by Chaudhry (2007), and the subcritical curve was defined by the Preissmann Method (implicit resolution). Comparisons among the conjugate heights of each flow curve provided the flow transition point determination. These models were validated through laboratory tests, performed in an experimental channel, simulating different scenarios of transcritical flow, allowing the free-surface monitoring and measurement by means of a graduated ruler (experiments in gradually varying permanent regime) and ultrasonic sensors (transient regime). In particular, we aim at computational modeling the hydraulic jump phenomenon, an aproach of extreme importance and relevance for interventions in natural and artificial channels in order to promote controlled energy dissipation, regulating and stabilizing the propagation of floods and mitigating impacts downstream.
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    A dinâmica hidrográfica na região sul do estado de Goiás
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-10-23) Castilho, Mayara Paula Silva Franco; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino;; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Teixeira, Denilson; Ribeiro, Hugo José
    Brazil is a world leader concerning water resources, and for its intense agricultural production. In the state of Goiás alone, more than 26 million hectares of land is earmarked for agricultural activities, and water availability is essential for the sustainability of these activities. Because of this, physical changes in hydrography may occur as a result of the increase in agricultural production, since the implementation and maintenance of these activities require interventions such as dams, water abstraction, irrigation, and deforestation. The objective of the research is to map the changes in hydrography in the Water Resources Management Planning Units (UPGRHs) of the affluent Goianos of Baixo Paranaíba and Rio dos Bois in the last three decades and to verify if they are associated with changes in use and coverage from the soil. To identify and map this water dynamics, a computational code was developed in the Java programming language and executed within the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform, where the classification of the presence of water was carried out using the Landsat satellite images in the years 1987, 2007 and 2017. After mapping the hydrography for the aforementioned years, the data in the form of images were exported to a Geographic Information System (GIS) computer program, for area calculations and comparison of changes about hydrography. It was found that between 1987 and 2007 there were few changes in hydrography, already in 2017, it is possible to notice significant changes mainly to the emergence of large reservoirs. As a basis for calculating the hydrographic areas in this 30-year interval in the UPGRHs in the study area, a significant increase was observed from 505.16km² to 630.46km², in water depth, corresponding to an increase of 24.80%. Likewise, changes in land use and coverage were observed. The quality of the hydrography mapping elaborated in this research was evaluated in comparison with the mapping carried out for the same years by the MapBiomas project. By comparing the areas found by the two mappings, hydrographic omissions were identified in the MapBiomas data, ranging from 41% to 63%. This discrepancy does not invalidate the data provided by MapBiomas, since the classification methodology and area of coverage of the mapping is for the entire Brazilian territory, however, this comparison found the good quality of the mappings carried out within the scope of the research. Thus, the results obtained demonstrate that there is a relationship between changes in land use and hydrography and that these changes can be identified from images with a special resolution of tens of meters.
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    Análise da influência do alquilbenzeno sulfonato linear (las) na agregação, sedimentação e coagulação química das nanopartículas de óxido de zinco em matriz aquosa
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-10-30) Guimarães, Dáfnis Barsanulfa Vieira; Teran, Francisco Xavier Cuba;; Teran, Francisco Xavier Cuba; Cuba, Renata Medici Frayne; Santiago, Mariangela Fontes
    With the widespread use of anionic surfactant alkylbezene linear sulfonate (LAS) and nanoparticles of zinc oxide (NP ZnO) it becomes probable the coexistence of both compounds in the aquatic environment, showning the importance of the present work in studying the effect of LAS in nanoparticles ZnO. This study was divided into 3 stages that consisted of analyzing the influence of LAS on aggregation, sedimentation, zero charge point (PCZ) and removal of nanoparticles in the coagulation process. The induced results that LAS influence the aggregation and sedimentation of nano-ZnO, mainly in LAS practices above 100mg / L. Sedimentation data were adjusted (R² without 0.85-0.99 interval) with a kinetic equation of first order with residual. The surfactant did not interfere significantly in the pHPCZ of the nano-ZnO, but both coagulants, ferric chloride and tannin, showed better results when the coagulation process with pH was close to the pHPCZ calculated. The presence of LAS in the suspension significantly influenced the efficiency of the coagulation process, in application of 300mg / L the removal efficiency was below the 5% evaluated at different pH and with two different coagulants. This study can contribute to demonstrate that the presence of LAS can alter the behavior of nano-ZnO and significantly reduce the efficiency of the coagulation process.
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    Caracterização experimental de túneis de vento para a análise de potencial eólico
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-08-27) Cardoso, Flávia de Melo Ribeiro; Mariano, Felipe Pamplona;; Mariano, Felipe Pamplona; Fagundes Neto, Marlipe Garcia; Vasco, Joel Roberto Guimarães
    Wind tunnel is an equipment used to study aerodynamics, whose main function is to provide high quality air flow in its test section. It makes possible to study the effects of air flow around various aerodynamic or non-aerodynamic models (airfoils, blunt bodies, anemometric towers, reduced models of civil structures and others). The qualities to be satisfied when using a wind tunnel are: a low level of turbulent intensity at the entrance of its test section, meaning uniformity in the speed and pressure fields and the height of the boundary layer formed along the length of the test section. The knowledge of both variables for the various ranges of use of the wind tunnel guarantees the appropriate boundary conditions for the experiments and makes it a reliable measuring equipment. For example, a high turbulent intensity can interfere considerably in the transition of the boundary layer, generating undesirable effects. Furnas Centrais Elétricas S.A. acquired two wind tunnels, the purpose of which is the in-depth study of the wind power generation system. To know the characteristics of the tunnels is essential in the exchange of technical and scientific information, in the comparison of experimental results, in the extrapolation of model parameters to the real scale and in the simulation of tests in Computational Fluid Dynamics. Through experimental measures, using Pitot tubes and statistical tools such as experimental planning techniques and analysis of variance (ANOVA), the turbulent intensity of approximately 0.5% was found at wind tunnel (TV1) for speeds above 12.0m/s and for speeds below 12.0m/s, the turbulent intensity increased up to 3.5% for speeds around 5.0m/s. A method of controlling the height of the boundary layer is also presented, in order to be able to study the wind potential of a given terrain.
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    Reaproveitamento de sabugo de milho para potencial remoção de formulação comercial de glifosato em fase aquosa pela técnica de adsorção
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-30) Marcelino, Nayara Valéria Assis; Cuba, Renata Medici Frayne;; Cuba, Renata Medici Frayne; Teran, Francisco Javier Cuba; Ostroski, Indianara Conceição
    Like the chemical industries applied to agriculture and livestock, they develop several chemicals for use in the environment, including chemicals that can be used for endocrine disrupting activities. In this context, the use of the herbicide Glyphosate (GLF), which is among the four most used agrochemicals in Brazil (glyphosate and its salts; 2,4-D; Acephate; mineral oil) is the main used, soybean and sugar cane. The main source of exposure of glyphosate to living organisms is a water intake, since water and wastewater treatment systems are not able to remove or degrade by a complete series of synthetic organic compounds. In this situation, it is necessary to use complementary treatment methods, of which adsorption may be of technical and environmental interest, due to its efficiency and, mainly, in the versatility of raw materials used for the production of material adsorbent. Thus, the objective of this study was the reuse of corn maize through the production of biochar (BC) and activated carbon (CA), for potential removal of glyphosate herbicide (GLF) (commercial use) in aqueous medium using the technique of adsorption. The BC was subjected to only the carbonization step, while the CA was subjected to carbonization followed by chemical activation with H3PO4. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX) and infrared analysis by Fourier transform (FTIR), adsorption and N2 desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and determination of the zero charge potential (pHPCZ). The effect of the initial pH and the adsorbent mass was also evaluated. The kinetic studies of adsorption were adjusted to the models of pseudo-first and pseudo-second order. The nature of the adsorption process was studied using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters calculated for the temperatures of 23, 43 and 63 ° C. The acid treatment caused an increase in the surface area (7.48 m² / g BC to 34.126 m² / g CA) favoring the formation of mesopores and had little influence on the surface loads. The adsorption of GLF proved to be highly dependent on pH and both adsorbents reached their maximum adsorption capacity at neutral pH (7.0). Both adsorbents reached equilibrium in 60 min of testing, and in just 15 min the CA reaches 93% of its maximum adsorption capacity and the BC 68%, showing a better fit to the pseudo-second model. indicating a tendency for chemical adsorption. The equilibrium data obtained experimentally, for temperatures of 23, 43 and 63 ° C, showed a better fit to the Langmuir model for the BC indicating chemisorption, and Freundlich for the CA indicating Fisissorection. Chemical activation increased the maximum adsorption capacity (Langmuir qmax) from 1.08 mg g-1 to 1.51 mg g-1 The values of the thermodynamic constants revealed that the adsorption of GLF is endothermic in nature, favored with the increase in temperature (ΔH> 0), and endergonic (ΔG> 0), indicating that the adsorption process is not spontaneous.
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    Produção de materiais adsorventes para remoção de nitrato em meio aquoso
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-09-30) Araujo, Sara Sales de; Cuba, Renata Medici Frayne;; Cuba, Renata Medici Frayne; Ostroski, Indianara Conceição; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio
    Nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources has been evident over the years, as high concentrations can cause adverse health reactions such as methemoglobinemia in newborns. In the study carried out in different Brazilian states, nitrate concentration levels above the maximum allowed for potability standards were determined, highlighted as 10mg. L-1 in the consolidation nº 5 of the Ministry of Health. In this context, there was an intensification of studies on the adsorption process using activated bichars and biosorbents, produced from agroindustrial residues to remove nitrate in aqueous medium. The use of corn cob as a precursor is favorable since the imminent generation of these residues. In this study, corncob was chemically modified with P.A. hydrochloric acid to obtain biosorbent (BS), activated biochar of oxidizing atmosphere (BCO) and activated biochar of inert atmosphere (BCI). For the prepared adsorbent materials their characteristics were determined, such as the zero charge point (pHpzc) assay which revealed for BS and BCO pHpzc 2.1, while the BCI was 6.3. In the Forrier Transform Infrared (FTIR) assay the adsorbent materials showed characteristic groups, such as carboxylic (3400 cm-1), methyl, methylene and methoxyls (2900cm-1), carbonyls (1700cm-1), aromatic rings (1600cm-1). Also, the adsorption conditions were optimized regarding the solution pH and adsorbent dosage, revealing solution pH of 2.0 for BS and BCO, and pH of 6 for BCI, and 0,75 g for BS and BCO, 1g for BCI. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics were determined, and Langmuir isotherm was better adapted for BS and Freundlich for BCO and BCI. The kinetics were pseudofirst order for BS and pseudo-second order for BCI and BCO. For the materials presented, removals were 6.16 mg.g -1 for BS, 13.33 mg.g -1 for BCO and 15.54 mg.g -1 for BCI.
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    Seleção de tecnologias de tratamento de esgoto utilizando análise multicritério
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-03-20) Freitas, Elaine Cristina Brás de; Teran, Francisco Javier Cuba;; Teran, Francisco Javier Cuba; Cuba, Renata Medici Frayne; Scaratti, Dirceu
    Among the main causes of pollution of water bodies is the discharge of sewage without any type of treatment. To reduce this type of pollution, it is necessary to implement efficient sewage treatment systems, whether they are the responsibility of public service providers or the respective generators. The choice of sewage treatment technologies is a complex process, as they involve both quantitative and qualitative variables. Thus, to achieve the objective defined in this work, which is the selection of sewage treatment technologies using multicriteria analysis applicable in municipalities in the State of Goiás that do not have a sewage system, the Electre I method was defined, to select from among 37 sewage treatment technologies most used in Brazil, a set composed of the best technology options. For this, three scenarios were defined, and 16 criteria with technical, economic, social and environmental characteristics for scenario 1, 10 criteria for scenario 2 and 8 criteria for scenario 3. The application of the method was adequate for the selection of technologies sewage treatment. The selection for scenario 1 indicated a set consisting of 2 alternatives (anaerobic lagoon + optional lagoon + maturation pond and slow infiltration); for scenario 2 a set consisting of 5 alternatives (septic tanks, optional pond, optional aerated pond, slow infiltration and UASB reactor) and for scenario 3 a set with 3 alternatives (septic tanks, optional aerated pond and UASB reactor).
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    Recuperação de microalgas em lagoa de maturação por meio de floculação alcalina
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-10-11) Marinho, Paulo Henrique Oliveira; Hoffmann, Nora Katia Saavedra del Aguila;; Hoffman, Nora Katia Saavedra del Aguila; Teran, Francisco Javier Cuba; Rios, Fernanda Posch
    The biomass produced by microalgae can be used to various ends. Given the cost demanded to its cultivation and biomass harvest, the conventional liquid medium separation mechanisms are not viable. In face of that, alkaline flocculation, with the cultivation in wastewater, has the potential to overcome the limitations on energy and nutritional costs. The present study aimed to test the alkaline flocculation followed by sedimentation in maturation ponds from ETE Goianira (in the city of Goianira, Goiás), as well as the lipid content obtained from the generated sediment. Three different bases were used to induce pH to the desired value (NaOH, CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2) in five pH ranges (8, 9, 10, 11 and 12). Ca(OH)2 presented the best efficiencies, reaching an average >70%, although the use of this base implicated on a higher sediment volume, which may be a limiting factor. The NaOH showed efficiency >40%, producing smaller amount of sludge and, consequently, higher lipid/sedimentation ratio. During the tests, NaCO3 was not feasible to induction of alkaline flocculation. In general, the achieved efficiencies were consistent with what is presented in the literature. The efficiencies were below trials conducted with cultivation of isolated genera or species, or in a controlled environment. A total lipid of 125 and 286 mg.L-1 were extracted in the use of NaOH and Ca(OH)2, respectively. There are evidences that the presence of other microorganisms may interfere with the achieved efficiency, reducing the efficiency on the microalgae biomass recovery, but without making alkaline flocculation unfeasible. The alkaline flocculation could be used to biomass recovery in maturation pond, with margin for efficiency improvement. The method can be used as a treatment, since it seems to reduce the concentration of orthophosphates, calcium and magnesium, microalgae and other negatively charged microorganisms.
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    Avaliação de estações de tratamento de água do tipo ciclo completo em função da ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e Oocistos de Cryptosporidium
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2020-01-23) Silva, Débora Pereira da; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio;; Scalize, Paulo Sérgio; Carneiro, Lilian Carla; Albuquerque, António João Carvalho de
    The protozoa Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. are etiological agents responsible for the transmission of gastroenteritis mainly due to the consumption of contaminated water. The (oo)cysts are resistant to harsh environmental conditions, as well as to most of the physicochemical processes used at Water Treatment Plants (WTP). Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the seasonal occurrence and removal of these protozoa in WTPs with complete cycle technology of the State of Goiás. Among the 15 analyzed according to the variables: Escherichia coli in raw water; filtered water turbidity and pasture area in the catchment area; The Cerrado Stream was selected for the supply of Sanclerlândia (WTP I) and Santana Stream de São Luís de Montes Belos (WTP II), managed by the Saneago delegate, since the predominance of pasture indicates a risk of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks. These indicators (Cryptosporidium spp. and pasture area) showed a positive correlation (p = 0.0461). Six samples of raw and filtered water were collected for protozoan determination using the Membrane Filtration method and analysis of the physical parameters turbidity and pH in accordance with the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. In the initial precision tests with ultrapure water, the tests met the USEPA (2012) criteria for Giardia (78.13% ± 0%) and Cryptosporidium (60.63% ± 32.65%), however, in raw water the recovery was lower due to turbidity. In the seasonal monitoring, the raw water from the superficial water source presented pathogen concentrations with maximum values of 50 cysts / L and 200 oocysts / L, and the maximum removal efficiency of Cryptosporidium was 99.69% and 98.75% in WTP I and II, respectively. The filter material of the quick filters of WTP I have well graded particle size (Tef = 0.60mm; Cu = 2.15), which promoted better filter performance in relation to the turbidity of the filtered effluent. WTP II quick filters made of uniform material (Tef = 0.61mm; Cu = 1.623) presented average turbidity parameter concentration of 0.35 NTU and 0.33 NTU in the dry and rainy season, thus the filtered water with lower Turbidity aims to prevent the spread of disease and can improve the efficiency of pathogen removal. In the mass balance, the influence of the steps preceding the filtration process was analyzed in relation to the physicochemical and microbiological parameters. The increase in raw water turbidity during the rainy season did not affect the filtered water, and this parameter ranged from 0.34 - 0.93 NTU in WTP I and 0.28 - 1.27 NTU in WTP II. The removal efficiency was higher than 99%, regarding turbidity, total coliforms and E. coli parameters. It can be concluded that WTP I and II presented pathogen removal efficiency below 99%, reported in the literature, which highlights the importance of studying the distribution of protozoa in the aquatic environment of the State of Goiás and the respective sources of contamination. , as well as the need to implement technologies to improve water treatment and ensure protozoa inactivation.
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    A governança da água no comitê da bacia hidrográfica do rio Paranaíba
    (Universidade Federal de Goiás, 2019-08-30) Castilho, Jefferson Henrique Morais; Kopp, Katia Alcione;; Teixeira, Denilson;; Teixeira, Denilson; Ferreira, Nilson Clementino; Godoi, Emiliano Lôbo
    Water governance configures the establishment of processes and mechanisms by which different social groups articulate their objectives and decisions on how to manage water resources. This research aimed to analyze the contributions of the Paranaíba River Basin Committee (CBHRP) to water governance and to elucidate its weaknesses and potentialities. To this end, an investigation of the implementation process, trajectory and performance of the CBHRP and its implications for the multilevel water governance process was carried out, as well as to evaluate the water governance stage in the committee, based on the guiding principles of good governance of water resources. . From these tools it was possible to highlight the following potentialities: CBHRP is well structured, with plural, transparent participation and based on the legal provisions contained in PNRH, in addition to conducting self- assessment of its management. Among the weaknesses, we can mention: lack of integration between state and district policies, institutional fragmentation and lack of human and financial resources granted to contribute to the establishment of water resources policies; partial compliance with the principles of equity and inclusion and accountability. Given the above, it is concluded that the CBHRP, despite the weaknesses evidenced, is an effective space for mobilization and participatory practices with regard to water resources policies. It has good transparency and effective legal provisions that make up good governance of water resources.